Battle of the Morgarten

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Battle of the Morgarten
The Battle of Morgarten after an illustration in the Tschachtlan Chronicle, 1483
The Battle of Morgarten after an illustration in the Tschachtlan Chronicle , 1483
date November 15, 1315
place between Morgarten ZG and Sattel SZ , Switzerland
output Victory of the Confederation
Parties to the conflict

Coat of arms of the archduchy of Austria.svg Habsburg
( Duchy of Austria )

( original cantons ): Schwyz Uri Unterwalden
Flag of Canton of Schwyz.svg
Flag of Canton of Uri.svg
Old flag of Unterwalden.svg


Leopold I von Habsburg
Count Otto von Strassberg

Werner Stauffacher




The Battle of Morgarten on November 15, 1315 was the first battle between the Confederates and the Habsburgs . It stands at the beginning of the Swiss Habsburg Wars .

It is certain that an army led by Duke Leopold I was attacked by Schwyzern near Schornen near Ägerisee and, after a short battle, was put to flight; further details are uncertain. The Battle of Morgarten plays an important role in the liberation tradition as the first armed conflict of the young federal league .

Sources and historicity

The sources of the battle at Morgarten are poor. It is likely that around the year 1315 there actually was a military conflict between the Confederates and Duke Leopold von Habsburg , especially since some representatives of the local nobility have handed down that they fell at Morgarten (according to Reichsvogt Otto von Strassberg , next to Rudolf von Landenberg together with his son Pantaleon, which meant the end of the Alt-Landenberg dynasty). An open field battle did not take place; In the sources there is talk of an ambush on a marching army, in addition to numerous slain, many drowned while fleeing in Lake Aegeri. The lack of archaeological traces of the battle is not conclusive, as larger medieval battles can only be directly archaeologically recorded in exceptional cases.

There are a number of chronic sources dating back to the 14th century that mention the battle. The chronicle of the Königsaaler is closest in time to the battle . This chronicle was kept from 1316 by Peter von Zittau , who had the entry for the winter of 1315/6, a "so to speak defenseless, insignificant people" ( populum satis inermem et humilem ) in a country that was Sweicz et Uherach (Schwyz and Uri) was called, killed and drowned almost 2,000 men, and the duke himself narrowly escaped.

Another mention can be found in the Upper Rhine Chronicle of 1337/38, but only in a very short form: At this time the great strit ze Switz struck and the traditionally large folk lost. The abbot Johannes von Viktring describes the event in more detail in his chronicle written in 1340–1344. However, this text is less concerned with a historically correct writing of history than with religious and moral instruction. John always makes a reference to biblical passages. The most detailed report on the battle was written by the Minorite Johannes von Winterthur between 1340–1348. In it, he describes in a powerful and dramatic way why the fight came about and how it went. The battle report, however, is even more than that of Johannes von Viktring more a sermon than a historical text and relates even more to biblical passages.

Around 1350 Mathias von Neuchâtel gave a more detailed description of the course of the battle; the number of those killed is estimated here at 1,500.

The chronistic historiography of the 15th century, according to Konrad Justinger (around 1420) and the Tschachtlan chronicle (1483), place the battle in the larger context of the long-standing dispute between the three forest sites with the Habsburgs and the establishment of the Confederation. Aegidius Tschudi (1505–1572) then embeds the battle in his Chronicon Helveticum around 1550 in the fully developed narratives of the liberation tradition.

The information given by contemporary chroniclers about the number of dead as 1500 or "almost 2000" is likely to be exaggerated. Nevertheless, as the first military confrontation between Waldstätte and Habsburg, the battle played a decisive role in the early history of the Confederation. It was already valued by Konrad Justinger (around 1420) and retained this status in the national romanticism of the 19th and early 20th centuries.


