Schumacher (patrician family)

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The Schumacher patrician family is a patrician family of the formerly free and independent federal city and republic of Lucerne. She belongs to those long-established families who established an aristocratic form of government in Lucerne in the 16th century with the Lucerne patriciate , thereby helping to complete a development that began in the 13th century when Rudolf I of Habsburg gave all citizens of the city who were capable of regimentation a knight's fief declared capable.

Imprint of a seal stamp of the Lucerne patrician family Schumacher


Franz Plazid Schumacher, 1677–1742, mayor of the city and republic of Lucerne

The reasons for the rise of the Schumacher family lay in the political and economic upheavals after the defeat of the Habsburgs near Sempach (1386). The ruling class of Lucerne, which became the legal successor to the Habsburgs, expanded their sphere of rule, and many a knightly family who fought alongside the Habsburgs near Sempach were absorbed into it. Other sexes were added, others disappeared. Few could hold out. The Schumacher family belonged to them. The wars and raids at that time (conquest of the Aargau and Thurgau, the Zurich war, the campaign to Schaffhausen and against Duke Sigismund , the Swabian War , the Burgundian War ) enabled them to purchase townhouses and country estates. They were also helped by their relationships with the Wiser and Haas council families, with whom they had war comradeship.

The Schumacher patrician family is closely linked to the history of the federal imperial city of Lucerne. With other families capable of regimentation, she was at the forefront of political events for centuries. Due to the relationship with the leading families of Lucerne, Nidwalden and Friborg, the lineage can be traced back to famous Swiss people such as Ludwig Pfyffer , Renward Cysat , Melchior Lussy , Niklaus von der Flüe and Adrian von Bubenberg . Through the latter, the family is also one of the Carolingian descendants . Today many other bearers of this name live in Lucerne, but they have nothing to do with the patrician family discussed here.

Origin and property

The Schumacher family owned goods in Hilferdingen near Ufhusen in the county of Willisau until 1473 , from where they came to Lucerne via Meienberg after the battle of Sempach . There she first lived in the monastery district before she bought the house at the lantern at the inner and in 1531 the house at the tower at the outer Weggistor. Later she owned houses on Kapellplatz and between Mühleplatz and Weinmarkt, as well as properties in Moos, Obergrund, Uttenberg and Schönbühl, on Dietschiberg, Wesemlin and Halde and, more recently, the island castle Mauensee . At the beginning of the 21st century, members of the family were still some of the largest landowners in Lucerne.

Title page of a publication from 1776: Causes of the death [of] Junker Lorenz Placidus von Schumacher, who was publicly beheaded in Lucern on Wednesday before Pentecost in 1764. With comments against his master, examiner and at the same time process maker. arranged by the leader of the anti-clerical progress party

Citizens' Law and Grand Council

Since they were first mentioned in Lucerne (1431), the early members of the family were mainly farmers and leather tanners and took part in profitable campaigns. They also ran the inn to the lantern and planted vines on the Musegg. Until 1516 they regularly renewed their citizenship and from 1520 sat on the Grand Council.

Aristocratic matriculation and minor council

In 1568 the family took a seat in the Small Council and from then on belonged to those who established a Catholic-aristocratic form of government in Lucerne. Their role models were the patrician republics of Bern , Friborg and Solothurn. In contrast to these, however, only around 20 to 30 families shared government power. In the pre-revolutionary period, the Schumacher family was involved in the inner-patrician party struggle (cf. Der Schumacher-Meyer-Handel ), which ended in 1764 with the execution of one of its members, but ultimately with the victory of the church-conservative idea. In 1814 she took part in the coup d'état that restored the old patrician constitution in Lucerne for 15 years.

