Product labeling

from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Product labeling (also article identification ) is information about a commodity that it to trade or to the final consumer guide.


Often, the term product labeling is primarily understood to mean information for end consumers about quality properties that are attached to the goods themselves or the packaging , such as quality seals or quantities. In a broader definition, it can also be aimed at dealers, including information such as price or article number and also information accompanying the goods that is not directly attached to the product or its packaging.

In labeling law in particular, the term labeling often encompasses the entirety of labels (words, information, manufacturer or trade marks, images or symbols) that refer to a product. The individual labels themselves, which provide information about a certain aspect of the product, are often individually regulated and form a self-contained unit of information, are often referred to as label elements .

The term goods labeling or product labeling can occasionally also mean the process of labeling, in contrast to the label itself attached to the goods.

Product labels can take the form of symbols , pictograms , logos or short texts. They are often standardized by a large number of national and international guidelines. A wide variety of labeling techniques exist for marking and labeling products . They can be attached to packaging, documents, boards, labels, rings or closures of any kind.


Product labels for consumers can be distinguished in terms of a number of characteristics.

Label takers are mostly manufacturers. Signs can be given by government institutions, independent associations, branch organizations or individual companies. The target group of the labels are often consumers, but they can also be dealers, processing companies or other organizations.

Product labels are often only assigned to specific product groups and often have a regional or national scope . They differ in the type and scope of the information presented , ranging from a simple indication that certain criteria have been met to detailed quantitative information about product properties. You can highlight positive or negative product features or provide information about neutral features.

There are various display options and formats for product labels . These range from strongly symbolic labels, for example with many eco-labels , to detailed textual representations, such as the declaration of ingredients. A distinction is made between mandatory and voluntary labeling . Examples of mandatory, legal regulations for product labeling in Germany are the Price Indication Ordinance , the Textile Labeling Act , quality and trade classes , hazardous substance labeling or the Food Information Ordinance . So the latter writes u. a. the following information:

Voluntary labeling can contain additional information on the product, such as nutrition labeling , information on the quality standard or safety status. Here again a distinction must be made between company-specific marks ( self-declaration ) and marks of third parties, for example independent quality associations or consumer organizations such as the Stiftung Warentest .

In most cases, products that are to receive a label must meet certain award criteria or standards. It is important here who defines the award criteria and who checks products for compliance with the criteria. This can be the signer himself or independent standardization and control bodies commissioned by him. Important features of the criteria are their objective verifiability and transparency.


Product labeling is a channel for consumer information that is often characterized by limited space but immediate availability when purchasing. Often, product labels refer to other channels with more comprehensive information, such as Internet portals. Both the manufacturer and the state can provide information about product labels through mandatory labels such as warning notices on cigarette packaging.

Product labels as consumer information are primarily intended to provide information about product features that the buyer cannot perceive at the time of purchase. In terms of their properties, which are provided by a label, the goods have characteristics of goods based on experience or trust .

If these hidden characteristics are positive or negative , i.e. the target group generally sees them as “good” or “bad”, there is an information asymmetry between seller and buyer that can affect trade. Because the buyer has to expect that the seller withholds or understates negative product features and exaggerates positive ones. As a result, he will only want to pay a lower price or refrain from buying it altogether. Products with positive but more complex to manufacture properties will hardly establish themselves in such a so-called lemon market . Credible product labels, such as quality seals , can help here. Because of the required credibility, legal symbols and symbols of independent organizations are particularly important here.

Product labels can also provide information about neutral quality properties for which the manufacturer has no incentive to misrepresent. Examples of this are dress sizes. Labels can also provide important information on handling the product, such as washing instructions for textiles, hazard symbols or recycling instructions.

The function of product labels depends on their scope of information and their form of representation, their allocation criteria and their control. Simple, symbolic labels have a high information density and low complexity. They can therefore be evaluated quickly and easily by the consumer. On the other hand, they only enable less differentiated purchase decisions and require greater trust in the label's institutions than in the case of complex labels with a large amount of information. Company-specific labels usually have a lower level of standardization and are less credible than labels of independent third parties.