Schwyz urge for freedom and Habsburg claims to power

The immediate cause of the Morgarten War was the conflict between the Habsburg claims to power and the local elite in Schwyz and Uri. The Habsburgs appear in the 11th century as a family of the lower nobility in Aargau. Since the 12th century they have steadily expanded their domain, especially since Rudolf IV was elected Roman-German King in 1273 as Rudolf I, and the duchies of Austria and Styria were acquired . Against the claims of the Habsburgs, the cantons of Uri , Schwyz and Unterwalden joined forces to defend their old rights of imperial immediacy , which were granted to them during the times of the Hohenstaufen emperors. The documents that conferred imperial immediacy are therefore referred to in traditional Swiss historiography as "freedom letters" (Uri 1231, Schwyz 1240, Unterwalden 1309).

When King Rudolf I died in 1291, according to Swiss historiography of the 15th century, the bailiffs were expelled from central Switzerland (which is not guaranteed in contemporary sources) and the first federal league was formed. Written evidence of the existence of such unions between the places in Central Switzerland has come down to us in a series of federal letters, the oldest of which are the federal letter of 1315 and the " federal letter of 1291 " (the latter, according to today's view, was dated back to the year Rudolf died and was written around 1309, so possibly a few years before the Morgarten War).

Rudolf's son Albrecht was not able to assert himself again as German king until 1298. Like Rudolf, however, he never took military action against central Switzerland. Instead, both waged a political, economic and canonical "cold" war against Waldstätte. Militarily, both rulers were tied to other fronts that were more important for their power: Rudolf in Bohemia and Austria , Albrecht in Thuringia and Saxony . The assassination of Albrecht I in 1308 meant a serious setback for the power politics of the Habsburgs, as his son Frederick "the Handsome" lost the royal dignity to Henry VII of Luxembourg. It was only as German kings that the Habsburgs had rights and powers over the immediate imperial areas of Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden. The Luxembourg kings also confirmed the letters of freedom of the Central Swiss in order to deprive their Habsburg competitors of these areas. Under Henry VII, his henchman, Count Werner von Homberg, became bailiff of the Waldstätte around 1309. Count Werner worked as a war entrepreneur in Lombardy and possibly played an important role in the Battle of Morgarten on the side of the Schwyz. The position of this local aristocrat based in Rapperswil was broken down by the historian Roger Sablonier in his book "Founding time without confederates".

The coat of arms of the House of Habsburg in the 14th century
Map of the territories of Habsburg and the Confederation 1315

Local context: fairytale dispute between Schwyz and Einsiedeln Abbey

The high-births from Schwyz had long been in dispute with the Einsiedeln monastery , which was under the protection of the Habsburgs , because of some alpine pastures . This conflict is referred to as the Marchenstreit - that is, "border conflict". In addition, over the years, Schwyzer settlers had settled in primeval forests that were not used by Einsiedeln and made them arable. In the summer of 1314 Schwyz farmers again illegally colonized the Alps and forests belonging to the monastery, whereupon the abbot of Einsiedeln sued them with the bishop of Constance , who banned the Schwyz from church . In revenge, the Schwyz attacked the monastery on January 6, 1314 under the leadership of their Landammann Werner Stauffacher , plundered it, desecrated the monastery church and took the monks hostage for several months. However, the abbot managed to escape to the governor's office in Pfäffikon , from where he could alert the bishop and the patron. The Bishop of Constance now also banned the Uri and Unterwaldners. The excommunication, however, only forbade worship "on" God's earth; Today you can still see the old Schwyz village church, which is therefore dug two meters into the ground in the rear part.

