Course and catchment area of the Seine
|Water code||FR : ---- 0010|
|source||on the plateau of Langres in the municipality of Source-Seine
|muzzle||At Le Havre in the English Channel
|Height difference||approx. 470 m|
|Bottom slope||approx. 0.6 ‰|
|Catchment area||79,000 km²|
|Drain at the Le Havre gauge||
||560 m³ / s
|Big cities||Paris , Rouen , Le Havre|
|Medium-sized cities||Troyes , Melun , Mantes-la-Jolie , Vernon|
|Navigable||from the estuary to Nogent-sur-Seine|
The Seine ([ sɛn ]; in French ; Latin / Celtic Sequana ) is a river in northern France . It rises in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region , flows from east to west and flows into the English Channel at Le Havre . With a length of 777 kilometers, it is one of the longest rivers in France alongside the Loire (1004 kilometers) and the merging rivers of Doubs , Saône and Rhône (a total of 1025 kilometers) . The catchment area of the Seine covers around 78,650 km² .
Important cities on the Seine are Paris , Troyes and Rouen . The main inland ports in France are located in Paris and Rouen. The Seine is connected to the Scheldt , Meuse , Rhine , Saône and Loire via canals . On the lower reaches of the river in the Normandy area, unusually large loops have formed for a river of this type . The navigable length (to Nogent-sur-Seine ) is 560 km. Seagoing ships can sail the river as far as Rouen (120 km inland).
Sources of the Seine
The source of the Seine is located on the Langres plateau , 25 km northwest of Dijon in the Côte-d'Or department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region , above sea level. A special feature is that the sources of the Seine have been the property of the city of Paris since 1864. An artificial grotto was built a year later to protect the main spring and a statue of a nymph was placed to symbolize the river. The capital has meanwhile lost interest in the plot and returned it to the region. Near the source are the remains of a Gallo-Roman temple in which a Dea Sequana ( Latin goddess of the Seine ) was worshiped and whose archaeological finds are now in the Archaeological Museum of Dijon.
The valley of the Seine
The Seine flows along its entire length through the layered stepland of the Paris basin , the relief of which is characterized by broad-based high waves like in the dry Champagne and some more prominent hills. The narrow valley of the upper reaches of the Langres plateau in the Troyes area is followed by an approximately one kilometer wide valley floor between very gentle slopes. Further west to the mouth of the Voulzie near Bray-sur-Seine , the valley floor widens to over 5 km, and finally the slopes become steeper, at least on the north side. The surrounding heights are here on the north side about 100 m, on the south side about 50 m above the river. At Fontainebleau , whose city center lies in a side valley, there is a narrow valley, and the Seine valley crosses a ridge in the form of a gate . Near Paris and from there to just before the mouth, the valley runs in numerous loops and accordingly asymmetrical valley sections with sliding slope and impact slope . The width of the valley floor varies greatly and is small over long stretches. The cross-section is even asymmetrical at the Île de la Cité in Paris, where the course of the river is almost straight: South of the river, the Latin Quarter does not rise steeply, but it rises significantly, while the flat Marais ("swamp") extends over several from the north bank Kilometers to almost the Gare du Nord . From Paris to shortly before the mouth, the valley does not become flatter, the valley floor necessarily sinks from about 50 m above sea level to almost zero, but the hills remain almost the same height.
The Seine valley is known for its numerous castles (“ Seine castles ”), but also for the automotive industry, petrochemicals and several power plants that exist there.