Alliance coat of arms Franz Dominic Schumacher, Kleinrat and Lieutenant Colonel of the Ducal Lorraine Life Guard, (Maria Margaretha) Walpurga Pfyffer v. Altishofen, Td Heinrich ud Elisabeth, b. v. Sonnenberg (Platztäfelchen 1773, Hofkirche Luzern)

Professions and Alliances

As a member of the small council, the family lived from civil and foreign military service, from the powder, wine and salt trade as well as from their estates (Schönbühl, Moos, Himmelrich etc.) and the Alps in the Eigental. In addition to politicians, theologians and officers, the family has produced scholars, natural scientists, engineers, doctors, lawyers, architects and journalists as well as respected gold and silversmiths. Appropriate marriages were the rule up to the 20th century with the an der Allmend , Balthasar , Dulliker , Bircher , v. Fleckenstein , de Chastonay , zur Gilgen , de Gottrau , Göldlin v. Tiefenau , Haas , Hartmann , v. Linden , Mayr v. Baldegg , Meyer v. Schauensee , Mohr , Pfyffer v. Altishofen , Pfyffer v. Heidegg , am Rhyn , Schnyder v. Wartensee , Schwytzer v. Buonas , Segesser v. Brunegg , v. Sonnenberg , de Wolff , also with the Bühler im Himmelrich , Gloggner , von Moos , Müller-Altdorf , Nager, Schobinger, Trachsler , Weber- Willmann , Zelger etc.

Statesmen, builders and churchmen

They served the sovereign city and republic of Lucerne as bailiffs, court lords, builders and hospitals, as Venner , sack master and governor as well as mayor and delegate of the daily statute . They gave the young Swiss federal state two councils of states. They also made numerous donations to church and state. As clergy they held high church offices and chairs. The rebuilding of the old city hospital (1783) was part of their construction activities. Among the private buildings are the noble mansion Himmelrich im Obergrund (1772) and the spacious (now demolished) complex of the Villa Moos on Bundesplatz (1902). In the 1960s, they built a trend-setting residential area with a high-rise building and the first shopping center in Switzerland in Schönbühl.

The Himmelrich manor in the upper ground with an observatory, built in 1772 by Franz Plazid and Franz Xaver de Schumacher. A similar tower can be found on the Baronenhaus in Wil, built in 1795, inspired by Franz Xaver Schumacher from his time as governor

Diplomats, scientists and officers

The members of the family took part in legation trips at home and abroad, studied with the Jesuits and Ursulines, and at aristocratic academies in France and Italy. From 1635 to 1861 they served as officers in Swiss regiments mainly in France, Spain, Savoy, Sardinia-Piedmont and Naples-Sicily . During the Sonderbund War , they made a contribution to the discipline in the city of Lucerne and to its protection. They achieved something permanent with the first geometric elevation plan of the city of Lucerne. They were also one of the first aviation pioneers in Switzerland when they carried out experiments with Montgolfièren over the Lucerne Bay in 1784 .

The Villa Moos on Bundesplatz, built in 1902 by Heinrich Walter Schumacher on behalf of Commander Heinrich Schumacher-de Gottrau

20th century

Since the end of the ancien régime and the renunciation of the aristocratic constitution (1798), the family was able to maintain its political, military and social status into the 20th century. Even in the 21st century, all members have a respectable position in professional and social life. Some are still surrounded by a lifestyle that has always been typical in similar families.

coat of arms

The coat of arms appeared for the first time in 1470 as the official seal of councilor and Schumacher's comrade in arms, Hans Wiser. In 1531 his house was sold to the Schumacher family. The name Wiser is derived from Wiese, which explains the symbols in the coat of arms. This shows in red on a green three-mountain two turned away silver, mostly toothed sickles with golden handles and from 1635 a French lily in gold in the head of the shield as an improvement in the coat of arms . The bow helmet has also been wearing a nobility crown since 1635 and the shield often has a crown of rank . The latter is a nine-pronged foliage crown in the older line (five leaves alternating with four pearls, sometimes all nine prongs with pearls) and in the younger line, since the 19th century, a baron's crown (circlet with a string of pearls, sometimes a crown with seven pearls).

Nobility letters

In 1773, the Lucerne Fundamental Law finally defined the group of ruling families, who always successfully claimed the nobility quality and to which the Schumacher family belonged. In 1774 the Lucerne Council of the Family confirmed their nobility to the Duke of Modena and declared them worthy of all noble honors. In addition, there are two foreign diplomas, one from France in the 17th century (with the privilege of holding a lily in the coat of arms) and one from Naples-Sicily in the 19th century (with the award of a title).

Name spelling

Since 1773 (Fundamental Law), the older line has been using the nobility predicate "von" at will, to distinguish it from other bearers of the name. For the same reason, since the second half of the 19th century, the younger line made the predicate part of the name.