Frequently used marks


Deodorant with ( outdated ) R-phrase 12 "Extremely flammable" and the appropriate hazard symbol, green point, aluminum label and quantity according to EU prepackaging directive ( s ), inverted epsilon ( э ) and full volume (number in rectangle)

It is useful for sales to attach a machine-readable product number, such as the European Article Number or the Universal Product Code , which are encoded in barcodes EAN-13 barcode . Barcodes are available in various forms, including 2D barcodes EAN-13 barcode.

On the basis of a CE marking it CE mark can be recognized that a product complies with the statutory provisions of European legal norms that affect it and can therefore be traded within the European Community . The CE marksymbol represents a legally required declaration of conformity by the manufacturer. However, this symbol may only be attached if this is expressly provided for in the relevant legal standard for the product in question.

Hazard pictograms , signal words as well as H-phrases and P-phrases provide information about hazards relevant to chemicals law . For end consumers, there may also be products with outdated hazard symbols on an orange background.


Various product labels for packaging and containers


Name ,

Sign giver ,
award criteria

scope of application
Estimated sign.svg

Estimation mark ,
usually next to the nominal capacity ; the product has been weighed or filled in accordance with the prepackaging directive; it regulates the maximum permissible deviations of the contained quantity from the specified nominal filling quantity

mandatory self-declaration ,
directive 76/211 / EEC (prepackaging directive)
European Union

Nominal filling quantity ,
quantity, usually as volume or weight, that should be contained in the packaging; here “670g” on a pickle jar

mandatory self-declaration ,
directive 76/211 / EEC (prepackaging directive)
European Union

Drained weight ,
weight that remains after pouring off an infusion liquid; here: "420g" on a pickle jar

mandatory self-declaration (for solid foods in infusion liquids),
prepackaging ordinance , § 11 sentence 2

volume to the brim , thefilling volume of the packaging when it is filled to the upper edge level; here: in the rectangle "720" on a pickle jar (without specifying the unit of measurement ml)

mandatory self-declaration ,
prepackaging regulation
23 Glasmarke Ruhrglas.svg э 7· 0,75l 78
····   · ·· ··

Container identification ,
here from the lower edge of a glass bottle for mineral water, from left to right: Production key "23", glass mark of the manufacturer Ruhrglas, э as a symbol for measuring container , "7 · " for year of manufacture 2007, second quarter (with zero points for the first quarter beginning, ending with three points for the fourth), nominal filling volume "0.75 l", brimful volume "78" in cl; The sequence of dots marks the individual glass or bottle shape of the manufacturing process for the identification of faulty shapes

Self-declaration (partly mandatory for measuring containers) ,
Directive 75/107 / EEC, Appendix I, 8. DIN 6121
European Union
EU food contact material symbol.svg

Symbol for food contact material ,
the object, e.g. B. food containers, dishes, are suitable for contact with food: Note alternatively text "For food contact" or specific purpose (the symbol has nothing to do with dishwasher-proof or similar)

Mandatory self-declaration
Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004 and the Food, Commodities and Feed Code

European Union
Reversed epsilon.svgAlso Aerosol.svg, Aerosol2.svg,Inverted epsilon.svg

Conformity mark for aerosol packaging (inverted epsilon),
indicates that an aerosol packaging complies with EU safety requirements

mandatory self-declaration
Directive 75/324 / EEC , in Germany aerosol packaging ordinance

European Union

Waste disposal

Common product labels specifically for waste disposal

Name ,

Sign giver ,
award criteria

scope of application

International recycling symbol (Möbius strip) ,
indicates recyclable material.

voluntary self-declaration
symbol standardized in ISO 14021


Universal recycling symbol (Möbius strip) with percentage ,
indicates the proportion of recycled material

voluntary self-declaration
symbol standardized in ISO 14021


Recycling symbol with recycling code ,
marks reusable materials for presorting, the material itself is marked with the recycling code

voluntary self-declaration of the
packaging ordinance

Der Grüne Punkt.svg

Green point ,
the manufacturer has paid legal fees for the recycling of old materials in advance, the packaging is to bedisposed ofvia the waste separation system financed by it ( dual system ), here that of Duales System Deutschland  GmbH

National recycling systems (including Grüner Punkt (Germany) , Altstoff Recycling Austria )
Directive 94/62 / EC , in Germany the packaging ordinance


Symbol BellandDual ,
the manufacturer has paid statutory fees for the recycling of old materials in advance, the packaging is to be disposed of via the waste separation system financed by this ( dual system ), here that of Belland Vision  GmbH