Islands in the Seine
Above the greater Paris area:
- Nogent-sur-Seine : Île Olive, 3 ha
- Melun : Île Saint-Étienne, 1200 m × 170 m
- near Évry : Île aux Paveurs, 600 m × 70 m
- Paris :
- Issy-les-Moulineaux : Île Saint-Germain, 18 ha, parks and residential area
- Boulogne-Billancourt : Ile Seguin, ha 11.5, only by a backwater of the Ile Saint-Germain isolated, formerly Renault -Werk
- Puteaux : Île de Puteaux, 2.5 km × (140–200) m, leisure area
- Neuilly-sur-Seine and Levallois-Perret : Île de la Grande Jatte, 1.9 km × 150 m, inhabited and leisure area
- L'Île-Saint-Denis : Île Saint-Denis 4.4 km × max. 280 m, 7071 inhabitants
- Carrières-sur-Seine and Chatou : Île de Chatou ( Île des Impressionnistes ), 8.3 km × max. 280 m
- Louveciennes and Le Port Marly : Île de la Loge, 2.38 km × (150–220) m
- Andrésy : Île de Nancy, 2.3 km × max. 240 m
Below the greater Paris area
- at Mantes-la-Jolie (left bank) and Limay (right bank):
- Île from Dames: 2.67 km × max. 230 m
- Île l'Aumône: 2 km × max. 278 m
- At Les Mureaux : Belle-Île, 5.7 km × max. 340 m
- Bennecourt : Grande Île, 6 km × max 330 m
- Criquebeuf-en-Caux near Elbeuf : Island with three partial names, Île de Launy - Île de Criquebeuf - Île du Courant, 8.5 km × max. 370 m
Cities on the Seine
- in brackets the number of inhabitants, medium- sized cities in italics , large cities in bold -
Above the greater Paris area:
- Châtillon-sur-Seine (5,478)
- Bar-sur-Seine (3,135)
- Troyes (59,671)
- Romilly-sur-Seine (14,352)
- Nogent-sur-Seine (5,955)
- Bray-sur-Seine (2,294)
- Montereau-Fault-Yonne (17,173)
- Fontainebleau (14,839)
therein Métropole du Grand Paris :
- Evry (53,237)
- Viry-Châtillon (31,132)
- Vitry-sur-Seine (90.075)
- PARIS (2,229,621)
- Sèvres (23,404)
- Boulogne-Billancourt (116,794)
- Puteaux (43,891)
- Neuilly-sur-Seine (62,346)
- Courbevoie (85,523)
- Asnières-sur-Seine (86.020)
- Clichy (59,255)
- Saint-Denis (109,343)
- Argenteuil (106,817)
- Nanterre (92,227)
still greater area, west of the Métropole du Grand Paris:
Below the greater Paris area:
- Meulan-en-Yvelines (8,992)
- Mantes-la-Jolie (45,052)
- Vernon (24,064)
- Les Andelys (8,201)
- Elbeuf (17,343)
- Rouen (110,755)
- Honfleur (7,676)
- Le Havre (172,074)
Three large bridges span the wide river valley in the estuary: the Brotonne Bridge , the Bridge of Tancarville and the Pont de Normandie . The latter was at times the longest bridge in Europe. The Seine flows between Le Havre and Honfleur and forms a long estuary from Tancarville . This is spanned by the Pont de Normandie. In 1997, an area of 8,528 hectares was placed under nature protection. Reed areas, dunes, sandbanks and wet meadows provide habitat for over 250 different bird species. An information center at the northern bridgehead offers natural history about the nature reserve and an observation station.
Just looking at the map shows that the Seine river system is characterized by a number of long first-degree tributaries that flow parallel to the Seine at a great distance, but sometimes arise not very far from it. The tributaries of the tributaries often run quite a long distance parallel to their target water before they make an arc to it. The length comparisons in the table make it clear that the source of the Marne has the longest stretch of river to the sea. The flow paths to the Seine estuary from the sources of the Aube , the Yonne and some of their tributaries, as well as the Aire and the Aisne, are hardly shorter than that of the Seine itself.
|The Seine, its tributaries and their tributaries from 36 km in length (order upstream)|
|Mouth in the
direction of flow
- [km] -
|Location of the mouth||Code
[m³ / s]
- [km] -
|His||0||Le Havre , Honfleur||---- 0010||777||79,000||563||777|
|Left||Charentonne||8 km below Beaumont-le-Roger||H61-0400||63||514||4th|
|Left||Avre||6 km north of Dreux||H42-0400||80.4||974||3.6|
|right||Andelle||4 km above. Pont-de-l'Arche||H32-0400||56.8||740||7.2|
|right||Epte||4 km above Vernon||H31-0400||113||1 490||9.8|
|Left||Mauldre||6–8 km above. Mantes-la-Jolie||H30-0400||34.8 / 37.6||411|
|Left||Lieutel||10.9 km after its source||H3038000||13.7|
