A cruise is a vacation trip on a cruise ship . This takes place along a fixed route between various tourist destinations and ports; it is typically a package tour .
Cruises were popular with travelers until the COVID-19 pandemic broke out in early 2020. According to an estimate by the Guardian , around 24 million passengers on 220 ships took part in a cruise worldwide in 2016, compared to only around 19 million people in 2010. The media perception is increasingly highlighting the burden on people and the environment from cruise ships.
The term has its origin in the Dutch word "kruiser" from the 17th century, which referred to a cruising (in the sense of going back and forth) ship.
In 2011, the cruise business in Germany was as follows (data for river cruises in brackets):
- Passengers: 1.8 million (462,000) people
- Sales: 2.4 billion (496 million) euros
- Average travel price: 1,710 (1,075) euros per person
- Average travel time: 9.2 days
In 2011, over 20 million passengers worldwide took a cruise for the first time. In 2015 there were around 22 million cruise passengers, in 2016 24.7 million, in 2017 26.7 million. The focus of the trips was in the Caribbean and Mediterranean . In other European routes it was still around 12% of passengers.
According to the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) and the German Travel Association (DRV), Germany was the third-largest market for in 2016 with 2.018 million passengers after the USA (11.5 million) and Asia (2015: 2.08 million) Cruises, which was 24.7 million passengers. The United Kingdom and Ireland provided a good 1.9 million passengers. 6.674 million Europeans took a cruise in 2016. The number of cruise lines worldwide was given as 448.
The interest group of European river cruise lines IG RiverCruise in Basel, which offer river cruises between Amsterdam and the Black Sea as well as on the Seine , Loire , Rhône and the Po , names a passenger number of 1.36 million for 2016 (+2.7% compared to the previous year) for river cruises of their member companies, with over 2/3 of the trips taking place on the Rhine and Danube . For Germany, 435,586 (2015: 423,635) passengers were named.
The number of German cruise passengers was 2.018 million in 2016, and 435,586 people took part in German river cruises. A third of the German crusaders were on the routes in the North and Baltic Seas .
A strong increase has been noticeable in German ports over the past ten years; so there was In Hamburg, for example, there were only 40,000 passengers in 2005; in 2016 there were already 722,000 with 171 ship calls. The growth in size of the numerous new cruise ships up to the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic must also be taken into account.
Worldwide passengers carried by cruise ships per year (in millions):
The need for cruises and for new cruise lines collapsed almost entirely due to the COVID-19 pandemic.
Before the outbreak of the 2020 COVID-19 pandemic
The invention of the cruise is attributed to the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company . This company started as a shipping line between England and the Iberian Peninsula. In 1840 it started the postal service to Alexandria. From 1844 it offered luxury cruises to Gibraltar, Malta and Athens. P&O Cruises are the oldest cruise company in Europe.
In 1867, Mark Twain took a cruise of several months from New York through the Mediterranean Sea. This was done with a chartered steamboat, the Quaker City ; about one hundred passengers took part in the trip. In terms of the organizational form, the trip was roughly comparable to a cooperative in which the passengers bought their way; a New York entrepreneur was the organizer. Twain published his experiences and experiences from this trip in his work The Guilty Abroad . According to Twain's descriptions, the concept of such an organized sea voyage was a novelty in the United States at the time.
The German shipowner Albert Ballin , General Director of Hamburg-based Hapag, is considered to be the pioneer in using the free winter capacities of the shipping lines for cruises . Before that, passenger ships were only used in regular services. Hapag's ships were also in port during the winter months and brought losses to the shipping company because scheduled use in the North Atlantic was not worthwhile due to a lack of customers. In 1891 Albert Ballin had the idea of using the ships for pleasure trips to warmer regions. The first cruise was a two-month luxury sea voyage on Augusta Victoria . Kaiser Wilhelm II visited the ship on the day of departure. From Cuxhaven it went via Southampton, Gibraltar, Genoa to Cairo, Jerusalem, Damascus, Constantinople (Istanbul), Athens and then via Malta, Naples and Lisbon back to Hamburg. Among the 241 passengers were Ballin himself, Friedrich Achelis , Carl Laeisz , Christoph Hellwig Papendieck , correspondents of various newspapers and the painter and draftsman Christian Wilhelm Allers , who created an illustrated book "Memories of Augusta Victoria's Journey to the Orient".