National recycling systems (including Grüner Punkt (Germany) , Altstoff Recycling Austria )
Directive 94/62 / EC , in Germany the packaging ordinance

Reusable logo.svg

Reusable symbol ,identifies refillable beverage packaging (reusable) with a deposit; widely used but not compulsory; also simply spreads the text indicator "reusable"

Reusable working group

Reusable logo at.svg

Reusable symbol ,identifies refillable beverage packaging (reusable) with a deposit

ARGE sustainable beverage packaging of the Chamber of Commerce


One- way deposit symbol ,identifies non-refilled beverage packaging (one-way) with a deposit obligation; widely used but not compulsory

German deposit system GmbH

WEEE 2.svg

crossed out garbage can ,
labeled product must not be disposed of with household waste; a bar below the garbage can or a date indicate whether or when the product was "placed on the market" after August 13, 2005.

mandatory self-declaration of the
WEEE directive

International tidyman.svg

Tidyman ,
German clean man , reminds consumers to dispose of products and packaging in an environmentally friendly way.

voluntary self-declaration


Glass recycling symbol with Tidyman ,
indicates that the product should be disposed of in a glass recycling system.

voluntary self-declaration


Can recycling symbol with Tidyman ,
indicates that the product should be disposed of in a can or metal recycling system.

voluntary self-declaration

in the form: Germany

Compostability mark ,
product or packaging made of biodegradable plastic.

DIN CERTCO (in Germany)
European standard EN 13432



In the European Union, cosmetics are labeled according to Directive 76/768 / EEC ( Cosmetics Directive ), implemented in Germany by the Cosmetics Regulation . As of mid-2013, Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 on cosmetic products will replace these regulations.

Common product labels especially for cosmetics


Name ,

Sign giver ,
award criteria

scope of application
"Best before: 15.02.13"

Best before date (best
before date)for cosmetics that have a shelf life of less than 30 months unopened: the date until which the product fulfills its function.

Mandatory self-declaration
hourglass symbol new in Regulation (EC) No. 1223/2009 on cosmetic products

European Union

Period of use (engl. Period after Opening , PAO ),
durable for unopened for more than 30 months of cosmetic products: how long it can be used after opening without causing harm to the consumer; The symbol indicates the duration in months (abbreviation M) and / or years (abbreviation A)

mandatory self-declaration
Directive 2003/15 / EC

European Union

References to the information enclosed or attached to the product ,
on an instruction leaflet or on the cosmetic itself are important information about precautionary measures or components of the cosmetic

mandatory self-declaration
Directive 2003/15 / EC

European Union
UVA logo.svg

UVA symbol ,
sun cream corresponds to the recommendations of the European Union on the minimum effectiveness of light protection against UV-B and UV-A radiation

voluntary self-declaration
recommendation 2006/647 / EG, symbol of the European cosmetics association COLIPA

European Union
Cleaning inci.jpg

Cosmetic Ingredient
List,lists chemical substances used; here: the one on Ingredients: the following list ( Ingredients for ingredients)

mandatory self-declaration
according to the international nomenclature for cosmetic ingredients (INCI)

European Union
Toothpaste labeling.jpg

Lot number ,
for the traceability of the product to a production run; here on a tube of toothpaste at the bottom right "95468437"

mandatory self-declaration of the
Cosmetics Ordinance , § 4



In Germany, the Food, Consumer Goods and Feed Code, as the umbrella law of food law , stipulates a prohibition of deception and empowers the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection to issue ordinances for certain food labeling. In principle, all information on prepackaged foods in the European Union is regulated by the Food Information Regulation (LMIV). On December 13, 2014, this replaced the Food Labeling Ordinance (LMKV), which only applies in Germany . The LMIV stipulates general mandatory labeling elements, above all the sales description, manufacturer, list of ingredients, best-before or use-by date. For some of these label elements, there are legal and similar sources that regulate them in more detail. The sales description is often determined in product-specific regulations; where these are not available, the sales description applies, for example from the German food book . More details on the labeling of ingredients are regulated by the Additive Admissions Ordinance , details on lot labeling are regulated by the German Lot Identification Ordinance (LKV; in Austria: Lot Identification Ordinance [LKVO]). These general regulations are supplemented by a large number of product group-specific regulations, such as

In Switzerland, the EDI ordinance on information about food is decisive. Pre-packaged food placed on the market in Switzerland must be labeled in at least one of the three official languages ​​(German, French or Italian).

