Calendar overview 1770
|Boston massacre , five civilians are killed by a British guard.||
Marie Antoinette is married to the Dauphin
|sea battle of Çeşme in the Fifth Russo-Turkish War, Russia destroys the Ottoman fleet.|
|1770 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1218/19 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1762/63 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1175/76 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2313/14 (southern Buddhism); 2312/13 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1132/33 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4103/04 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1148/49 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1183/84 (April 26-27)|
|Jewish calendar||5530/31 (September 19-20)|
|Coptic calendar||1486/87 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2080/81 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2081/82 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1826/27 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
North American colonies
- February 23 to November 25 : Samuel Hearne's second overland expedition on behalf of the Hudson's Bay Company also fails with the aim of providing evidence for the Northwest Passage , examining the copper mines on the Coppermine River , exploring the stretches of land roamed and the Indian tribes To move trade relations with the Hudson's Bay Company.
- Learning from his mistakes, Hearne decides to be the only European to leave with a group of Indians led by Chief Matonabbee . In the third expedition, which lasted almost 19 months from 1770 to 1772 and began on December 7th, Matonabbee, who attributes the double failure to the lack of women, played a key role in the success.
- March 5 : In the Boston massacre, five civilians are killed in a street battle by a provoked British guard. The incident fueled further discontent among the colonists.
- June 6th : During the Falklands Crisis with Great Britain a Spanish fleet conquers the settlement of Port Egmont on the West Falkland .
- December 7th : Thomas Thynne, 1st Marquess of Bath resigns as Secretary of State in the wake of the Falklands Crisis .
James Cook's first South Seas voyage
- January 22nd : James Cook is the first European to cross the Cook Strait with the Endeavor , proving New Zealand as a double island .
- March 11th : On his first voyage to the South Seas, James Cook discovers an archipelago off the South Island of New Zealand, the Solander Islands , which he names after the botanist Daniel Solander who is traveling with him .
- April 20 : James Cook sighted the coast of New South Wales ( Australia ), which is being investigated by him in the coming months and mapped.
- April 28 : On his first South Seas voyage, the British navigator and explorer James Cook reached the east coast of Australia and landed at Botany Bay in what is now New South Wales .
- May 24th : James Cook lands in what is now Queensland where the town of Seventeen Seventy is today .
- June 11 : From his first South Seas voyage , James Cook runs aground with his ship HMS Endeavor at the Cape Tribulation on the Endeavor Reef . The thus discovered Great Barrier Reef almost led to the ship's sinking. During the repair work of the ship's carpenters, which takes a total of six weeks, the naturalist Joseph Banks who is traveling with him observes, among other things, "giant rabbits", which the natives call kangaroos . Cook then continues the voyage, finds the Cook Passage through the Great Barrier Reef in mid-August and can finally sail freely to the north.
- August 23 : Captain James Cook seizes the east coast of Australia for the British Crown.
- On October 10th he reached Batavia in the Dutch East Indies , where he had the ship thoroughly overhauled for three weeks. During this time, seven of his men fell victim to diarrhea, and many more died on the way.
- April 19 : Marie Antoinette is married to the Dauphin Louis-Auguste by procuraturem in the Augustinian Church in Vienna and begins her bridal trip to Versailles two days later .
- May 16 : The French heir to the throne Louis Auguste, later King Louis XVI. , marries Marie Antoinette from the House of Habsburg in Versailles .
- December 24th : Minister of War and Foreign Affairs Étienne-François de Choiseul falls from grace at the French court and is banished to his estates.
- March 16 : Patriciate in Lucerne : The Schumacher-Meyer deal is settled with a peace treaty. Joseph Rudolf Valentin Meyer declares that he is ready to go into exile for 15 years, provided he does not lose his honor and rights. The accused by this Jost Niklaus Joachim Schumacher is rehabilitated in all honors, Franz Plazid Schumacher is also allowed to return to Lucerne . Anton Schumacher, the leader of the Schumacher party , is his third marriage to a Meyer von Schauensee. It is not known whether a posthumous pardon will be proposed for Lorenz Plazid Schumacher , who was executed in 1764, when peace was concluded .