The Princess Victoria Luise of the Hamburg shipping company HAPAG, which was completed in December 1900 at the Blohm & Voss shipyard, is considered the first ship in the world to be built as a cruise ship.
In the past, cruises were an Eldorado for older, well-heeled women who were looking for a comfortable way to travel where they could get to know the world in a pleasant atmosphere without having to change hotels. Social connection was also easily possible. Since men were often in the minority, attentive shipping companies have expanded their staff to include elegant dancers and entertainers ( single dancers , gentleman hosts or distinguished gents , see also gigolo ).
The GDR owned a cruise ship; the places for cruises on the friendship of the peoples were mainly offered to active party members. These were closely monitored by the Stasi during the journey with the aim of thwarting escapes from the GDR .
Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic
Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the cruise ship " Westerdam " was refused entry from five ports in February 2020 before it was allowed to dock in Sihanoukville ( Cambodia ), although there were neither suspected nor diagnosed cases of Covid-19 on board this ship.
In March 2020, tour operators around the world canceled their cruises and the ships were ordered back to the starting point of the voyage unless they were quarantined and detained in foreign ports.
The guests on those ships on which no COVID-19 cases were detected had to take the direct route home and adhere to the distance rules, provided that the partially closed borders were possible. They were also advised to quarantine for 14 days. The names of German passengers on ships that landed in Germany were communicated to the responsible health authorities.
Crew members often had to stay on board for months. Since there are not enough spaces for "long-term parkers" in the ports, the ships were only allowed to stay there for loading and unloading. Otherwise they had to temporarily drop anchor “somewhere”.
Not all crew members were allowed to move freely on board. However, they were taken care of and were sometimes allowed to use fitness studios, restaurants and bars that are otherwise only accessible to passengers. Nonetheless, many in the staff felt a "camp fever" because citizens from up to 70 nations were unclear about when it would be possible to return to their home country. In the case of Mein Schiff 3 , 1200 of the 2900 crew members were flown out by May 8, 2020.
Surveys of (potential) cruise participants showed that they would struggle to continue associating cruises with the positive ideas they had until 2019. Their anticipation is undermined by the idea of being “locked up” with infected people, not being offered a regular program and limited service on board and not being able to freely dispose of the time after the planned arrival of the ship until the quarantine period has expired. This has a lasting deterrent effect, not only on those who actually experience something like this, but also on everyone who learns about such conditions. Walter Krombach, former managing director of the Willy Scharnow Foundation for Tourism , therefore shows understanding that the demand for cruises will probably be limited in the future. “I don't think anyone really believes that the boom can continue seamlessly in the foreseeable future,” says Krombach, summarizing his assessment of the situation.
On the other hand, there are people who describe themselves as "cruise junkies" and will probably continue to provide a basic need for cruises in the future. They accept COVID-19-related restrictions on the grounds that they would have to cope with the corresponding restrictions on a vacation on land.
On June 30, 2020, the European Union's “Healthy Gateways” working group published preliminary recommendations for resuming cruise operations. The “Cruise Lines International Organization” then presented its “Guiding Principles for Resuming Cruise Operations”, which deal with a detailed hygiene concept, staff training and measures for dealing with infected or suspected persons on board.
Several shipping companies resumed cruise operations in summer 2020. A spokeswoman for TUI said that for the time being it is not about making profits again, but about proving that cruises are also possible under the conditions of an acute pandemic.