|right||Oise||284.4||Conflans-Sainte-Honorine||H --- 0100||341.1||16 667||110||525.5|
|Left||Nonet||8 km below Creil||H22-0400||40.4 / 43||338||1.6|
|Left||Whimsy||13.4 km after its source||H21-0400||16|
|right||Thérain||below Nogent-sur-Oise||H21-0400||94.3||1 218||7.7|
|Left||Aisne||383.55||Compiègne , 99.15 km before Oise-Mdg.||H1-0200||355.9 / 362||7,939||65.4||745.4|
|Left||Vesle||10 km east of Soissons||H15-0400||139.5||1 480||7.5|
|Left||Suippe||20 km north of Reims||H13-0410||81.7||837||43|
|right||Vaux||7 km west of Rethel||H13-0400||37.7||316||4.5|
|right||Aire||625.4||SW Grandpré , 120 km to Aisne-Q.||H11-0400||125.6||1 050||13.6||751|
|Left||Serre||la Fère||H01-0400||95.9||1 743||13.1|
|right||Vilpion||5 km above Crécy-sur-Serre||H01-0410||42.8||720|
|Left||Brune||4 km above Marle||H0120600||37.5||165|
|right||Marne||361.3||2 km above. Paris city limits||F --- 0100||514||12 920||110||875|
|Left||Grand Morin||at Esbly||F65-0400||118.2||1 197||7.6|
|Left||Aubetin||5 km below Coulommiers||F65-0410||61.2||270||1.5|
|Left||Petit Morin||la Ferté-sous-Jouarre||F62-0400||86.3||605||3.4|
|Left||Surmelin||10 km above. Château-Thierry||F61-0400||41.5||454||2.7|
|Left||Somme Soude||Jâlons||F6090600||24.6 / 59.9||500||2.75|
|right||Soude||2.5 km below Villeseneux||F6092000||22.6|
|right||Vière||about 5 km above its mouth||F58-0410 +||42.2||180||1.3|
|right||Ornain||4 km before the Saulx estuary||F56-0400||116.2||913||10.9|
|Left||(Le Cavé ←) Blaise||Frignycourt||F53-0400||85.5||480|
|right||Rognon||8 km above Joinville||F51-0400||73.3||614||9.2|
|Left||Loing||444.3||at Moret-sur-Loing||F4-0200||142.7||4 182||19th||587.0|
|right||Orvanne||4 km from its mouth||F4398000||38.8||0.4|
|right||Lunain||10 km from its mouth||F4380600||51.4||252||0.7|
|Left||Bezonde||7 km above Montargis||F42-0400||35/40||350||1.5|
|right||Huillard||25.3 km from its source||F4240600||25.9 / 30.4||950||4.8|
|Left||Moth Busy||10.3 km from its source||F4242000||14.8|
|right||Ouanne||7 km above Montargis||F41-0400||83.8||950||4.8|
|Left||Branlin||3 km above. Charny||F4140600||43.7|
|Left||Vrin||5 km northwest. Joigny||F3531000||37||148||0.7|
|right||Burn||6 km below Montbard||F33-0400||71.7||491||7.8|
|right||Serein||5 km above Migennes||F32-0400||188||1 119||7.7|
|right||Cure||at Vermenton||F31-0400||112||1 311||16.2|
|right||cousin||10 km west of Avallon||F31-0410||31/67||366||3.9|
|right||Romanée||2 km south of Cussy-les-Forges||F3140600||25.8||114|
|↑||Trinquelin ← cousin||F31-0410||36|
|Left||Chalaux||Lac de Chaumeçon||F3110600||36.2||110||2.1|
|Left||Beuvron ← Vaucreuse||Clamecy||F30-0400||40.5||264||2.1|
|right||Armance||4 km southeast. Clamecy||F3040600||24.2||76||2.1|
|right||Voulzie||2 km below Bray-sur-Seine||F23-0400||43.9||286||1.7|
|Left||Orvin||12 km west of Nogent-sur-Seine||F21-0400||38.1|
|right||Superbe||17 km from its mouth||F15-0400||39.5||320||1.6|
|right||Voire||2 km below Lesmont||F12-0400||56.1||896||7.1|
|right||Aujon||14 km above. Bar-sur-Aube||F11-0400||68||481||6.5|
|Left||Marve||1.9 km from its source||F0701000||20.1||74|
|right||Ource||2 km above. Bar-sur-Seine||F04-0400||100.4||737||8.6|
|Left||Laignes (lower reaches)||Polisy||F02-0400||33.2 / 72||668|
|↑ (as a sinkhole )||Laignes||17.9|
|↑ Laignes (upper course)||Puits communal forest||21st|
Water management and ecology
Surface water of the Seine is used for the Parisian water supply . After its purification, the wastewater from the greater Paris area is fed to the Seine and flows into the English Channel via Rouen and Le Havre. The Seine is brown in winter as it passes agricultural areas for 400 km . In summer it is colored green by algae. Until the middle of the 19th century, the Parisian sewage was discharged untreated into the river. From around 1850 onwards, they were taken out of the city in sewers and led down into the river. After that, people switched to not directing the wastewater directly into the Seine, but using it to fertilize fields . Sewage treatment plants were built from the middle of the 20th century. Compared to 1850, when the Seine was a stinking sewer, the water quality has improved significantly. Today, 35 species of fish live in the Seine again, including salmon and trout .