“International” context: German throne dispute 1314–1322

The Habsburgs acted as patrons of Einsiedeln Abbey. In the spring of 1314, however, they could not take action against Schwyz, since they had been busy securing the crown in the next royal election since the death of the German King Henry VII of Luxembourg . As a result of the cure in October 1314, due to the split of the electors into a Luxembourg and a Habsburg party, there was a double election in which both Duke Ludwig of Bavaria from the House of Wittelsbach through the Luxembourg camp and Duke Friedrich I of Austria and Styria the Habsburg camp were elected king by their respective party. Friedrich von Habsburg had himself crowned German king by the Archbishop of Cologne in Bonn, Ludwig von Wittelsbach in Aachen by the Archbishop of Mainz . Until the decision in the Battle of Mühldorf in 1322, the conflict over the royal crown split the empire into two parties. The Waldstätte took the side of the Wittelsbacher, Ludwig IV, because they hoped for the repeal of the church ban and support against the Habsburg power policy. On the other hand, the Habsburg Frederick used his powers as king and pronounced the imperial ban on the peace breakers from the Waldstätten. At the same time he instructed his younger brother, Duke Leopold I of Habsburg , who was responsible for the administration of the Habsburg possessions in what is now Switzerland ( Upper Austria ), to take action against the Waldstätte.

War preparations

In autumn 1315, Duke Leopold gathered an army in the towns of Baden , Brugg and Aarau in the Habsburg ancestral home in Aargau , and gathered it on November 14th in Zug , where he stayed at Zug Castle . The troops also included the entire southern German nobility on both sides of the Rhine with their entourage, as well as strong delegations from the Habsburg cities of Lucerne , Winterthur , Zug and Zurich .

The forest site had been building fortifications for a long time to protect itself from possible attacks by the Habsburgs. These barriers were called Letzi at that time and consisted of earth walls and palisades, which were created in narrow areas in the area in such a way that the technically and numerically inferior defenders had an advantage. In autumn 1315, the main access to central Switzerland near Arth , the pass near Rothenthurm and the Brünigpass and the Renggpass were secured with Letzimauern. Access across Lake Lucerne was also blocked by palisades in the water near Brunnen , Stansstad and Buochs . Only the way from Ägeri over the saddle between the Rossberg and the Morgarten was not secured . It is unclear whether this was a deliberately set trap or whether the time to build a Letzi was not enough. In any case, in 1322 a letzi was built here as well, which at least disproves the theory that the Schwyz people believed that the densely wooded crossing would have been easy to defend.

Duke Leopold went into battle with the knightly conviction that only knights should fight against knights. Knowing that the country of Schwyz was populated only by peasants and a few noble ministerials , he went with a heavily armored army of knights to this punitive action against Schwyz without prior clarification. It was clear to the knights that they had no real opponent and therefore did not go to war, but to punish unruly and rebellious peasants. The Schwyz, however, were farmers and did not have to adhere to the class rules of chivalry, which they probably did not even know. There were two options for Habsburg: Either war against other nobles, where they met on the battlefield and after a signal the battle began and it was interrupted in between to rescue the dead and injured. Or a disciplinary measure against farmers, for example by looting or burning a farm or a village. According to the contemporary view, the common people had no right to fight - unless they were called in by their master as a rank and file for it. However, it must be made clear here that not only farmers fought at Morgarten on the Schwyz side. The Swiss aristocracy was also represented on the battlefield. In addition, the Schwyz were battle-tested mercenaries and not defenseless farmers.


Depiction of the battle at the town hall of Schwyz , fresco by Ferdinand Wagner (1891)
The Battle of Morgarten in the Chronicle of Johannes Stumpf , 1548

The Schwyzer expected the attack on the Letzi near Arth . Duke Leopold, however, moved from Zug with his main power along the Ägerisee and planned to advance into the state of Schwyz via Morgarten. He probably knew from local informants that this entrance was not secured. The plan foresaw a surprising advance into the main town of Schwyz, in order to then attack the Schwyz in the back near Arth. In order to deceive the Schwyz, Leopold had various diversionary attacks carried out by his infantry at the same time, for example against the Letzi near Arth, under Count Otto von Strassberg via the Brünig and from the Entlebuch against Obwalden as well as an attack by the Lucerne across the lake on Stansstad and Buochs .

The Schwyz and their allies also left the enemy in the dark about their intentions. Their main power was gathered at Steinen so that they could move to one of the possible burglaries as needed.