By 1700

  • Ludwig Schumacher , 1594–1639, studied in Paris, bailiff, court lord , mayor, military entrepreneur , envoy to Philip IV of Spain, improvement of the coat of arms (lily) by Ludwig XIII. and royal honor chain (Henri IV., roi de France et de Navarre, l'amis des bons compères des Ligues suisses) , died of the plague or a cold five months after his winter return from Spain.
  • Melchior Schumacher , 1598–1661, Kleinrat, Landvogt, Schultheiss von Willisau, escaped the attack by the Drei Tellen .
  • Beat Schumacher , 1612–1685, studied in Paris, governor, judge in the Peasants' War, captain at Villmergen, mayor governor, great benefactor and benefactor, on one painting he is with the royal chain of honor Louis XIII. shown.
  • Jost Schumacher , 161? –1655, bailiff of the Wikon rulership, captain in the Swiss guard regiment of the Duke of Savoy.
  • Berengar Schumacher , 1652–1713, Cistercian, conventual in St. Urban, prior and apostolic notary.
  • Franz Plazid Schumacher , 1677–1742, studied in Bourges, officer in the Spanish-Milanese service (Swiss regiment on the Rhyn), experienced the battle of Cassano (1705) , federal diploma. Landvogt in Thurgau, court lord, mayor and city venerator, delegate and envoy of honor.
  • Franz Dominik Schumacher , 1699–1775, councilor, lieutenant colonel in the life guard of the Duke of Lorraine .

1701 to 1800

  • Franz Aloys Schumacher , 1703–1784, Jesuit, pastor of Rothenburg, dean of the Mellingen chapter, court advisor to the Electorate of Mainz and court chaplain, author of a satirical play ( Isaac the Old Testament ).
  • Jost Niklaus Joachim von Schumacher , 1709–1778, small councilor, bailiff, sack master, delegate of the daily statutes, main participant in the Schumacher-Meyer trade.
  • Anton Leonz Schumacher , 1711–1775, lieutenant colonel in the Lucerne cellar regiment in Sardinia-Piedmont, several campaigns and arguments with the governor of Alghero, small councilor, governor, commander of the landjäger, mayor governor, landlord, leader in the Schumacher-Meyer trade .
  • Franz Plazid de Schumacher , 1725–1793, officer in Sardinia (Regiment Keller), minor councilor, chief witness, commander of the relief army in the Livinental , federal. Landvogt in Locarno, studied in Bologna, mathematician, astronomer, ducal engineer-captain in Modena , main participant in the Schumacher-Meyer trade.
  • Lorenz Plazid von Schumacher , 1735–1764, protected by the Prince of Liechtenstein, was to be presented to the Emperor in Vienna and to take up an officer position in the Swiss Guard, accused of treason in Lucerne and beheaded (victim in the Schumacher Meyer trade).
  • Konrad Schumacher , 1738–1803, small councilor, involved in the Schumacher-Meyer trade.
  • Plazid Schumacher , 1738–1818, officer in Spain (Dunant Swiss regiment), campaign to Portugal, grand major, councilor, landlord, contribution hostage of the French general Schauenburg at the Hühningen fortress.
  • Josef Urs Felix Schumacher , 1739–1817, Benedictine, councilor and governor in St.Gallen and Ehaben , consistorial councilor and provost at Alt St. Johann in Toggenburg.
  • Kaspar Josef Schumacher , 1745-1806, Lieutenant in Sardinia (Swiss regiment de Kalbermatten), commander of the Savoyard hundred Swiss , Chevalier de l'ordre des Saints-Maurice-et-Lazare.
  • Franz Xaver de Schumacher , 1755–1808, studied in Bologna, ducal chamberlain in Modena, scientist, architect, federal. Governor in Wil in St. Gallen, commander of a gunboat in the service of the French on Lake Lucerne.
  • Joseph Anton Schumacher , 1773–1851, officer in the Swiss Guard regiment in France (son-in-law of Jost Dürler, defender of the Tuileries ), colonel, councilor, scholar, Chevalier de l ' Ordre royal et militaire de Saint-Louis , de la Légion d'honneur et de l'ordre des Saints-Maurice-et-Lazare.
  • Josef Schumacher im Uttenberg , 1793–1860, colonel, major, mayor, councilor, comrade in arms of Henri Dufour and Louis Napoleon .

