The stem is a part of the mushroom fruit body in tube and leaf mushrooms , on which the hat sits. With the tube and leaf mushrooms one can speak of an actual stalk, because in these orders the hat and the stalk can be clearly distinguished from one another. For example, within the order bristle disk-like (Hymenochaetales) this is not possible.
The main function of the stem is to raise the hat above the ground. This allows the spores to get out more easily and be carried away by the wind.
Connection of hat and stem
Hat and stem can be connected in two ways: homogeneous and heterogeneous . If they are connected homogeneously, the connection is firm. In the case of a heterogeneous connection, a specially structured intermediate layer forms the interface between the hat and the stem. This means that the hat can be easily removed from the handle. Usually the connection is homogeneous.
The attachment point of the hat on the stem can be in different places and is differentiated accordingly:
- The connection between the hat and the stem is in the middle of the hat.
- The stalk has grown somewhere below the hat, but not in the middle or on the edge.
- The hat is stalked on the side, so the stem is attached to the surface of the hat.
- Some species do not have a stem, for example some types of porling .
The stem base, like the stem, can take on various shapes that are typical of some species. For example, a sclerotium is only formed in very specific species. The rooting base only looks like a root from the outside, but must not be confused with a real plant root .
In the substrate rooted
In addition to these features, the stem may have guttation drops in the upper part. The adjective “frosted” is also often used, which means a mold-like coating on the handle or on the surface of the hat.
Many species have different shapes of rings made from the remains of a velum partiale left on the stem.
- Ewald Gerhardt: FSVO manual mushrooms. 4th, revised edition, (special edition). BLV, Munich 2006, ISBN 3-8354-0053-3 .
- Rose Marie Dähncke : 200 mushrooms. 180 mushrooms for the kitchen and its poisonous doppelgangers. 5th revised edition. AT-Verlag, Aarau 1992, ISBN 3-85502-145-7 .
- PDF about the stalk of mushrooms (134 kB)