The oldest surviving flood of the Seine in the Paris Basin occurred in the winter of 358 during the stay of the Roman Emperor Julian in Lutetia and was mentioned in his Misopogon . The description of the flood of February 582 was handed down to Gregory of Tours (Grégoire) in the Historia Francorum .
After severe winters in 1197, 1325/26, 1708/09 the water masses tore away bridges in Paris and plague epidemics broke out. The last severe flooding occurred in January 1910 , when twelve of the 20 arrondissements in Paris were flooded for six weeks.
The following list of floods in Paris does not claim to be exhaustive.
- February 582
- In 1280 a flood destroyed the Grand-Pont;
- 1296: in December, a flood of previously unknown proportions destroys all bridges in the city ;
- 1616: Ice and flooding cause several houses to collapse on the Pont Saint-Michel (January 30) and Pont au Change bridges ;
- 1658: March 1, a flood swamped the two of Ile Saint-Louis closest arches of the Pont Marie continued and 20 standing out houses;
- 1684: on February 20th, during a flood, the Pont-Barbier sinks into the water (later replaced by the Pont-Royal );
- 1708/09: in winter the ice drift of the Seine shakes the structure of the Pont Saint-Landry (also Pont de Bois , see Pont Saint-Louis ) to such an extent that its demolition is decided and carried out in 1710;
- 1910: devastating flooding of the Seine from January 18 to March / April - maximum level: 8.62 m
- 2016 - level 6.10 m
- 28/29 January 2018 - several hours of water level 5.84–5.85 m
The Seine in art
- Visual arts
- Paintings and a. by Frédéric Bazille, Maurice Boitel, Richard Parkes Bonington, Eugène Boudin, Gustave Caillebotte, Camille Corot, Charles-François Daubigny, Raoul Dufy, Émile Othon Friesz, Eugène Isabey, Johan Barthold Jongkind, Joseph Mallord, Albert Marquet, Claude Monet , Robert Antoine Pinchon, Nicolas Raguenet , Emilio Grau Sala, Gaston Sébire, Alfred Sisley , Georges Seurat , Constant Troyon, William Turner , Édouard Vuillard or Vallotton.
- Statues: for example the Seine on the Pont du Carrousel
- by Jacques Charpentrau: Le Front de Seine. “La Seine a mal au front / Ah! Ce n'est pas de veine / Il lui vient des bétons / De Javel à Grenelle / C'est comme une éruption / Une fièvre malsaine ... "
- Itineraries France: The Song of the Seine. Documentation, two parts, 90 min. A film by Georg Bense, production: SR , first broadcasts: November 29, 2006 and December 6, 2006
- After her execution at the stake in Rouen in 1431, the ashes of Joan of Arc were scattered in the Seine to prevent a relic cult.
- In 1790 the Czech composer Jean-Baptiste Krumpholz drowned himself in Paris . He jumped from the Pont Neuf into the Seine after his wife Anne-Marie (1755-1824) left him for the Bohemian composer Jan Ladislav Dussek .
- In September 1843, off Villequier in Normandy , within sight of the Vacquerie family's house, the sailing boat with which the young Charles Vacquerie (1817–1843) and his 19-year-old wife Leopoldine (1817–1843), the eldest daughter of the writer Victor, capsized Hugo , whom he married in February, and his uncle, the former sailor Pierre Vacquerie (1781-1843) and his son Arthur (1832-1843) returned from an excursion. None of the inmates survived. The tragic event shook Victor Hugo very deeply. The grief for his beloved daughter inspired him in particular to write the poems summarized in Pauca meae , the fourth book of the Les Contemplations collection, through which the writer tried to establish a dialogue with the deceased.
- The Seine served as a competition venue for the 1900 Summer Olympics . The rowing competitions took place on the section between Pont Bineau and Asnières-sur-Seine , the swimming competitions and the water polo tournament were held in a flood basin near Asnières-sur-Seine and the sailing competitions of the 5 smaller boat classes at Meulan-en-Yvelines .