At Konrad Justinger , the people of Schwyz are warned by their neighbors, the nobles von Hünenberg. The Hünenbergers would have used arrows that were feathered with parchment, and on the parchment was written " Hütet dich am Morgarten" ( guarding at the morning garden ). Therefore, the Schwyzer with their own power and with 600 men from Uri and Unterwalden pulled to the saddle to intercept the enemy there.

Leopold's army advanced along the Aegeri lake. The order of the troops was given by the noble rank, the knights formed the head of the column, the foot soldiers advanced behind them. The attack took place at night, but the sky was clear and the moon provided good visibility. The path along the lake is a narrow stretch between the slope and the marshy shores of Lake Aegeri. At that time it led into a steep, hollow lane around the Figlenfluh and towards the saddle. At Schafstetten the Schwyz set up an ambush with the allied Urners. The attack did not take place until the column of knights was trapped over a stretch of almost 2 kilometers between the narrow area on the Ägerisee and Schafstetten and the top of the column had run into a barrier near Schafstetten. From the slope, the cavalry was stopped by trunks of felled trees in various narrow places. The horses were made shy with fist-sized stones and the knights attacked with halberds . The knights had little room to defend themselves in the narrow terrain, and the battle ended in a crushing defeat for the Habsburgs. At the narrow by the Ägerisee (location of the Morgarten monument) there was a crush, in which the knights retreating and the advancing infantry were driven into the lake and the swamps and slain. The advancing infantry could not intervene in the fighting at all and turned to flee with the knights. Duke Leopold was also able to save himself thanks to the local knowledge of his companion.

Swiss halberds of the 15th century

Johannes von Winterthur (around 1340) explicitly mentions the then new weapon of the Schwyz and Uri, the halberd , which proved itself in close combat between infantry and cavalry:

«Even in the Swiss they had in their hands certain extremely terrible murder weapons, which are also called helpless in that vernacular, with which they cut the most armed opponents like a razor and cut them into pieces. there was not a battle, but because of the causes mentioned, only a slaughter of the people of Duke Lüpolds by those miners, like a herd led to the slaughterhouse. They spared no one, nor did they try to catch themselves, but instead beat everyone to death indiscriminately. "

Regarding the strength of the army and the number of fallen soldiers, Johannes von Winterthur speaks of a total of 20,000 men and 1,500 slain, without counting those who drowned in the lake. Peter von Zittau mentions “almost 2000” ( fere duo milia ) deaths. Mathias von Neuchâtel also mentions 1500 dead. The Zurich Chronicle (around 1418) specifically mentions 50 slain Zurich residents.

Tactical Insights

Unexpectedly for the attackers, the Confederates used a new tactic: Their goal was not the knightly trial of strength according to clearly defined rules of fairness, but the destruction of the enemy. The knight army of the Habsburgs was not prepared for this, and this established the psychological (and factual) superiority of the Confederates for the centuries to come. Thus, this battle represents a clear turning point in the warfare of this time. Morgarten is an exemplary example of the skillful use of the area. The fight is sought and imposed on the opponent where the terrain favors the defender and weakens the numerically, materially and technically superior opponent. For example, the Schwyz did not allow the knights at Morgarten to use forms of equestrian combat, but forced close combat on them. An essential element of the warfare was the surprise effect. In the military-historical debate, the battle is seen as an important milestone in a long process known as the rise of the infantry , that is, of the "foot soldiers".

With regard to the location where the conflict took place, there are parallels to the Battle of Lake Trasimeno and the Varus Battle , where armies that were highly superior militarily were defeated at a narrow point between a lake or swamp and a ridge.

Figure of the court jester Kuony von Stocken

Kuony von Stocken (left). Representation of the Battle of Morgarten from the Bern Chronicle of Diebold Schilling

One element of the story about the Battle of Morgarten that can be traced back to the early 15th century is the figure of Duke Leopold's court jester Kuony von Stocken . The figure of Kuony appears for the first time in 1415 in Heinrich Wittenwiler's poem The Ring . A little later, the story becomes an integral part of the story of the Morgarten War in the Swiss chronicles, including in the Bern Chronicle , the Tschachtlan Chronicle (1483) and the Spiezer Chronicle (1485).