1806 to 1890

  • Caspar Joseph Schumacher , 1806–1855, officer in the Swiss Guard regiment in France, Chevalier de l'ordre de Saint-Louis et de la Légion d'honneur, friendly to duels and popular with women.
  • Felix von Schumacher , 1814–1894, general in the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies , adjutant to the king, defender of Gaeta , protector of the queen, holder of numerous medals, raised to the Neapolitan nobility.
  • Carl Schumacher , 1828–1860, federally certified Staff major and kant. Chief Military Instructor.
  • Heinrich Schumacher , 1830–1906, officer in Naples-Sicily, major in command, landowner, knight of the Holy Sepulcher .
  • Emil Schumacher , 1850–1927, canton chemist, ethnologist, naturalist, Chevalier de l'ordre des Saints-Maurice-et-Lazare.
  • Felix von Schumacher , 1856–1916, engineer, colonel, councilor, consul of Belgium, Order of the Leopold .
  • Edmund von Schumacher , 1859–1908, Colonel, Schultheiss, Council of States, Order of Leopold.
  • Leopold Schumacher , 1872-1965, bank manager, Colonel i.Gst., Commander of the order of 1,918 troops in Zurich, landowner participation in the Rütli Rapport of Guisan (1940), was the secret officer Bund close to Max Waibel.
  • Emil Dagobert Schumacher , 1880–1914, designated successor to Professor Sauerbruch
  • Karl von Schumacher , 1894–1957, diplomat, journalist, founder and editor-in-chief of the Weltwoche newspaper, castle owner (Mauensee).
  • Pierre von Schumacher , 1898–1964, chief geologist at Royal Dutch Shell, editor-in-chief of Weltwoche-Zeitung, landowner and lord of the castle (Mauensee).
  • Heinrich Walter Schumacher , 1872–1941, architect, city councilor, Kant. Automotive expert.
  • Joseph Schumacher , 1879–1964, Lieutenant Colonel, Kant. Surveying engineer, Kant. Automobile expert, participation in General Guisan's Rütli report (1940), was close to Max Waibel's secret officers' association.
  • Max Schumacher , 1890–1972, Kant. Cultural engineer, captain, air raid protection u. Fire brigade instructor, cantonal fire insurance inspector.

From 1900

  • Hans Schumacher , 1903–1979, city councilor, finance director, representative of the modern Lucerne economy.
  • Eduard Schumacher , 1905–1970, dentist.
  • Leopold Schumacher , 1906–1930, studied at Columbia and Stanford University, aircraft engineer, crashed near Wichita (Kansas).
  • Felix von Schumacher , 1910–2002, journalist, editor-in-chief, Lucerne construction pioneer, captain of the mounted artillery, was close to the secret officers' union around Max Waibel during the World War (founded to maintain the will to resist).
  • Werner Schumacher , 1910–1944, senior physician, delegate of the Red Cross in Spain and Russia, field artillery / flab captain.
  • Jost Schumacher , 1912–1968, lawyer.
  • Marco Schumacher , 1920–1994, businessman (paint factory).
  • Moritz Schumacher , 1921–1976, lawyer, councilor, captain in the possession, landowner.
  • Charles Schumacher , 1923–2001, civil engineer, involved in numerous important buildings in Lucerne.
  • Rudolf Schumacher , 1926–1966, district attorney for the canton of Zurich, executive secretary to Philipp de Weck at the Swiss Bank Corporation.
  • Eduard Schumacher , 1943–2014, industrial and electrical engineer, major.


  • Family files, Lucerne State Archives (StALU, FamA): private archives of Schumacher-im Moos (PA 669), Schumacher-de Gottrau (PA 1211 / 1–226 and PLA 165) and Schumacher-Schönbühl (PA 639).
  • Baptism, marriage and death books, Lucerne State Archives.