- At the Summer Olympics in 1924 when found Argenteuil the competitions in rowing instead. In the town of Meulan-en-Yvelines the sailing competition of the boat class Monotype was held in 1924 .
- Jean Aubert: La vie des bords de Seine . Éditions Horvath: Le Coteau (Loire) 1986 ISBN 978-2-7171-0414-1 (French)
- François Beaudouin: Paris-sur-Seine, ville fluviale . Éditions de la Martinière, 1993 ISBN 978-2-7324-2035-6 (French)
- François Beaudouin was the founder of the Musée de la batellerie in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine and was the curator there until 1994.
- Conseil général des Ponts et Chaussées (ed.): L'estuaire de la Seine . October 2004, 63 pp. (French)
- Martine Delahaye: Les enfants du fleuve, la Seine au 20e siècle - Récits, Nanterre . Martine Delahaye, 2001, 233 p. (French)
- Christian Dupavillon: Paris côté Seine . Le Seuil: Paris 2001, 383 pp. ISBN 978-2-02-051688-4 (French)
- Antoine Hoareau: Au pays des sources de la Seine . Cléa Micro-édition, 2010, 80 pp. ISBN 978-2-913835-99-3 (French)
- Bernard Jacomin: Les Sources de la Seine . Yvelinédition, 2006 ISBN 978-2-84668-049-3 (French)
- Simon Lacordaire: Les inconnus de la Seine, Paris et les métiers de l'eau du XIIe au XIXe siècle . Hachette: Paris 1985, 306 pp. ISBN 978-2-01-009763-8 (French)
- Charlotte Lacour-Veyranne: Les colères de la Seine . Éditions Paris-Musées, 1994 ISBN 978-2-87900-191-3 (French)
- François Lespinasse: La Seine vue par les peintres . Édita SA: Lausanne 1993, 139 pp. ISBN 978-2-88001-286-1 (French)
- Kilometers of the lower Seine (contrary to the numbers) from Honfleur to Paris, in English
- Kilometers of the upper Seine (contrary to the numbers) from Paris to the mouth of the Aube, in English
- Jean-Christophe Victor , tv series With open cards , from June 4, 6 and 11, 2016 (arte): Paris under water - danger known, danger misunderstood. Video (Can the flood of the century of 1910 or something similar be repeated? The answer is yes. After the inventory, especially with maps of the history of 1910, the second part deals with the consequences of a conceivable renewed, comparable flood of the century for the greater Paris area today. Twice as many inhabitants vulnerable electricity and water networks ...)
- Seine Estuary Natural Park
- geoportail.fr (1: 16,000)
- The information on the length of the river is based on the information about the Seine at SANDRE (French), accessed on July 30, 2009, rounded to full kilometers.
- hydro.eaufrance.fr (station: H9950010 , option: Synthèse ) .
- Oise with Aisne, Aisne with Aire
- with length measurement
- listed because of the same name as the not so short tributary of the Armançon
- Outline> SANDRE describes under the name Ruisseau de Marcenay (F02-0410) with a map of the upper course with regard to length and neighboring communities the entire river under Laignes (F02400) only the lower course after the karst source.
- FAQ of SIAAP .
- Charlotte Lacour-Veyranne, Les colères de la Seine , Ed. Paris-Musées, 1994, ISBN 978-2-87900-191-3 .
- Willms, Johannes: When Paris was like Venice, The capital of modernity under the spell of the "grande crue": memories of a century flood in Süddeutsche Zeitung of January 26, 2010.
- Regarding the floods in the period from 1600 to 1840 see A. Goubet: Les crues dans le bassin de la Seine du 17e au début du 19e siècle 
- Maurice Champion: Les inondations en France depuis le VIe siècle jusqu'à nosjours Volume 1, Dalmont, 1858 ( online ), p. 73
- Andrew Ayers, The Architecture of Paris , 2004, p. 390
- Flood of the Seine peaked in Paris orf.at, January 29, 2018, accessed January 29, 2018.
- Four meters above normal level orf.at, January 29, 2018, accessed January 29, 2018. - Photo report.
- Stoppel, Karl (Ed.): La France. Regards sur un pays voisin , Reclams Universal-Bibliothek , No. 9068, p. 68.
- The song of his table of contents of the SR
- Alexandre Choron: Dictionnaire historique des musiciens, artistes et amateurs morts ou vivants , Volume 1, Valade, 1810, p. 383 digitized