Alexis Papathanassis, professor of maritime tourism at the Bremerhaven University of Applied Sciences , accused the cruise industry of having missed developing the "cruise of the future" from spring 2020 during the forced break due to COVID-19. Papathanassis considers attempts to resume cruise operations as early as the summer of 2020, albeit severely restricted, as a failure.
On the Roald Amundsen , one of the first ships that was allowed to set out on a cruise again after the COVID-19-related break, at least 36 crew members and four passengers were positive for the corona virus at the end of July 2020 after two consecutive voyages between Svalbard and mainland Norway been tested. The authorities accused the shipping company of not having informed the 386 passengers immediately after the first Covid-19 outbreak. The passengers had already left the ship in the port of Tromsø when the first crew members were confirmed to be infected. The shipping company Hurtigruten canceled all trips planned for August 2020 except for the postal route service.
While some shipping companies are trying to resume cruises from autumn 2020, other shipping companies are not planning to resume cruise operations until spring 2021.
Cruises can be divided into deep sea and river cruises according to their sailing area . Ocean cruise ships are larger and differently built than river cruise ships: the latter have little draft , reach less high above the water level (so that they can fit under the river bridges) and are shorter (so that they fit into every lock chamber on the route and on the one being traveled Turn the river easily).
The main purpose of an ocean cruise until the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic was on the one hand to use the leisure facilities on the ships, for which an extensive entertainment and leisure program was offered. On the other hand, the passengers were able to get to know foreign countries and cultures when the cruise ship was anchored in the destination area (in the roadstead) or in the port. In addition, the organizers often offered day trips in guided groups. The journey to the destination ports often took place at night in order to have time for shore excursions during the day. If the distances between the ports are long, days at sea could also be necessary.
The travel arrangements were adapted to the target group, as the passengers had different interests depending on their origin: Passengers from German-speaking countries placed great value on many interesting ports. For British guests, the sea voyage was a priority. Americans preferred short cruises with plenty of entertainment on board. To this end, the providers pursued different business models and offer different types of cruise:
This model reduced costs by restricting service, food and accommodation. The ports were usually called at around noon and left in the early hours of the morning so that travelers could take part in the nightlife on land. This business model was used by EasyCruise .
Fun cruising on mega ships
This cruise model made cruises interesting for the mass market, as large ships with over 2000 passengers allow lower prices. In addition, these modern ships offer many entertainment and leisure facilities for the mass market, as are common at resorts and club facilities on the mainland (e.g. wedding chapels, ice rinks, climbing walls, shopping centers, health, sports and wellness facilities, bars, Discos, casinos and a commercial entertainment program). This cruise model has been popular in the USA since the 1970s. In Germany, it has been offered in a similar form by AIDA Cruises since the 1990s , who have transferred the concept of club holidays from land to ship.
The classic cruise had a loyal following in the luxury and middle classes. In addition to new builds, some classic ocean liner in the tradition of the transatlantic liners were used. As a rule, they offered a lot of comfort through large cabins and suites and very good service and conveyed a feeling of exclusivity. Rest and relaxation were important on board; the entertainment program included, for example, classical music, theater and readings, traditional board games and a wide variety of courses (e.g. yoga, gymnastics, photography, computers). A casino was also important on American ships . Classic cruises usually lasted 14 days, along with longer trips and world trips that can last between 90 and 150 days. The providers in Germany included Hapag-Lloyd Kreuzfahrten , Transocean Kreuzfahrten and Phoenix Reisen .
Cruises on tall ships
A small number of tall ships that date from before the Second World War and have been modernized (e.g. Sea Cloud ), but also replicas of earlier sailing ships and completely new builds, were used. Furniture and luxury corresponded to the modern cruise ships. They therefore offered a mixture of traditional cruising and the adventure of sailing.
A mini cruise is a cruise that lasts two to five days. Alternative names are short cruise or trial cruise. Mini cruises were offered for both the high seas and the river. They were offered in almost all destinations and by almost all tour operators / shipping companies.
A positioning cruise is when the ship is only used in one direction, comparable to the classic passage . Such trips were often offered when the ships changed territory in spring and autumn. The term Transreisen is also used.