According to the Tschachtlan Chronicle (1483), Leopold marched with his army to Ägeri ( Egre ) in the Morgarten War in 1315 and there discussed with his masters how the state of Schwyz could best be reached. It was decided to march across the Morgarten to Sattel .

Now Leopold turned to his fool, Kuony von Stocken ( Cuoni von Stocken ), and asked him how he liked the advice of the gentlemen. Kuony replied that he hated the advice. When the Duke then asks why, he answers

Since hand ir all rats were in the country, but no one had rats against usz koment.

The illustrated chronicles depict Kuony as a figure with typical fool attributes in the midst of the turmoil, in the Spiez version as a fiddling violin player, in the Berner Chronik in a bell robe with donkey ears.

According to a later legend, verifiable from the 17th century, the duke is said to have remembered the warning of his fool after the defeat and granted him a wish. Kuony had asked for the privilege of being able to hold a fool's court annually in his hometown of Stockach , which he did not do until 1351 for the first time.

Consequences of the battle

After the Battle of Morgarten, the Confederates did not get the peace they had hoped for with Habsburg. The common victory, however, strengthened the cohesion between the three countries Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden, so that they renewed previous alliances with the federal letter of December 12, 1315. (The federal letter of 1291 is not mentioned in it, however.) The federation of Brunnen led to the creation and growth of the old confederation . In this alliance, which was written in German for the first time, the confederates moved closer together and pledged to provide mutual aid and to maintain peace.

King Ludwig IV, the Bavarian, made use of the conflict in his fight against Friedrich von Habsburg by having the Habsburgs deny all rights over the Waldstätte by a feudal court in 1316 . It was not until 1318 that the Habsburgs concluded a ten-month armistice with the Confederates in July, which was extended several times. In the armistice, the Habsburgs got the income back from their possessions in the forest sites, but the sovereignty claims were not mentioned. From the point of view of the Confederates, these were done, but not from the point of view of the Habsburgs. As soon as the political constellation in the empire allowed it, the Habsburgs obtained the revocation of all the privileges of the confederates and resumed the war.

The next battles of the Swiss Habsburg Wars were the Battle of Laupen (1339) against Bern and the Battle of Dättwil (1351) against Basel. The Swiss were not involved here. It was not until the Battle of Sempach in 1386 that the Confederates gave the Habsburgs an open field battle for the first time. The surprising victory of the Confederates was attributed to Winkelried's heroic deed in historiography . The conflict with Habsburg was to last a full two centuries, with interruptions. A provisional settlement was the Eternal Direction of 1474, but under Maximilian I the conflict flared up again and culminated in the Swabian War . A final reconciliation between Habsburg and the now 12-local confederation came about with the inheritance of 1511.

Culture of remembrance

Battle Chapel and Seasons

Battle Chapel

In his chronicle, the minorite monk Johannes von Winterthur reported about the battle around 1348. He also mentioned that the people of Schwyz decided to commemorate the victory they had received from God every year in a battle season . The battle chapel of St. Jakob in der Schornen is mentioned for the first time in 1501. When exactly it was built is not known. Around 1530, however, the mayor and chronicler of St. Gallen Joachim Vadian mentioned in the larger chronicle of the abbots that a chapel could have been donated with the booty:

"... and there was a large number of harnesses and good things were won, which resembled vil ross and not little value, with which ain capell thought of the matter and let the slain (who were by xijc) be good."

The current construction of the chapel dates from 1604. The Schwyz painter Hans Schilter (1918–1988) enhanced it with murals.