The following table shows examples of common food labels.

Common product labels especially for food


Name ,

Sign giver ,
award criteria

scope of application

List of ingredients ,listing of the substances that have been added to a food for its production; here identical with the product name "Parmigiano-Reggiano" ( Parmesan ) on top of the label and in addition the indication of the ingredient animal Labs

Mandatory self-declaration
Directive 90/496 / EEC, here also specifically: Sales description hard cheese according to the Cheese Ordinance , Section 7

European Union

Protected designation of origin ,
guaranteed geographical allocation; here behind the sales name "DOP" (it. Denominazione d'Origine Protetta )

Voluntary self-declaration (entry in the DOOR register of the EU required)
Regulation (EC) No. 628/2008

European Union

Fat content level ,
indicates the fat content in the dry matter for standard cheese types; here "at least 32% fat in dry matter"

mandatory self-declaration of the
cheese ordinance


Nutritional value labeling ,
information on the average nutritional value, often physiological calorific value, followed by protein, carbohydrate and fat content

voluntary self-declaration
Directive 90/496 / EEC (from December 2014: Food Information Regulation )

European Union

Guideline Daily Amount (GDA) ,
reference value for the daily intake of energy; here: "* based on a daily diet of 2000 kcal", refers to the following percentage nutritional value, not shown here: "One portion (30 g) contains: kcal 116/6% of the recommended daily amount *"

voluntary self-declaration
labeling system of the Association of the European Food Industry ( Food and Drink Europe, FDE )

European Union

Under protective atmosphere packaged. ,
indicates that the shelf life has been extended by a protective atmosphere

mandatory self-declaration of the
additive approval regulation , § 9


Lot number ,
enables the product to be assigned to the production run, often starting with aL; here left below the middle: "Lotto 12.291"

mandatory self-declaration of
lot labeling regulation


before date (BBD) ,indicates until when a food can be consumed if properly stored, in particular maintaining a specified storage temperature, without significant loss of taste, quality and health risk; as a rule, foods are still edible afterwards; here right below the middle: “at max. +8 ° C best before:15.02.13"

mandatory self-declaration of
food labeling regulation

Germany, Austria
"Use by:

date,indicates when the food should be used up and can no longer be sold; prescribed for microbiologically perishable foods that could pose an immediate risk to human health after a short period of time (e.g. minced meat , raw poultry meat ); to be distinguished from the best-before date, after which consumption is usually harmless

mandatory self-declaration of
food labeling regulation

Germany, Austria
"Treated after the harvest."

Marking when using sprout inhibitors on potatoes ,
conventionally grown potatoes may be treated with sprout inhibitors (mostly chlorpropham ). This means that potatoes can be sold for much longer. The note "Treated after the harvest" must either be on the packaging or, in the case of loose goods, on the price tag.

mandatory self-declaration of maximum
residue levels

Germany, Austria, Switzerland
Health mark MM.svg

Health label ,
the company that last handled or packaged the animal product works according to EU-wide hygiene standards and is monitored accordingly

Approval authorities
Regulation (EC) No. 853/2004

European Union
Statements on nutritional value, such as "sugar-free", "reduced fat",
or health, such as
"strengthens the immune system", "lowers cholesterol"

Nutritional and health claims , nutritional and health claims
about food must be true and verifiable.

voluntary self-declaration
Regulation (EC) No. 1924/2006 (Health Claims)

European Union
Egg labeling BMK.jpg

Egg labeling , type of
husbandry - country code - producer number, here:0-DE-1344461(Bio - Germany - Farm Siedenbrünzow)

mandatory self-declaration
Regulation (EC) No. 598/2008 (marketing standards for eggs)

European Union

Hechscher ,
denotes kosher food

Organization under rabbinical supervision Organization-
specific interpretation of Halacha (Jewish production rules ) and Kashrut (Jewish food rules)


denotes food that is okay according to Islamic custom.

