Daily mean temperature
|Air temperature dependent days|
|not uniformly defined:||Cold day|
|Weather- dependent days|
|Cloud cover||Bright day|
|Cloud cover||Cloudy day|
|Cloud cover||Foggy day|
|Humidity / temperature||Sultry day|
|Precipitation||Snow (cover) day|
The average daily temperature , and average daily temperature is in Germany by the German Weather Service since April 1, 2001 by forming the mean value of all measured on the hour air temperature values ( ) 0 through 23:00 UTC (ie from 1 through 12:00 CET ; ) determined :
If values are missing for more than three hours due to a technical failure , the daily mean temperature is alternatively calculated from the temperature values measured at the main synoptic dates 0, 6, 12 and 6 p.m. UTC:
Calculation until March 31, 2001
Up to 1900 there were several different calculation rules in the German states and their climate services (Bavarian formula, Saxon formula, etc.; until 1886 also their own Prussian formula, from 1887 conversion to Mannheim formula). From 1901 to March 31, 2001, the daily mean temperature of a location was usually determined from three temperature measurements per day; only the Deutsche Seewarte, based in Hamburg, adhered to its own formula for daily averaging (so-called Seewarten formula) within its area of responsibility until the end of 1935. The times for the manual temperature readings, which were standardized from 1936 onwards, were called Mannheim hours and for many decades were 7, 2 and 9 p.m. local time in German-speaking countries ( + 1 hour each during summer time ). The 9 p.m. value was counted twice and the sum of the four values was divided by 4. The daily mean temperature is calculated using the formula
performed. (The times given as T 7 , T 14 and T 21 in the formula correspond here to the times 7, 2 and 9 p.m.) The formula goes back to Kämtz (1831).
Depending on the country, however, there were deviations in the reading dates: For example, the daily mean temperature in the former GDR between 1967 and 1990 was usually calculated from 4 or 8 dates. In 1987, the German Weather Service moved the dates to 6:30 a.m., 1:30 p.m. and 8:30 p.m. world time for practical reasons (from January 1, 1991 also valid for the new federal states) so that all stations have the values at the same time read off. However, the above formula remained valid. While part-time observers with analogue instruments continued to observe on the three dates mentioned per day after April 1, 2001, they have only been used in the full-time monitoring network at DWD climate reference stations manned by specialist staff, where conventional analogue instruments are used to perform manual parallel observations for automated electronic Temperature measurement.
Since this method does not take into account nights with strong cooling too weakly, thermoisopleth diagrams , which show the average daily and annual temperature of a location, were of interest. The data required for this had to be read from analog recording devices before the introduction of automatic measurement systems.
- Freely accessible measurement data from the stations of the German Weather Service in hourly and daily resolution.
- DWD measurement data in KL format for the "Mannheimer Hours" - it is advisable to use "fixed width" when importing into Excel. The 7, 2 and 9 o'clock values as well as a "mean value" are contained in four columns.
- Note: In contrast to the color markings for the temperature thresholds, the 0 ° C line on the graphic is on the border between turquoise and blue. → Annual cycle of the graphic (animated)
- Climatological knowledge days in the weather dictionary of the German Weather Service
- Germany : 15 ° C according to VDI 2067 ; Austria , Switzerland , Liechtenstein : 12 ° C according to Usance
- also T med ≥ 10 ° C: day of the main vegetation period
- Kämtz, Ludwig Friedrich, 1831: Textbook of Meteorology, p. 102, urn : nbn: de: bvb: 12-bsb10133996-2
- Kaspar, F., Hannak, L., and Schreiber, K.-J .: Climate reference stations in Germany: Status, parallel measurements and homogeneity of temperature time series, Adv. Sci. Res., 2016, 13, 163-171, doi : 10.5194 / asr-13-163-2016 .