Battle memorial

Battle memorial (1908)

As a result of the 600th anniversary of the Swiss Confederation in 1891, the idea of ​​building a battle memorial came up. It should be where the battle took place. There were various details about this in the chronicles, and Morgarten was used for different places on maps. Both the canton of Zug and the canton of Schwyz claimed the slaughter site for themselves. With the support of the Swiss Officers Association, the doctor and tourism promoter Josef Hürlimann from Unterägeri pursued plans for a monument in the Buechwäldli on the banks of Lake Aegeri on the Zug side . This location was in the village of Hauptsee, which was renamed Morgarten in 1905 . In 1906 the construction of the battle memorial designed by the architect Robert Rittmeyer began . It was inaugurated on August 2, 1908. The Schwyz government was still convinced that the battle site was near the battle chapel. She refused to send an official delegation to the opening ceremony.

Morning garden shooting

The Morgartenschützenverband has organized a morning garden shooting on November 15th every year since 1912. The impetus for the tradition established by the Standschützengesellschaft Zug came from the inauguration of the monument and the Rütli shooting, which was also held in November. As on the Rütli , a patriotic celebration was combined with field-based military shooting at the battle memorial, to which sections from the canton of Zug and guest sections were invited. The shooters shoot at targets 300 meters away in the area near the monument. Silver cups, wreath badges and medals are given as prizes.

In 1957 the Schwyz NCOs introduced pistol shooting over a distance of 50 meters. The reason for this second shooting event on Morgarten Day was the threat following the uprising in Hungary last year. It takes place in the Schwyz area in the Schornen, close to the battle chapel.

Commemorations in 1915, 1965 and 2015

The area in the Schornen, the scene of many commemorations
View of the
Letzimauer tower, built after 1320

The first centenary celebration took place in the parish church of Schwyz as early as 1815 as a combination of commemoration of the dead and secular celebration with entertainment. The 600th anniversary of the Battle of 1915, during World War I , was the first such celebration of national importance. The celebrations were divided into two parts and took place both at the battle chapel and at the Morgartendenkmal. Participants included Federal President Giuseppe Motta , Federal Councilor Felix Calonder and General Ulrich Wille . The will of resistance of the old confederates was assigned a role model for the present.

In 1940, during the Second World War , neutral Switzerland again feared for its security and independence. General Henri Guisan took part in the memorial service . Against the background of the spiritual defense of the country , a “battle letter” was read out for the first time by the pastor von Sattel. The letter, written in pseudo Middle High German, written by the hermit Father Rudolf Henggeler , describes a heroic battle. The content is based on annual books from the 16th to 18th centuries. To this day it is read out at the annual slaughter season. In 1941 Morgarten was also made into a film. The film " Landammann Stauffacher " with Heinrich Gretler in the leading role illustrated the resistance against a hostile superiority based on the historically documented, but at the same time legendary, Stauffacher family .

Before the 650th anniversary in 1965, schoolchildren collected for the preservation of the battlefield in order to protect it from overbuilding, which had already happened before for two other sites in Tell and the liberation history, the Rütliwiese and the Hohle Gasse . With the money raised by the school children, the Morgarten Foundation was set up, which acquired land in the Schornen from the canton of Schwyz. On October 21, 1965, schoolchildren from all the cantons came together in a youth community in Morgarten to celebrate the acquisition of the slaughterhouse. Federal President Hans-Peter Tschudi spoke at the memorial service on November 15 . In Schwyz, the event was also celebrated with a festival on the main square.

The anniversary year 2015 was celebrated under the motto “700 years of Morgarten - adventure history”. The project was jointly supported by the two cantons of Zug and Schwyz and was placed under the umbrella of the Morgarten Foundation. Months before the traditional celebration with the morning garden shooting, a folk festival with an army exhibition took place throughout the Ägerital from June 19 to 21, which Federal Councilor Ueli Maurer also attended. In the summer, amateur actors performed a musical open-air play at the monument. With an information center, the reconstruction of a medieval wooden house and an educational trail, the Morgarten Foundation also invested in sustainable information transfer, which, like today's research in connection with the events around 1315, makes a sharp distinction between history and myth.