Quality mark for German branded butter.jpg

Gütezeichen Deutsche Markenbutter ,
denotes butter made in Germany that meets quality requirements in terms of appearance, smell, taste, texture, water distribution and spreadability

Monitoring body according to state law (e.g. agricultural research institutes) Butter
testing according to the butter ordinance

Zero alcool pendant la grossesse.svg

Warning: No alcohol during pregnancy ,
draws attention to the danger of alcohol consumption during pregnancy for the child ( fetal alcohol syndrome )

voluntary self-declaration (compulsory in France)

Gluten-free food symbol

Gluten-free symbol ,
indicates gluten-free foods, a special allergen label for celiac disease (there is also a textual label according to EU regulation 41/2009 )

German Celiac Society (DZG)
criteria of the DZG

Logo V-Label 2.svg

V label ,
identifies vegetarian foods

European Vegetarian Union (EVU)
Criteria of the EVU, core criterion: no carcass components, including processing aids that are not subject to declaration such as calf rennet

Happy Tooth logo.svg

Tooth male ,
denotes tooth-friendly confectionery

Toothfriendly International , in Germany campaign tooth-friendly
criteria from Toothfriendly International; i. For example, products must not cause tooth decay or acid-related tooth damage



Common product labels especially for textiles


Name ,

Sign giver ,
award criteria

scope of application
"60% cotton / cotton / coton
40% polyester"

Indication of raw material content ,
type and weight percentage of the textile raw materials used

mandatory self-declaration in
accordance with the Textile Labeling Act or Directive 96/74 / EC

European Union

Textile care symbols ,
indicates the type of treatment recommended by the manufacturer

voluntary self-declaration
EN ISO 3758, similar to ISO 3758: 2005-04

Shoe material labeling-wikipedia.svg

material identification , identifies the materials used for the upper material, lining and outsole

mandatory self-declaration
Directive 94/11 / EC

European Union


Common product labels specifically for toys


Name ,

Sign giver ,
award criteria

Area of application
Age warning symbol.svg

Warning "Not suitable for children under 3 years" ,
the specific risk must also be indicated.

mandatory self-declaration
according to European directive 2009/48 / EG (toy directive)

European Union
Play well.JPG

“Spiel-gut” seal of approval ,
identifies toys that have been approved by the Spiel gut working committee

Working Committee for Children's Games and Toys e. V. association's
own criteria, u. a. educational aspects, safety, environmental compatibility, price

Germany, Austria

Detergents and cleaning agents

The labeling of detergents and cleaning agents has been regulated throughout Europe in the Detergent Ordinance, which has been implemented and expanded in Germany by the Washing and Cleaning Agents Act.

The information is mandatory

  • the manufacturer or the person who puts the product on the market,
  • a list of ingredients , listing the chemicals used,
  • as far as necessary, how to use the agent and what precautions are required,
  • the dosage of detergents depending on the water hardness soft, medium, hard and the level of soiling as well as the yield in the number of washing machine loads with medium water hardness,
  • an indication of where to get a full data sheet on the ingredients.

In addition, general labeling requirements apply, for example with regard to warnings and instructions for use from chemicals law and the Ordinance on Hazardous Substances .

Common product labels especially for detergents and cleaning agents


Name ,

Sign giver ,
award criteria

Area of application
@ (inkl. Rezepturinformation Verbraucher)

Reference to published list of ingredients ,
manufacturers of detergents must publish a complete list of INCI names in addition to the ingredients on the packaging and point this out on the packaging, this is primarily for allergy sufferers

mandatory self-declaration of the
Detergent Ordinance, Annex VII, D)

European Union
Datenblatt med. Personal: 0800/380 xxxx

Reference to data sheet for medical personnel ,
manufacturers must keep a data sheet of all ingredients with weight percentages ready for medical personnel, who can use it, for example, in the event of poisoning; The packaging must indicate how this data sheet can be obtained from the manufacturer

mandatory self-declaration of the
Detergent Ordinance, Art. 11 2c)

European Union
UBA 1495 0028

UBA number ,
identification in a recipe database of the Federal Environment Agency (UBA); Until the Detergent Ordinance was implemented, manufacturers had to report their products to the UBA, and medical staff also received information about the agent in cases of poisoning

Voluntary self-declaration (mandatory until 2005)
Detergent and Cleaning Agents Act in the old version before 2007, now voluntary information mainly on older products