Study / expedition cruise
A study cruise offers aspects of cultural tourism . Routes are based on historical, art-historical or geographical sights. Shore excursions under qualified guidance and preparation and follow-up on board by lecturers replace the entertainment.
Expedition cruises require appropriately equipped ships to be able to navigate ice-bearing waters in the polar regions or shallow waters near the coast. Sometimes special types of ships such as icebreakers are also used. In order to undertake such a trip, the ships must be equipped with modern equipment. They usually offer very comfortable cabins. The ships are designed to accommodate around 200 passengers. There is hardly any entertainment and animation on expedition cruises. Expedition ships are suitable for the high seas and at the same time small enough to enter narrow passages, fjords or large rivers (Amazon). In addition, numerous expedition cruise ships have an ice class that enables use in polar waters. Typical expedition cruise ships are e.g. B. the expedition class of Hapag-Lloyd Cruises . Expedition cruises to the polar regions of the world (Arctic, Antarctic) are sometimes accompanied by scientists who give lectures on the individual destinations and regions for the passengers on board.
The diving safari or diving cruise is a special form of cruise in which a group of scuba divers drives from one diving area to the next in a diving boat in order to dive there and eat and stay overnight on the ship.,
Classic cruises can be offered as theme cruises. The entire trip has a theme or motto (e.g. golf, music, literature, food and drink), which the route is also based on. An example of a themed cruise to music is the Full Metal Cruise .
In contrast to a normal cruise, a transatlantic cruise is usually characterized by a larger number of consecutive days at sea. While a normal cruise is often about the ports, a transatlantic cruise usually focuses on the ship itself. Some transatlantic cruises follow the routes of the old transatlantic liners . However, there are also different modern routes, for example through the North Atlantic with calls in Iceland and Newfoundland, which have only a small number of consecutive days at sea.
Many shipping companies offer transatlantic cruises as part of the repositioning of cruise ships . Since some ships only spend the summer season in Europe and are used in the Caribbean or in South America in winter , these typically take place in autumn in a west direction and in spring in an east direction.
During a river cruise, selected locations on the rivers traveled are headed for and passengers are offered (guided) shore excursions as required. But also enjoying the landscape on both sides of the traveled river is a purpose of the trip. Therefore, in contrast to the ocean cruise ships, river ships mainly stop overnight.
River cruise ships have a relatively shallow draft so that the journey can take place even when the water is low. However, most river cruise ships cannot reach a draft of less than 1.50 meters with passengers, cargo and fuel. They are also constructed in such a way that their superstructures cannot (should) collide with any bridge on the route during permitted flood journeys and that they are not too long for locks. The necessarily limited dimensions of a river cruise ship result in a relatively low number of passengers; about 200 of them have a maximum of space on board.
In the event of severe flooding, shipping traffic can be stopped on a stretch of river. In both extreme floods and extremely low water, there is a risk that trips cannot be made or not with the planned program or not in the promised scope. When shipping companies have to change their routes because of low water, vacationers often get part of the money back. Specifically, the travel price can be reduced proportionally if certain stops along the way and excursions have to be canceled without replacement. These claims exist even though the provider cannot help with low water levels. If the highlight of a trip is foreseeable, customers have the right to withdraw from the contract. Then there is all of the money back.
Despite the problems caused by the low water on European rivers in the second half of 2018, A-ROSA Flussschiff GmbH rates the 2018 financial year as "very successful".
Personnel on board
There are different categories of crew on cruise ships. This includes officers, crew and personnel, with larger ships there are also intermediate levels. Officers are employees with special responsibility and decision-making powers who work in the nautical, technical or hotel sectors. The largest part of the crew is the crew who also work in the three areas. Personnel include all employees who work either through external companies (concessionaires) or in shops, beauty / hair salons and casinos on board. The numerical ratio of staff to guests is about 1 to 3, on luxury ships often even 1 to 1.5. Over 2000 people work on the largest cruise ships. The service staff is called a steward or stewardess. As in any company, the behavior of employees with direct customer contact is of particular importance.