  • E. Brunner: The nobility in the area of ​​today's Switzerland. In: Journal of Genealogy and Heraldry. Vienna 1987.
  • A. Gloggner: The form of government of the city and republic of Lucerne. Manuscript. (Lucerne State and Family Archives)
  • JA Häfliger: Luz. Coat of arms and Nobility letters. Sep Printed in Switzerland, 1923/24. (Archive for Heraldry, State and Family Archives Lucerne)
  • K. Messmer, P. Hoppe: The patriciate of Lucerne. In: Lucerne Historical Publications. Volume 5, Lucerne 1976.
  • K. Müller: Expert opinion on the spelling of the name of the Schumacher family from Lucerne who are eligible for regiment. Lucerne 1967. (State and Family Archives Lucerne)
  • K. Müller: Central Switzerland (patriciate). Lucerne 1960. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • K. Müller: They were noble times. Merian special issue Lucerne, Basel 1964 (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • K. Müller: Lucerne's patrician days. In: magazine you. July 1944 Zurich. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • K. Müller: How the gracious gentlemen once presented themselves. In: Lucerne State Calendar 1936/37. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • C. Pfyffer: History of the city and the canton of Lucerne. Zurich 1850/52. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • A. de Pury: La Noblesse en Suisse. In: Bulletin Association de Familles Suisses. (ASF), November 1988.
  • A. am Rhyn: Coat of arms of the citizens of Lucerne. Lucerne 1934. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • DF Rittmeyer: A little-known Lucerne goldsmith dynasty. In: Central Switzerland. Yearbook for local history. 3, 1938, pp. 41-52.
  • H. Schumacher: Outline of a family story. Lucerne 1935/36. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • R. Schumacher: The Lucerne patrician family Schumacher. Lucerne 2010. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives).
  • R. Schumacher: Male portraits of the Lucerne patrician Schumacher family. Lucerne 2005. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives)
  • R. Schumacher: The Himmelrich Schumacher - two typical representatives of the educated ancien régime. Lucerne 1995, second improved edition. 2008. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives)
  • R. Schumacher: General Felix von Schumacher in Naples-Sicily. Lucerne 1994. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives).
  • R. Schumacher: Josef Schumacher in Uttenberg. Lucerne 2010, (Central and University Library and State Archives Lucerne).
  • R. Schumacher: Anton Leonz Schumacher and the Keller Regiment. Lucerne 1995. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives).
  • R. Schumacher: Hist.-Biogr. Pedigree and genealogy of the descendants and relatives of Kdt. Heinrich Schumacher-de Gottrau de Pensier. Lucerne 2010. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives).
  • R. Schumacher: Short biographies of some representatives of the Lucerne patrician Schumacher family. Lucerne 2010. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives).
  • R. Schumacher: Seals, engravings, grave and church heraldry of the Lucerne patrician family Schumacher. Lucerne 2012. (Central and University Library and Lucerne State Archives)
  • A. von Segesser: Heraldry in Lucerne. Lucerne 1960. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • Ph. A. von Segesser: Legal History of the City and Republic of Lucerne. Lucerne 1851. (Central and University Library Lucerne)
  • T. von Sonnenberg: Museum Virorum Nobilitatis Lucernensis. (Lucerne State Archives)
  • M. Wetterwald: About Carolingian descendants in Switzerland. (= Published by the Society for Family Research. Series I, Issue 17). Bern 1947.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. ^ Final process or: Causes of the death of Junker Lorenz Placidus von Schumacher, who in 1764 was publicly beheaded in Lucern on Wednesday before Pentecost. (Lucerne State Archives, PA 1211/140)
  2. ^ DF Rittmeyer: A little-known Lucerne goldsmith dynasty .
  3. Elevation plan of the city of Lucerne ( memento of the original dated February 9, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  4. ^ H. Schumacher: Outline of a family history .
  5. ^ R. Schumacher: Portraits of gentlemen of the Lucerne patrician family Schumacher. Pp. 106-109. Also: seals, engravings, grave and church heraldry of the Lucerne patrician family Schumacher. Pp. 25-29.
  6. Lucerne Fundamental Law of 1773, cf. Anne-Marie Dubler : Patrician Places. In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland .
  7. Kasimir Pfyffer von Altishofen: Brief Outline of a State Constitution of the Canton of Lucerne, p. 17 f.
  8. ^ H. Schumacher: Outline of a family history .
  9. R. Schumacher: The Lucerne patrician family Schumacher. P. 6.
  10. JA Häfliger: Lucerne coat of arms u. Nobility letters .
  11. K. Müller: Expert opinion on the spelling of the name of the Schumacher family from Lucerne who are eligible for regiment .