Orlov revolt in Greece / Russo-Turkish war
- Spring: The Orlov revolt begins in Greece under Grigory Grigoryevich Orlov , Alexei Grigoryevich Orlov and Fyodor Grigoryevich Orlov against the Ottoman rule.
- March 25 : In Crete , trusting Russian support pledges, an uprising against Ottoman rule begins under the leadership of Daskalogiannis , but it is quickly suppressed.
- June 28 : Field Marshal Pyotr Alexandrovich Rumjanzew-Sadunaiski puts 20,000 Turks to flight on the Danube front not far from the Räbnia Mogila.
- July 5 : The units of the tsarist navy coming from the Baltic fleet track down the Ottoman fleet in the bay of Çeşme during the Orlov revolt and open the sea battle of Çeşme .
- July 7th : After the three-day naval battle of Çeşme in the Fifth Russo-Turkish War , the destruction of the Ottoman fleet by the Russians is as good as complete. On the night of July 8th, the last minor battles end.
- July 18 : The Russian army defeats an 80,000-strong Turkish army in the battle of the Larga .
- August 1 : At the Battle of Cahul , one of the largest in the 18th century, a surprise attack by the Russians under Pyotr Rumyantsev in the war with the Ottomans yields loot and military advantages. Prince Nikolai Repnin's troops take Ismail and Kilija .
- The Bar Confederation suffered two major defeats against Russian troops earlier this year. In the same year she moved the Confederation Council from Silesia to Hungary.
- Summer: During a smallpox epidemic in Copenhagen, the doctor Johann Friedrich Struensee finally wins the trust of King Christian VII , whom he vaccinated against smallpox.
- September: In Denmark , cabinet secretary Johann Friedrich Struensee introduces, among other things, unrestricted freedom of the press .
- September 15 : Prime Minister Johann Hartwig Ernst von Bernstorff is dismissed.
- December 17 : Christian VII appoints Struensee Maître des requêtes (head of requests). This means that communication between the king and the people runs solely via Struensee. The next day he becomes the king's official personal physician.
- December 27th : The Gehejmekonseil , so far the most powerful government body in the state, is dissolved.
- End of February: Mayor Georg Heinrich von Roßkampff has the Heilbronn horse market held for the first time on the Hammelwasen .
- The Wandsbeck Mercurius , published since 1745 , is banned by the Hamburg Senate. Carl Heinrich von Schimmelmann then founded the from 1771 appearing Wandsbecker Bothen . The only editor is Matthias Claudius .
- The clarinetist Bernhard Schott founds the music publisher B. Schott's Söhne in Mainz .
- John Harvey founds the Yoker whiskey distillery in Glasgow .
science and technology
- November 1st : The mining and metallurgical teaching institute (predecessor of the Technical University ) is founded in Berlin .
- Johann Christian Dieterich publishes the first Göttingen muse almanac.
- Karl Gottlieb von Windisch founds the moral weekly newspaper Der Vernstandsige Zeitvertreiber in Pressburg .
Music and theater
- January 10th : The world premiere of Commedia per musica Le donne letterate by Antonio Salieri takes place at the Vienna Burgtheater . With this composition the young Salieri lays the foundation for his successful career as a music dramatist.
- Carnival: The Pastorale per musica L'amore innocente by Antonio Salieri will be premiered at the Vienna Burgtheater.
- May 30th : The opera Armida abbandonata (The Forsaken Armida) by Niccolò Jommelli with a libretto based on Torquato Tasso's epic The Liberated Jerusalem is premiered at the Teatro San Carlo in Naples. Anna Lucia De Amicis sings the title role . Despite the widely acclaimed line-up, Jommelli's style with its chromaticism, complex rhythmic structures and dense instrumentation is not well received by the Neapolitan audience.
- December 26th : The opera seria Mitridate, re di Ponto by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart has its world premiere in Milan. The text is by Vittorio Amedeo Cigna-Santi based on the drama Mithridate by Jean Racine in the Italian translation by Giuseppe Parini .
nature and environment
- July 1st : Comet Lexell passes Earth approx. 2 million km away. According to the International Astronomical Union (IAU), this was the densest ever officially recorded flyby of a comet in the history of science.
