Felt tubers

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Felt tubers
Goat lip (Xerocomus subtomentosus)

Goat lip ( Xerocomus subtomentosus )

Subclass : Agaricomycetidae
Order : Boletales (Boletales)
Subordination : Boletineae
Family : Boletaceae (Boletaceae)
Subfamily : Xerocomoideae
Genre : Felt tubers
Scientific name

The felt boletus ( Xerocomus ) are a genus of mushrooms from the family of the thick bolete relatives (Boletaceae). The once species-rich genus now only includes the goat's lip ( Xerocomus subtomentosus ) and closely related species (see systematics ).

The type species is the goat lip ( Xerocomus subtomentosus ).


Macroscopic features

The felt tubers form medium-sized fruit bodies . They have a dry, matt and felty hat surface that is neither slimy nor sticky when wet. The tubes are no longer than 15 mm. They are almost grown or bulged at the tip of the stem and run down with a tooth. When young, the tubes are yellow or yellow-ocher, later ocher-colored, olive-yellow or olive-brownish. They blue in the bleed or remain unchanged. The pores / tube mouths are like the tubes or in some cases more ocher or brownish in color. With age they are angular, relatively large (approx. 1-3 mm) and blue when printed or remain unchanged. The spore powder is olive-brown in color. The stem is relatively slender, not net or has - especially in the upper part - a more or less clear network of elongated meshes, which sometimes look like longitudinal ribs. Remnants of a velum or a ring ( annulus ) are missing. The lower end of the stem is covered with a basal felt made of tangled fibers, which is whitish, light yellowish or yellow in color. The mycelium strands at the base are sometimes bright yellow in color. The flesh ( trama ) is yellow, slightly yellowish, whitish or light cream-colored, sometimes brownish in the base of the handle and usually not firm. In the bleed or on pressure it is partly blue, especially above the tubes, or remains unchanged.

Microscopic features

At an early stage, the top layer of the hat is a trichoderm made of more or less intertwined, unevenly long and initially protruding fungal threads ( hyphae ) that later gradually collapse. The trichodermal elements consist more or less of cylindrical end cells, although in some cases a smaller number of slightly enlarged end cells may also appear. They are not gelatinized and usually do not have any clear incrustations . However, the hyphae are sometimes encrusted in the tissue layer under the trichoderm.

The Röhrentrama is blätterröhrlingsartig constructed (phylloporoid), without a strong gelling of the lateral layers. Those layers consist of slightly diverging, densely arranged in all stages of development and touching or mostly touching fungal threads (hyphae). In microscopic sections stained with Congo red there is no noticeable difference in color between the layers of the tubular trama. The side layers are colored the same red or almost the same intensity as the middle layers.

The spores have a boletales (boletoide) Form: approximately spindle-shaped in the front view or fusiform-elliptical and in side profile with a flat suprahilaren depression ( Hilarfleck ). The surface of the spores is bacillate, which means under the secondary electron microscope it looks as if it were covered with rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli). This fine but characteristic ornamentation can be seen in the goat's lip with a magnification of approx. 10,000 or 15,000 times, in the case of the brown felt tube with a magnification of 30,000 or more.

A substantial part of the stalk is covered by a fruit layer (kaulohymenium, i.e. the fruit layer on the stalk) with isolated, fertile Kaulobasidien. At an early stage, the kaulohymenium is formed from a closed, uninterrupted hymenial layer, which, however, gradually breaks down into small islands of kaulohymenium elements, which macroscopically look like tiny flaky granules on the stem surface. In the upper half of the stalk of young fruit bodies, a non-gelatinized lateral stalk layer is sometimes formed under the kaulohymenium, which differs from the longitudinal stalk trama by its diverging and loosely arranged hyphae .

At the points between the ribs of the stem net, the side layer is up to 80 (-120) µm thick in the goat's lip and up to 200 µm in the brown felt tube. On the ribs of the stem net, the side layer sometimes becomes thicker. In further stages of development, this lateral layer loses its loose and divergent arrangement, gradually becomes less pronounced and finally disappears. Sometimes remnants of this layer remain in the webs of the stem network into old age. (Note: Since the lateral stem layer of the felt tubers is best developed at an early stage, it should be examined primarily in young fruiting bodies. In addition, the development of the lateral stem layer is quite often influenced by unfavorable weather conditions. In dry weather, this layer is sometimes even at all not developed.) The stalk trama consists of dense, longitudinally arranged hyphae. The surface of the stem base is sterile.

No buckle connections on the transverse walls ( septa ) of the fungal threads could be observed in the fruit bodies .


Felt tubers are mycorrhizal fungi that live in symbiosis with various deciduous and coniferous trees. Many species can coexist with different tree species.


Four types of felt tubers in the narrower sense occur in Europe:

Felt tubers in the narrower sense ( Xerocomus  see str.) In Europe
German name Scientific name Author quote
Yellow goat lip Xerocomus chrysonemus AE Hills & AFS Taylor 2006
Brown felt blouse Xerocomus ferrugineus (Schaeffer) Alessio 1985
Purple-brown felt tubule Xerocomus silwoodensis Taylor, Hills, Simonini, Muñoz & Eberhardt 2007
Goat lip Xerocomus subtomentosus (Linnaeus 1753: Fries 1821) Quélet 1888