Cruise ships are tightly organized and operate under the flag of an international secondary register or so-called favoring country such as Panama , the Bahamas or Liberia . These countries have weaker health and safety laws , so that the crew have fewer rights on board. Crew members have fixed-term employment contracts with a contract duration of up to twelve months. The shifts often last up to 12 hours a day, seven days a week. For many employees, the leisure opportunities on board are limited to the staff room. Only senior employees, such as officers, are allowed to use parts of the public passenger areas.
The following flags are used by the ITF as flags of convenience (October 2018):
- Antigua and Barbuda
- Equatorial Guinea
- Bolivia (landlocked country)
- Germany (international second register)
- Faroe Islands
- France (international second register)
- Cayman Islands
- Marshall Islands
- Moldova (landlocked country)
- Mongolia (landlocked country)
- Netherlands Antilles
- North Korea
- Panama (currently the second largest merchant fleet)
- St. Vincent and the Grenadines
- Sao Tome and Principe
- Sri Lanka
Cruises are subject to constant public criticism because of their varied effects. This takes place primarily with regard to the environmental and health damage caused by cruise tourism. The criticism also includes aspects of fair taxation, the working conditions of the crew and the effects on the environment and the economy of the destination ports.
The sales generated by cruises are generated directly in the cruise industry (e.g. at shipyards, shipping companies, specialized tour operators), and sales are generated in the additional tourism sector (e.g. retail, souvenir industry, travel insurance, publishers for travel literature) .
In the destinations called, income is generated through expenses for passengers (excursions, shopping, etc.), the crew (purchases) and for the ship (port fees, waste disposal, water supply, etc.), tax income and expenses such as marketing and personnel. This increases demand and price levels and increases the purchasing power of the local beneficiaries of the cruise industry. For the uninvolved local population, however, the rising price level has a negative impact and reduces their purchasing power.
Compared to land-based tourism, the destinations' income is lower because the passengers spend the night on the cruise ship, where they are fed and entertained.
International cruise tourism is a sector of the tourism industry that had above-average growth rates until the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic and led to a considerable polarization of the discussion about the costs and benefits of this form of mass tourism. Supply and disposal are regulated above average. Nevertheless, the high number of ships and their passengers and the behavior of some ship's commands before the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic caused stress.
The berths are heavily burdened by the passage of large crowds. Some of them, such as Venice , began to oppose this in the 2010s. The working conditions on the cruise ships are also unfortunate.
Due to their high environmental and health pollution, cruises are in clear and international criticism. This is done from various sources, including experts and environmental protection organizations such as NABU . The criticism relates to various aspects of cruises, primarily air pollution with the resulting impact on health and mass tourism . Internationally, in the years from 2017 onwards, various local movements have also been organized that criticize the effects of tourism by cruise, in Europe especially in Palma de Mallorca and Venice .
In addition, basic consumer criticism is exercised, for example due to the high amount of waste and the lack of interaction between cruise tourists and local culture and economy.
According to data from the international marine protection organization Oceana, the average cruise ship produces up to 7 tons of waste every day.
According to the expert for cruise tourism Frank Herrmann, as of 2018, only individual “showcase ships” are equipped with modern filter systems that reduce sulfur oxide , nitrogen oxide , soot , fine dust and heavy metal emissions. Cruises use heavy fuel oil for ocean voyages . The engines also run permanently in the port to cover the energy requirements for entertainment.
According to a study published in 2019 by the umbrella organization Transport and Environment , the Carnival Corporation alone with its brands Aida, Costa and Cunard caused a ten times greater amount of sulfur oxide in 2017 than all 260 million cars in Europe combined. The smaller competitor Royal Caribbean Cruises produced four times the amount of harmful emissions compared to all cars.