See also

Film documentaries


  • Michael Hess: The Battle of Morgarten 1315. Causes and consequences of the armed conflict between Schwyz and Habsburg at the beginning of the 14th century . In: Military history at your fingertips . Vol. 11, No. 15 . Military Academy at the ETH Zurich, Bern 2003.
  • Hans Rudolf Kurz: Swiss battles . Second, revised and expanded edition. Francke, Bern 1977, ISBN 3-7720-1369-4 , p. 165-171 .
  • Thomas Maissen : Swiss hero stories - and what's behind them. Hier und Jetzt, Verlag für Kultur und Geschichte, Baden 2015, ISBN 978-3-03919-340-0 (print); ISBN 978-3-03919-902-0 (eBook)
  • Annina Michel: The Battle of Morgarten. History and myth . SJW Schweizerisches Jugendschriftenwerk, Zurich 2014, ISBN 978-3-7269-0654-2 .
  • Roger Sablonier : Founding time without confederates. Politics and society in central Switzerland around 1300 . Baden 2008, ISBN 978-3-03919-085-0 (to date the most complete compilation of historical facts on the founding myths of Switzerland, special chapter on Morgarten).
  • Schwyz places of remembrance . In: Schwyzer Hefte . tape 100 . Verlag Schwyzer Hefte, Schwyz 2013, ISBN 978-3-909102-62-4 .

Web links

Commons : Schlacht am Morgarten  - Collection of images, videos and audio files

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Josef Wiget: Morgarten War. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . 2015 .
  2. ^ Jean-Daniel Morerod: Otto von Strassberg. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland . 2020 .: "According to the chronicler Matthias von Neuchâtel , Otto von Strassberg managed to flee after the news of the defeat of Morgarten, but on which he died of exhaustion."
  3. Herta Elisabeth Renk, Der Manessekreis, seine Dichter und die Manessische Handschrift , 1974, p. 92.
  4. "On the other hand, the archaeological research on medieval battlefields turns out to be disappointing. According to a drawing by Urs Graf, innumerable weapons scrap remained on a battlefield. However, in the days and weeks after a battle, this material appeared partly from the victors, partly from people from the area to have been picked up "Wener Meyer in: Manuel Braun, Cornelia Herberichs (Ed.): Violence in the Middle Ages: Realities, Imaginations , Wilhelm Fink Verlag, 2005, 40f .
  5. Frederico in provincia que Sweicz et Uherach dicitur, Leopoldo fratre suo vix evadente, fere duo milia pugnatium per populum satis inermem et humilem ferro et fluvio sunt exstincta , quoted from Maria Schnitzer, Die Morgartenschlacht im becoming Swiss national consciousness , 1969, p. 21.
  7. Chapter 39, trans. G. Grandaur (1899), p. 66f .: "Duke Lüpold [...] also marched with a large army against Schwyz with the intention of subjugating these valleys, which belong to the empire, to his brother. Count Otto von Straßberg urged with part of Lüpold's army through the valley of Unterwalden and wanted to unite with the duke, but when his great army rose on the other side of the mountains, look, the people of Schwyz came armed with halberds [ jesa ] and with them down the mountain with great impetuosity, and after the noblest aristocrats who advanced were ruthlessly slain, it defeated the Duke and his army to his great regret. When Otto von Straßberg heard this, he hurriedly climbed the mountain from which he had come down. up again; in doing so he was injured inwardly and was soon buried. A thousand five hundred men fell there, and in this way these valleys remained undefeated. "
  8. G. Studer (ed.), Die Berner-Chronik des Conrad Justinger , Bern (1871), 47.
  9. ^ Oechsli, Quellenbuch zur Schweizergeschichte (1918), 61–63 .
  10. Oliver Landolt: Morgarten. In: Schwyzer Memories , p. 22 f.
  11. Pirmin Moser: A long way: from the idea to the monument. In: 100 years of the Morgartendenkmal , Schwyz 2008, p. 19.
  12. Ralf Jacober: Morgarten shooting. In: Schwyzer Memories , p. 142 f.