The Filzröhrlinge in the narrower sense include the goat lip ( Xerocomus subtomentosus ) and closely related species. The species group around the chestnut boletus ( X. badius ) was transferred to the genus Imleria . The Parasitic Boletus is in the genus Schmarotzerröhrlinge ( Pseudoboletus ). The European gold leaf belongs to the species-rich genus of the parrot ( Phylloporus ). For the commons Rotfußröhrling ( X. chrysenteron ) and Related genus was Rotfußröhrlinge ( Xerocomellus ) placed the Crimson xerocomus ( X. rubellus ) and the pale yellow brown xerocomus ( X. bubalinus ) but now in the genus Hortiboletus (in German "park / Garden boletus ") and the apricot- colored felt boletus ( X. armeniacus ) and peach- colored felt boletus ( X. persicolor ) in the genus Rheubarbariboletus (in German" rhubarb boletus "). For the Mediterranean species Tufted xerocomus ( X. ichnusanus ) and Rosenhütiger xerocomus ( X. roseoalbidus ) the genera were Alessioporus and Pulchroboletus described. The Moravian xerocomus ( X. moravicus ) is now one of the Goldporröhrlingen ( Aureoboletus ). The affiliation of the date-brown-spotted felt tube ( X. spadiceomaculans ) is unclear.


Food value

Many felt boletus are edible; the dietary value of rarer species is unknown.


The generic name Xerocomus is derived from the Greek words xeròs "dry" and comes from "hair, tuft " and refers to the dry, mostly velvety felted hat surface of the fruiting bodies.



  • Manfred Binder: On the molecular systematics of the Boletales. Boletineae and Sclerodermatineae subordo nov . University of Regensburg, Nat. Fac. III - Biol. U. Precl. Med., 1999 (148 pages; dissertation to obtain a doctorate).
  • Heidi Ladurner, Giampaolo Simonini: Xerocomus  sl In: Fungi Europaei . tape 8 . Edizioni Candusso, Alassio (Italy) 2003, ISBN 978-88-901057-2-2 (527 pages).

Individual evidence

  1. Lucien Quélet: Flore mycologique de la France et des pays limitrophes . Cornell University, 1888, pp. 417 ( available online ).
  2. a b c d e Josef Šutara: Xerocomus sl in the light of the present state of knowledge . In: Czech Mycology . tape 60 , no. 1 . Czech Scientific Society for Mycology, 2008, p. 29–62 ( cuni.cz [PDF; 860 kB ]). PDF; 860 kB ( Memento of the original from July 12, 2014 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / web.natur.cuni.cz
  3. ^ A b Andy FS Taylor, Alan E. Hills, Giampaolo Simonini, Ernst E. Both, Ursula Eberhardt: Detection of species within the Xerocomus subtomentosus complex in Europe using rDNA-ITS sequences star . In: Mycological Research . tape 110 , no. 3 , 2006, p. 276–287 , doi : 10.1016 / j.mycres.2005.11.013 ( online [PDF]). Available online as a PDF document ( Memento of the original from July 3, 2010 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.  @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot / www.sciencebuff.org
  4. ^ A b Andy FS Taylor, Alan E. Hills, Giampaolo Simonini, José A. Muñoz, Ursula Eberhardt: Xerocomus silwoodensis  sp. nov., a new species within the European X. subtomentosus complex . In: Mycological Research . tape 111 , no. 4 , 2007, p. 403-408 , doi : 10.1016 / j.mycres.2007.01.014 .
  5. Alfredo Vizzini: Index Fungorum no.147. (PDF) May 12, 2014, accessed on January 18, 2014 .
  6. Xue-Tai Zhu, Yan-Chun Li, Gang Wu, Bang Feng, Kuan Zhao, Matteo Gelardi, Gerhard W. Kost, Zhu L. Yang: The genus Imleria (Boletaceae) in East Asia . In: Phytotaxa . tape 191 , no. 1 , December 2014, p. 81-98 , doi : 10.11646 / phytotaxa.191.1.5 .
  7. Jonathan L. Frank: Index Fungorum no.179. (PDF) July 22, 2014, accessed July 15, 2015 .
  8. Michal Mikšík: Index Fungorum no.182 . (PDF) July 30, 2014, accessed on January 28, 2014 .
  9. Bálint Dima: Index Fungorum no.251. (PDF) June 29, 2015, accessed on July 20, 2015 .
  10. ^ Alfredo Vizzini: Index Fungorum no.244. (PDF) May 26, 2015, accessed on July 15, 2015 .
  11. Matteo Gelardi, Giampaolo Simonini, Enrico Ercole, Alfredo Vizzini: Alessioporus and Pulchroboletus (Boletaceae, Boletineae), two novel genera for Xerocomus ichnusanus and X. roseoalbidus from the European basin: molecular and morphological evidence . In: Mycologia . tape 106 , no. 6 , 2014, p. 1168-1187 , doi : 10.3852 / 14-042 .
  12. ^ Wolfgang Klofac: The genus Aureoboletus, a worldwide overview. A contribution to a monographic processing . In: Austrian journal for mushroom science . tape 19 , 2010, p. 133-174 .
  13. Thomas Rödig: The European species of the genera Xerocomus s. st. and Xerocomellus according to the genus concept of Šutara 2008 as well as demarcation from related European genera and species. (PDF; 334 kB) In: Pilzkundliche Arbeitsgemeinschaft Berlin-Brandenburg . July 2012, accessed July 15, 2015 (22 pages).
  14. Helmut Genaust: Etymological dictionary of botanical plant names. 3rd, completely revised and expanded edition. Nikol, Hamburg 2005, ISBN 3-937872-16-7 (reprint from 1996).

Web links

Commons : Filzröhrlinge ( Xerocomus )  - Collection of images, videos and audio files