Product identification on a computer monitor power supply: Symbols from top to bottom: DEMKO, NEMKO, SEMKO, SETI, CE, WEEE, CCC, C-tick mark, UL (with the addition “Listed ITE”), KETI, TÜV, GS

Electrical devices , i.e. devices that are supplied either with mains voltage or battery or via USB cable, must comply with various labeling regulations in the European Union. Information regulated throughout the EU may include a .:

  • Manufacturer information
  • crossed out garbage can WEEE 2.svg, the device must not be disposed of with household waste ( WEEE directive)
  • CE marking CE mark , for electrical devices regulated in RoHS

Other international marks:

  • ARIB - Japan
  • A-Tick Mark as a sign of conformity with Australian telecommunications and EMC standards, e.g. B. on landline telephones
    Will be replaced by RCM from March 1, 2016.
  • AS (Australian Standards Association) - Australia
  • ANATEL (Agência Nacional de Telecomunicações) - Brazil, telecommunications equipment
  • BABT (British Approvals Board for Telecommunications)
  • BEAB (British Electrical Approval Board)
  • BSI - British Standards Institution. The symbol is colloquially called "Kite Mark" because it is reminiscent of a paper kite .
  • BSMI (Bureau of Standards, Metrology and Inspection) - Taiwanese product safety standard and electromagnetic compatibility, based on CNS standard
  • C-Tick Mark with a letter and a combination of digits to the right as a sign of conformity with Australian EMC standards, e.g. B. on products with IEEE 802.11 or Bluetooth
    Will be replaced by RCM from March 1, 2016.
  • CCC is the abbreviation for China Compulsory Certification
  • CEBEC - Belgium
  • A circle made up of two round arrows with a small "e" or a number in the middle as a symbol for compliance with the Chinese RoHS directive . The number indicates the usual useful life from the date of manufacture.
  • Committee for Electrotechnical Belgium European Community (CEBEC)
  • CENELEC Electronic Components Committee (CECC)
  • Conformity Certification of Electrical Equipment (CCEE) - China
  • CNC (Comisión Nacional de Comunicaciones) - Argentina
  • COFETEL (Comisión Federal de Telecomunicaciones) - Mexico, Telecommunications Equipment
  • CPS (Singapore Consumer Protection Registration Scheme) - Security standard in Singapore awarded by SPRING Singapore (Standards, Productivity and Innovation Board).
  • CRT (Comisión de Regulación de Telecomunicaciones) - Colombia, telecommunications equipment
  • CSA - A three-quarter circle with the letters SA inside as a CSA designation, Canadian Standards Agency
  • DIN - German Institute for Standardization
  • DEMKO (Danmarks Elektriske Materiel Kontrol) - Denmark
  • EAC - Eurasian conformity for placing on the market in the Eurasian Economic Union
  • EK - Korea, based on K standard
  • ENEC mark - European Norms Electrical Certification
  • ETSI - Europe
  • FCC mark FCC-Symbol.svgon communication devices such as radios, televisions, computer accessories - USA
  • Giteki - Japan, based on Radio Law 38-6-1
  • GOST - GOSSTANDART, Russian certificate
  • GS as an abbreviation for tested safety
  • Circle with the letters ETL inside as Intertek (formerly ETL) marking
  • House with chimney and arrow pointing inwards (from right to left) or Indoor use only.jpg- use only indoors, not outdoors
  • IC - Industry Canada
  • ICC (Import Commodity Clearance) - Philippines
  • INMETRO (Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Normalização E Qualidade Industrial) - Brazil
  • IMQ (Istituto Italiano del Marchio di Qualità) - Italy
  • IRAM (Instituto Argentino de Normalización y Certificación) - Argentina, also called S-Mark
  • KCC (Korea Communications Commission) - Korea, includes electromagnetic compatibility, radio and telecom
  • KEMA - Holland
  • KEPDIRGEN - Indonesia, for telecommunication equipment. Issued by DGPT (Directorate General of Post and Telecommunications)
  • KETI (Korean Testing Laboratories) - Korean test mark
  • MET
  • MITI - today METI (Ministry of Economy, Trade & Industry), Japan
  • MTC (Ministerio de Transportes Comunicaciones) - Peru, based on CISPR and IEC standards
  • NAL (Network Access License) - China, for communication technology
  • NCC (National Communications Commission) - Taiwan
  • NEMKO (Norges Elektriske Materiellkontroll) - circle with an N inside, symbol of the Norwegian NEMKO, which carries out product safety tests and EMC tests.
  • NF - Awarded by LCIE on behalf of AFNOR, France
  • Ninsho - Japan, based on Radio Law 38-24-1
  • NOM (Norma Oficial Mexicana) - Mexico
  • NTC (National Telecommunications Commission) - Thailand, for telecommunications equipment
  • ÖVE - Austrian Association of the Electrical Industry
  • PS (Philippine Standard) - Philippines
  • PSE (Product Safety Electric Appliance and Material) - Japanese product safety mark, based on DENAN standard
  • Regulatory Compliance Mark (RCM) - marking valid from March 1st, 2016 for conformity with the Australian ACMA standard and for electrical safety
  • ЯU - UL registered
  • SABS Mark of Approval (South Africa)
  • SAE Society of Automotive Engineers
  • SEMKO - Svenska Electriska Materielkontrollanstalten, circle with an S inside, sign of the Swedish ETL SEMKO (former Electrical Testing Laboratory), which carries out product safety tests and EMC tests.
  • SETI - Finnish marking, circle with FI inside
  • SEV - Swiss Electrotechnical Association
  • SIRIM - Malaysia, based on IEC
  • SRRC (State Radio Regulatory Committee) - China
  • SUPTEL (Superintendencia de Telecomunicaciones) - Ecuador, telecommunications equipment
  • TÜV
  • UL - American certification, similar to VDE certification
  • VDE - Association of electrical engineering, electronics and information technology
  • Voluntary Control Council for Interference (VCCI) - Japan
  • WiFi certified, for example on notebooks with built-in WiFi
  • WPC (Wireless Planning and Coordination Wing) - India, wireless data transmission