- September 3 : The strongest earthquake so far recorded in northern Germany, with a magnitude VII on the Medwedew-Sponheuer-Kárník scale, shook the Lower Saxony town of Alfhausen , Osnabrück district .
- November: Typhus allegedly breaks out in a soldiers' hospital outside Moscow, which in retrospect turns out to be a plague. In the same month, further deaths occur in a textile factory in a suburb. In the following year the disease spreads across the city .
- The famine in Bengal causes an estimated ten million deaths in the lower Ganges plain in India. It is mostly attributed to the rule of the British East India Company .
- A smallpox epidemic breaks out in Murshidabad , killing around 63,000 people.
- January 8 : Nathan Smith , American politician († 1835 )
- January 10 : Nicolaas Cornelis de Fremery , Dutch physician, pharmacologist, zoologist and chemist († 1844 )
- January 13 : Carl Friedrich Wilhelm Gottlob von Bibra , German farmer and politician († 1842 )
- January 14 : Adam Jerzy Czartoryski , Polish politician († 1861 )
- January 22nd : Karl Ferdinand Friedrich von Nagler , Bavarian General Post Director of the North German Confederation († 1846 )
- February 2 : Johann Georg Oestreich , German organ builder († 1858 )
- February 9 : Samuel Bell , American politician († 1850 )
- February 10 : Ferdinando Carulli , Italian composer and guitarist († 1841 )
- February 18 : Johann Gottlieb Brucker , German medic († 1829 )
- February 18 : Christian Heinrich Rinck , German composer and organist († 1846 )
- February 21 : Georges Mouton de Lobau , French general, peer and marshal of France († 1838 )
- February 23 : Friedrich Philipp Wilmsen , German Reformed theologian and educator († 1831 )
- February 25 : Adam Simons , Dutch Reformed theologian, poet, rhetorician and historian († 1834 )
- February 26 : Anton Reicha , Czech composer († 1836 )
- February 27 : Don Juan Bautista Arriaza y Superviela , Spanish statesman and poet († 1837 )
- February 28 : Johann Ludwig von Bernuth , Prussian civil servant († 1857 )
- March 2 : Louis Gabriel Suchet , French marshal († 1826 )
- March 4 : Christian Zais , German architect († 1820 )
- March 5 : Hans Ernst Karl von Zieten , Prussian Field Marshal General († 1848 )
- March 7th : Gabriel Jean Joseph Molitor , French general, Marshal and Peer of France († 1849 )
- March 9 : Karl von Einsiedel , German diplomat († 1841 )
- March 12 : François Gérard , French painter († 1837 )
- March 20 : Friedrich Hölderlin , German poet († 1843 )
- March 20 : Johann Gottfried Tulla , Baden engineer († 1828 )
- March 27 : Sophie Mereau , German writer († 1806 )
- March 29th : Johann Georg Josef Karl Maria von Aretin , Bavarian civil servant, lawyer and economist († 1845 )
- April 2 : Alexandre Sabès Pétion , President of Haiti († 1818 )
- April 5 : Heinrich Behrmann , German-Danish pedagogue, non-fiction author and private scholar († 1836 )
- April 5 : Just Friedrich von Seelhorst , German civil servant († 1857 )
- April 7 : William Wordsworth , British poet († 1850 )
- April 9 : Thomas Johann Seebeck , Estonian-German physicist ( Seebeck effect ) († 1831 )
- April 9 : Johann Georg Kerner , doctor from Württemberg and chronicler of the French Revolution († 1812 )
- April 10 : Joseph von Laßberg , German Germanist and writer († 1855 )
- April 11 : George Canning , British politician and head of government († 1827 )
- April 11 : Karl Gustav Friedrich Schwalbe , German teacher and writer (†?)
