Baden County

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Map of the county of Baden
The governor's castle in Baden

The county of Baden was a common rule of the Confederates from 1415 to 1798 , i.e. a subject area that was administered jointly by several federal locations. With the Confederation, it left the Reich Association in 1648 . It comprised the northeastern part of what is now the canton of Aargau in Switzerland .


The original Baden office was first owned by the Counts of Lenzburg , from 1173 by the Counts of Kyburg , and from 1264 by the Counts of Habsburg . It comprised the triangle between the Rhine and Reuss and was administered by a Habsburg governor from Stein Castle in Baden . The county as a district of high jurisdiction belonged in Pertinenz to the rule of Baden and also included areas in which the Habsburgs did not exercise the lower jurisdiction.

After the conquest by the Confederates in 1415, the area was given the name "Grafschaft Baden" and was initially administered by the Eight Old Towns except Uri, until the last canton was included in the rule in 1443. The former Habsburg offices of Baden and Siggenthal , the Vogteien Klingnau , Zurzach and Kaiserstuhl , which belonged to the Prince Diocese of Constance , and the parish of Leuggern , which was largely owned by the Johanniterkommende Leuggern , belonged to the county . In 1460/67 this came under the auspices of the VIII places. Until 1531/32 the cities of Baden, Mellingen and Bremgarten were also counted as part of the County of Baden, although the cities themselves exercised the high level of jurisdiction. Thereafter, Mellingen and Baden were under the supervision of the governor of the free offices.

The county of Baden was divided into eight internal and three external offices. The internal offices were Birmenstorf , Dietikon , Ehrendingen , Gibstorf , Leuggern, Rohrdorf , Siggenamt and Wettingen . The external offices were Kaiserstuhl, Klingnau and Zurzach, which also included the parishes of Kadelburg , Lienheim and Hohentengen on the right bank of the Rhine . The legal system in the county was very inconsistent, which led to numerous conflicts over sovereign rights. There were over 30 different judges. These included the Wettingen Monastery , the Johanniterkommende Leuggern, the Sankt Blasien Monastery and the Prince-Bishop of Constance. The cities of Baden, Bremgarten and Mellingen had their own courts and self-government and also ruled over some neighboring villages.

The eight old towns of the Swiss Confederation provided the governor every two years. From 1712, after the defeat of the Catholic towns in the Second Villmerger War , only the three Reformed towns of Zurich , Bern and Glarus ruled in a ratio of 7: 7: 2. The governors resided in Baden in "Niderhus", later Landvogteischloss . From 1712, the Swiss Confederation's daily statutes often took place there. The sub-guilds mostly came from the local upper class.

Agriculture was practiced almost exclusively in the county's villages . Markets took place in Bremgarten, Mellingen, Kaiserstuhl and Klingnau; Zurzach was an important trade fair venue. In the countryside, handicrafts were initially tolerated, and from 1666 even expressly allowed. Due to the inconsistent legal structure and the real division in inheritance law, the country was increasingly fragmented. At the end of the 18th century, there was not a single manufacture or factory in the entire county of Baden .

In 1528 most of the congregations changed to the Reformed faith, but were re-Catholicized again in 1531 after the Second Kappel Peace . Since Protestant and Catholic bailiffs alternated quickly, Reformed majorities were able to hold out in Zurzach and Tegerfelden . The communities in the eastern Limmat Valley , which are under the influence of the City of Zurich, have always remained reformed. Birmenstorf , Gibstorf and Würenlos were mixed denominationally.

The county of Baden was the only area within the sovereignty of the Old Confederation in which Jews were tolerated from the 17th century . From 1776 their right of residence was limited to Endingen and Lengnau . The Jews were directly subordinate to the governor, were not allowed to own any land or practice any craft. In addition, from 1696 onwards they had to buy a «protection and umbrella letter» every 16 years. In the 18th century, large, representative synagogues were built in the two villages : the Synagogue Endingen and Synagogue Lengnau .

On March 19, 1798, French troops marched in . The canton of Baden of the Helvetic Republic was formed on April 11th from the county of Baden, the cellar office near Bremgarten and the free offices ; the areas on the right bank of the Rhine, however, split off. Five years later, the canton of Baden became part of the canton of Aargau .


  • Book of arms of the city of Baden u. Citizen Book. Sauerländer, Aarau 1920 digitized

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