Soot filters for large cruise ships are not yet available as of 2018. The likewise unfiltered CO 2 emissions of around 200–300 kg per passenger and day plus travel increase the greenhouse effect. Some cruise ships are equipped for operation with methane . Although this reduces air pollution from particles, it is even more harmful to the climate than operating with diesel due to the methane slip. As alternative fuels , among others, ammonia or hydrogen are possible.
Compatibility with the requirements of infection protection
In the course of the COVID-19 pandemic from spring 2020, it became clear that the “cruises” business model is difficult to reconcile with the requirements that infection protection requires in times of acute pandemics. The principle of " spatial distancing " is difficult to adhere to, especially since passengers who are quarantined do not go ashore. Show events and the like are held on board during pandemic times. Ä. deleted, in which many passengers gather in a large room.
In March 2020, a ship doctor stated that the rules applicable in Germany for major events can in principle also be applied to cruise ships, as most of them now have more than 1,000 people on board.
Environmental protection measures in the cruise industry
Environmental protection measures can be taken by states, cruise associations, individual cruise lines and environmental protection associations. Cruise ships must observe international, national and regional laws and regulations as they also navigate the respective waters. The International Maritime Organization ( IMO ), as the maritime department of the UN, is responsible for legal regulations in worldwide shipping and thus also for environmental regulations on cruise ships. The IMO issued the international convention on water protection, the "International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships" (also called MARPOL ). MARPOL regulates the discharge of waste water, oil disposal, emissions and waste disposal on ships. Cruise industry associations such as the Cruise Lines International Association (CLIA) are also committed to protecting the environment and have published their own voluntary environmental guidelines. Some cruise companies are investing in lower-emission and resource-saving engines, effective water treatment systems, oil filter systems, incineration systems and recycling systems.
Technologies are already in place on modern cruise ships such as the AIDAstella against the invasion of alien species via the ballast water ( hemerochory ) . Many cruise lines have programs in place to prevent hazardous chemicals and waste, and to protect coral reefs .
The construction of large ships by Meyer Werft in Papenburg poses a special problem . In order for large cruise ships built in Papenburg to travel on the Ems from Papenburg to Eemshaven , the water level of the Ems has to be temporarily dammed. The necessary transfer water level will be guaranteed by the closure of the Ems barrage in Gandersum. Environmental groups claimed that summer traffic jams would flood 500 hectares in bird sanctuaries , drowning at least 1,000 young birds and destroying their enclosures. Since 2012, no more ships have been transferred from Meyer Werft to the North Sea in the summer months.
The largest cruise lines
Since the mid-1990s, steadily stronger growth in the cruise segment has been observed, triggering a real "construction boom" for large (over 100,000 GT ) and, above all, very large passenger ships (over 150,000 GT). All cruise ships over 150,000 GT in service in 2017 are listed below:
- Harmony of the Seas (226,963 GT, 5,479 PAX , Royal Caribbean Cruise Line )
- Allure of the Seas (225,282 GT, 5,400 PAX, Royal Caribbean Cruise Line), Oasis of the Seas (225,282 GT, Royal Caribbean Cruise Line)
- Anthem of the Seas (168,666 GT, 4,180 PAX, Royal Caribbean Cruise Line), Quantum of the Seas (168,666 GT, 4,180 PAX, Royal Caribbean Cruise Line), Ovation of the Seas (168,666 GT, 4,180 PAX, Royal Caribbean Cruise Line)
- MSC Meraviglia (167,600 GT, 4,500 PAX, MSC Cruises )
- Norwegian Escape (165,157 GT, 4,266 PAX, Norwegian Cruise Line ), Norwegian Joy (165,157 GT, 3,900 PAX, Norwegian Cruise Line)
- MSC Seaside (160,000 GT, 4,140 PAX, MSC Cruises )
- Norwegian Epic (155,873 GT, 4,200 PAX, Norwegian Cruise Line)
- Freedom of the Seas (154,407 GT, 3,634 PAX, Royal Caribbean Cruises ), Liberty of the Seas (154,407 GT, 3,634 PAX, Royal Caribbean Cruises), Independence of the Seas (154,407 GT, 3,634 PAX, Royal Caribbean Cruises)
- Genting Dream (151,300 GT, 3,360 PAX, Dream Cruises )
Large cruise lines
In 2008, cruises were mainly booked through travel agencies and tour operators , especially with so-called cruise-only agencies that specialize in the sale of cruises. The largest German cruise providers (cruise-only agencies) include (as of 2008) the Atlantic Seereisedienst and the Elbflorenz travel service , which each have a market share of around 10%. In 2008, 77.7% of ocean cruises were booked through travel agencies, 11% through tour operators and 6.8% directly with the shipping company.