- April 15 : Jana Wynandina Gertrut d'Aubigny von Engelbrunner , German writer, singer and music teacher († 1847 )
- April 17 : Mahlon Dickerson , American politician († 1853 )
- May 10 : Louis-Nicolas Davout , French general, peer and marshal of France († 1823 )
- May 18 : Ferdinand Heinrich Lachmann , German educator († 1848 )
- May 20 : Anna Emilie , Princess of Anhalt-Köthen and heiress of the class rule Pleß († 1830 )
- May 24th : Luise Friederike von Prussia , Prussian princess († 1836 )
- June 3 : Manuel Belgrano , Argentine lawyer, politician and general († 1820 )
- June 4 : James Hewitt , American composer († 1827 )
- June 7 : Robert Banks Jenkinson , British statesman († 1828 )
- June 8th : Anton Aloys Buchmayer ; Bishop of St. Pölten († 1851 )
- June 22nd : Wilhelm Traugott Krug , German philosopher († 1842 )
- June 24 : Eli P. Ashmun , American politician († 1819 )
- June 25 : Friedrich Adrian von Arnstedt , German district administrator († 1833 )
- June 26 : Johann Christoph Schreiter , German Evangelical Lutheran theologian († 1821 )
- June 24 : Albrecht Ludwig Berblinger , Württemberg tailor, inventor and aviation pioneer († 1829 )
- July 2 : Maximilian Joseph Pozzi , German sculptor († 1842 )
- July 9 : Kaspar Maximilian Droste zu Vischering , German Roman Catholic Bishop († 1846 )
- July 9 : Abner Lacock , American politician († 1837 )
- July 11 : Vincenz Darnaut , Austrian clergyman and topographer († 1821 )
- July 11 : Ludwig von Westphalen , German civil servant († 1842 )
- July 23 : Karl Ferdinand Friese , Prussian State Secretary and President of the Prussian Main Bank († 1837 )
- July 26 : Charles Willing Byrd , American politician († 1828 )
- July 30 : José Ignacio de Gorriti , Argentine politician and general of the War of Independence († 1835 )
- August 3 : Friedrich Wilhelm III. , Prussian King († 1840 )
- August 4 : François-Etienne Kellermann , French cavalry general († 1835 )
- August 8 : Charles Marie Auguste de Beaumont d'Autichamp , French general († 1852 )
- August 10 : Dorothea Schlözer , German philosopher and salonnière, second woman with a doctorate in Germany († 1825 )
- August 22 : Hans Conrad von Orelli , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university lecturer († 1826)
- August 25 : Bernhard Wilhelm Toel , German clergyman († 1840 )
- August 27 : Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel , German philosopher († 1831 )
- August 29 : Ludwig Wilhelm , Landgrave of Hesse-Homburg († 1839 )
- August 29 : Franz Pettrich , German sculptor († 1844 )
- September 3 : Johann Heinrich Karl Hengstenberg , Prussian hymn poet († 1834 )
- September 6 : Theodor Heinsius , German linguist and lexicographer († 1849 )
- September 10 : Christian Friedrich Goedeking , German civil servant († 1851 )
- September 19 : Johann Georg Repsold , German precision mechanic († 1830 )
- October 1 : Karl vom Stein zum Altenstein , Prussian politician († 1840 )
- October 5 : Carl August Alsleben , Prussian politician († 1855 )
- October 7 : Max Keller , German composer and organist († 1855 )
- October 12 : James Findlay , American politician († 1835 )
- October 17 : Johann Christian Engel , historian († 1814 )
- October 19 : Johann Clarisse , Dutch Reformed theologian († 1846 )
- October 20 : Antoine Jay , French lawyer and writer († 1854 )
- October 24 : Karl Emanuel von Savoyen-Carignan , Prince of Carignan († 1800 )
- October 27 : Pietro Francesco Galleffi , Italian cardinal († 1837 )
- November 5 : Sarah Guppy , British inventor († 1852 )
- November 5 : Dominique Joseph Vandamme , French general in the Napoleonic Wars († 1830 )
- November 7th : Christian Rudolph Wilhelm Wiedemann , German physicist, historian, natural scientist and entomologist († 1840 )
- November 19 : Adam Johann von Krusenstern , first Russian circumnavigator († 1846 )
- November 19 : Bertel Thorvaldsen , Danish sculptor († 1844 )