In addition, there is information about the input voltage (for example 100 - 240 V), the type of input voltage (~ or =), the max. Current (for example 1.3 A) and for devices that are operated with alternating voltage, the mains frequency (for example 50-60 Hz).

Seal of quality and approval

There are a large number of seals of quality and test seals that can be used to indicate the special qualities of a product and compliance with technical or environmental standards outside of the legally required labeling.

Other markings

  • Industrial labels in the industrial manufacturing process
  • Trademark, legally protected sign to differentiate between goods of different brands, see brand (law)
  • Nameplate , marking of technical devices according to the regulations of monitoring institutions or according to the rules of a branch


  • Rüdiger Wollmann: Goods labeling , chapter 34 in: Tilo Pfeifer, Robert Schmitt (editor) Masing Handbook Quality Management , Carl Hanser Fachbuchverlag Munich Vienna, 6th revised edition (2014), ISBN 978-3-446-43431-8
  • Albert Mergelsberg: Gestatten Wirtschaft, Winkler 2007, ISBN 3-8045-9528-6
  • Frieder Rubik, Cornelia Weskamp: Consumer protection through product labeling . In: iöw (Ed.): Series of publications by the IÖW . No. 98/96 , 1996, ISBN 3-926930-94-2 ( PDF ). (Rubik 1996)
  • W. Konrad, D. Scheer: Limits and possibilities of consumer information through product labeling . In: BfR Science . 2010, ISBN 3-938163-48-8 ( PDF ).

Web links

Commons : Category Food labels (food code)  - collection of pictures, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. so for example
  2. Rubik 1996, p. 2; see also Duden labeling
  3. Rubik 1996, chap. 2.1
  4. Container labeling. Metallurgy Association of the German Glass Industry (HVG), accessed on March 9, 2013 .
  5. Jürgen Kohlberg: glass sign. In: Code-Cracker, Lexicon of Codes, Symbols, Abbreviations. Retrieved March 9, 2013 .
  6. Directive 75/107 / EEC of the Council of December 19, 1974 on the approximation of the laws of the Member States relating to bottles as measuring containers
  7. Regulation (EC) No. 1935/2004 on materials and objects that are intended to come into contact with food at EUR-Lex
  8. Aerosol Packaging Ordinance , Section 5
  9. Juan R Palerm: Guidelines for Making and Assessing Environmental Claims . Ed .: European Commission . December 2000 ( PDF ).
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