E-commerce was not yet able to establish itself in the cruise industry in 2008: 4.5% of ocean cruises and 4.3% of river cruises were booked online. Many customers get information from so-called rating portals on the Internet; They then book through travel agencies, tour operators or directly via the rating portal.
Even with cruises passengers passenger rights . If these are violated, there is a travel deficiency that can entitle the passenger to price reductions, compensation claims or compensation.
Man overboard on cruises
Passengers on cruise ships often go overboard. According to an estimate by the Berliner Zeitung on the occasion of the death of Daniel Küblböck in 2018, up to 20 people go overboard every year. A survey from 2011 lists a total of 159 passengers and crew members who have gone overboard for the previous decade. Of these, only 33 could be saved.
Accidents as well as suicide or crime are conceivable as the cause of a man overboard situation . Those affected often remain missing .
There are currently no uniform safety standards to avoid such "man overboard" emergencies. Therefore, the technical solutions of the shipping companies are different.
An initiative founded by relatives of passengers who disappeared on cruise ships, the International Cruise Victims Organization (ICV) , is committed to clearing up and preventing these incidents. According to the organization, shipping companies are interested in "hushing up" deaths. Accordingly, missing persons reports would be dispensed with and clarification would not be prioritized for fear of negative press reports.
“There is an accountability problem in the cruise industry. As soon as you step on board, you are on foreign soil and are at the mercy of the police of the third world country in which the ship is registered. "
In 2010, Barack Obama signed the Cruise Vessel Security and Safety Act. Under this US law, cruise lines are required to report missing persons quickly; the US authorities FBI and US Coast Guard are also authorized to investigate, regardless of whether a ship is flagged.
There have been successful cruise television series for decades; these are considered to be a decisive factor that has made this type of vacation popular. ZDF has been broadcasting the series Das Traumschiff since 1981 , inspired by the series Love Boat , among other things . The ARD began on January 11, 2010 in the afternoon program with the series Crazy About the Sea , on January 10, 2017 the 200th episode was broadcast.
In the individual sections according to the order in which they appear
- Otto Schüßler: Passenger Shipping. A handbook for travel agents in training and practice. Detailed information on cruises, river cruises, ferries, cargo ships, boat and yacht trips . DRV, Frankfurt am Main, 2nd edition 2005, ISBN 3-929835-29-0 .
- Bob Dickinson, Andy Vladimir: Selling the sea. An Inside Look at the Cruise Industry . Wiley, Hoboken, NJ 2008, ISBN 978-0-471-74918-9 .
- Axel Schulz: Modes of Transport in Tourism. Air transport - rail transport - road transport - shipping . Munich 2009, ISBN 978-3-486-58876-7 .
- Peter Tönishoff: Trends in the cruise industry . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 9/2011, Seehafen-Verlag, Hamburg 2011, ISSN 0938-1643 , p. 32 ff.
- Christian Eckardt: Current trends on cruise ships . In: Hansa , Issue 9/2013, ISSN 0017-7504 , pp. 22-25.
- Wolfgang Gregor: The cruise complex. Dream ship or nightmare. Hamburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7345-5373-8 .
Working conditions, social and environmental impact
- Sandra Bow: Working on cruise ships. Adventure, exoticism, rough seas, service and bone jobs . Interconnections, Freiburg 2006, ISBN 3-86040-076-2 .