- November 20 : Johann Ludwig Klohss , German medic († 1825 )
- December 11 : Jan Theobald Held , Czech doctor and composer († 1851 )
- December 11 : Samuel Marot , Prussian theologian († 1865 )
- baptized December 17th : Ludwig van Beethoven , German composer († 1827 )
- December 27 : Carl Weisflog , German writer († 1828 )
- December 29th : Wilhelm Karl Friedrich Suckow , was a German medic († 1848 )
- Samuel White , American politician († 1809 ) December:
Exact date of birth unknown
- Vasile Aaron , Romanian poet († 1822 )
- Heinrich Otto von Aderkas , General of the Imperial Russian Army († 1840 )
- Fidel André , German politician († 1827 )
- Zaman Mirza Shah Durrani , Emir of the Durrani Empire († 1844 )
- Hamidu Reis , Algerian corsair († 1815 )
- Theodor Franz Thiriart , Cologne printer and publisher († 1827 )
- Sergei Nikolajewitsch Titow , Russian composer († 1825 )
- February 6 : Franz Kaspar von Franken-Siersdorf , Prussian auxiliary bishop in Cologne (* 1683 )
- February 26 : Giuseppe Tartini , Italian composer (* 1692 )
- March 5 : Crispus Attucks , martyr of the Boston massacre (* 1723 )
- March 5 : Gaetano Chiaveri , Italian builder and architect (* 1689 )
- March 14 : Christoph Langhansen , German mathematician and Lutheran theologian (* 1691 )
- March 23 : Martin van Meytens , Dutch painter (* 1695 )
- March 27 : Giovanni Battista Tiepolo , Venetian Baroque artist (* 1696 )
- April 11th : August Wilhelm Reinhart , German Protestant theologian (* 1696 )
- April 27 : José Solís Folch de Cardona , Spanish officer, clergyman, colonial administrator and viceroy of New Granada (* 1716 )
- May 20 : Paul Christian Zink , German painter (* 1687 )
- May 24th : Johann Eberhard Rau , German Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1695 )
- May 27 : Sophie Magdalene von Brandenburg-Kulmbach , Hohenzollern princess and queen of Denmark (* 1700 )
- 30 May : François Boucher , French painter, draftsman and engraver (* 1703 )
- July 7th : Johann August von Berger , German lawyer (* 1702 )
- July 7th : Suzuki Harunobu , Japanese artist (* around 1725 )
- July 20 : Francis Cotes , English painter (* 1725 )
- August 3 : Guillaume-François Rouelle , French chemist (* 1703 )
- August 7th : Johann Caspar Richter , businessman, councilor and council builder in Leipzig (* 1708 )
- August 22 : Johann Gottfried Lessing , German Lutheran theologian (* 1693 )
- August 22nd : Christian von Loß , German Cabinet Minister (* 1697 )
- August 25 : Thomas Chatterton , British poet (* 1752 )
- September 17th : Johann Rudolph von Ahlefeldt , master of the Damp and Saxdorf estates (* 1712 )
- September 30th : George Whitefield , English preacher and co-founder of Methodism (* 1714 )
- November 1 : Gaspare Traversi , Italian painter (* 1722 / 23 )
- November 9th : John Campbell, 4th Duke of Argyll , Scottish nobleman, general and politician (* around 1693 )
- November 11th : Tupaia , Polynesian guide and translator of James Cook (* 1725 )
- November 16 : Johann Anwander , German rococo painter and fresco artist (* 1715 )
- November 23 : Felix Adam Joseph von Fugger-Glött , Tyrolean Canon of Cologne Cathedral (* 1719 )
- November 23 : Adam Rudolf Solger , German Protestant clergyman and librarian (* 1693 )
- November 24th : George Grenville , British politician and statesman (* 1712 )
- November 26th : Gerlach Adolph von Münchhausen , Hanoverian statesman (* 1688 )
- December 1 : Gianbettino Cignaroli , Italian painter (* 1706 )
- December 5 : James Stirling , Scottish mathematician (* 1692 )
- December 9 : Gottlieb Muffat , Austrian organist and composer (* 1690 )
- December 22nd : Johann Hinrich Armowitz , German metal and bell founder
Exact date of death unknown
- Johann Heinrich Arnold , Baden foreman (* 1697 )
- Francesco Barsanti , Italian composer, oboist and flutist (* 1690 )
- Johann Jacob Cramer , German flautist (* 1705 )