Synoptic meteorology

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The synoptic meteorology is a branch of meteorology ( synopsis means something like "Total Look, synopsis"), devoted to the study of weather and its changes its appearance as well as its forecasts busy.

In order to enable this "synopsis", a system of observation stations is necessary, which simultaneously carry out weather observations according to a standardized procedure. The dates provided for the observations are uniform worldwide. The main observation dates are 00, 06, 12 and 18 o'clock UTC . The parameters measured by the stations include: air pressure , air pressure change during the last three hours, air temperature , wind direction , wind speed , dew point , cloud type , height of the cloud base , degree of coverage , visibility , amount and type of precipitation .

The stations are divided into ground observation stations (approx. 10,500 worldwide), which collect data from the earth's surface, and aerological observation stations (approx. 1000 worldwide), which provide data from a height of up to 30 km for a three-dimensional observation of the weather. In addition, data is collected from mobile measuring stations such as ships, buoys or aircraft. Additional data sources are weather satellites and remote sensing systems (such as weather radar , lightning location systems , LIDAR , SODAR ). With the help of the computer, all data can be prepared and visualized in a way that is appropriate for the target group.

The collected data, i.e. the weather condition at a given point in time, are entered in weather maps . In z. B. the bottom Weather Map lines are then respectively equal pressure ( isobars ) and fronts , possibly lines each having the same pressure change ( isallobars shown). With the help of the data entered in weather maps, the weather conditions are analyzed and weather forecasts are made. In addition, the collected data is used by the numerical prediction models as a starting point.


See also