- Klaus Meyer, Burkhard Ilschner: Mass passenger attitude - forever resistant to crises? Booming cruise tourism: sustainability looks different . In: Waterkant , No. 126, No. 2 / 32nd year, June 2017, pp. 13–16, ISSN 1611-1583 .
- Wolfgang Meyer-Hentrich: madness cruise. Danger to nature and people . Ch. Links Verlag, Berlin 2019, ISBN 978-3-96289-031-5 .
- Dinah Deckstein, Ullrich Fichtner , Felix Hutt, Martin U. Müller , Max Polonyi: Air pollution, exploitation, crowds. The cruise madness. In: Der Spiegel No. 33, August 9, 2019, pp. 44–53 (fee required).
- Christian Wilhelm Allers : Backschisch. Sketches for an Orient cruise in 1891 . New edition. Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-86805-159-9 (historical report on the first German cruise to the Mediterranean)
- Reinhard Laszig (Ed.): Cruises. A travel book . Ellert & Richter, Hamburg 2010, ISBN 978-3-8319-0395-5 .
- ↑ Duden dictionary of origin , 3rd edition 2001, ISBN 3-411-04073-4 , p. 453: “cruising ship (that is, ship moving back and forth for reconnaissance purposes); ... ". Brockhaus True. German dictionary, large dictionary. Renate Wahrig-Burfeind, 9th completely updated edition 2011, ISBN 978-3-577-07595-4 , p. 893: "Warship that protects a coast going back and forth".
- ↑ Exclusive DRV analysis "Cruise Market 2011": Over 1.8 million holidaymakers on the sea and rivers - the market continues to grow. In: drv.de. March 8, 2012, archived from the original on March 12, 2012 ; accessed on April 28, 2019 .
- ↑ Passenger record - cruise industry cracks 20 million mark. In: spiegel.de . September 11, 2012, accessed November 11, 2019.
- ↑ All signs point to growth · The cruise industry sees itself as an important economic factor in Europe . In: Daily port report of July 13, 2018, p. 13
- ^ Klaus Meyer, Burkhard Ilschner: Mass Passenger Posture - Forever Resistant to Crises? In: Waterkant 2-17, 32nd year, issue 126 from June 2017, ISSN 1611-1583 , pp. 13-16
- ↑ Eckhard-Herbert Arndt: Cruise benefits from Europeans' lust for the sea · Almost seven million passengers in 2016 · The Mediterranean region and Northern Europe are in great demand as destinations . In: Daily port report of March 17, 2017, p. 4
- ↑ Frank Binder: Cruise industry continues on record course · 11.3 percent growth . In: Daily port report of March 10, 2017, p. 1
- ↑ Iven Krämer: German ports and shipyards facing new challenges · Cruise boom . In: Schiff & Hafen , issue 3/2017, pp. 64–68
- ^ Growth of the Ocean Cruise Line Industry. In: cruisemarketwatch.com. Retrieved February 19, 2020 .
- ↑ Passenger list of Augusta Victoria 22.1. – 22.3.1891 - Appendix to the travel report “Backschisch” by CW Allers. In: cwallers.de. August 18, 2012, accessed August 14, 2019 .
- ^ CW Allers: Backschisch. The first German cruise in 1891 . Edited by Gerd Fahrenhorst, Berlin 2008, ISBN 978-3-86805-159-9 .
- ^ Cruise Ship in Cambodia - The Odyssey of the "Westerdam". In: tagesschau.de. February 13, 2020, accessed August 9, 2020 .
- ↑ Ocean liners break off their voyages: The cruise terminal is getting tight. In: buten un inside. Radio Bremen, April 2, 2020, accessed on August 7, 2020 .
- ↑ Storage fever on luxury steamer: crew members with their nerves at the end. In: buten un inside. Radio Bremen, May 8, 2020, accessed on August 7, 2020 .
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