Patriciate (old confederation)
In the Old Confederation, families were called patricians who monopolized political power in several city cantons (explicitly in Bern , Friborg , Lucerne , Geneva , Solothurn and Zurich ) during the Ancien Régime .
The free imperial cities emancipated in the 13th to 15th centuries were initially administered relatively democratically by their citizens and guilds . In several cities, however, political office was soon limited to a group of wealthy and long-established families. This late medieval upper class was made up of wealthy merchant families with or without nobility letters, notables from the bourgeoisie and, at times, landed gentry who had settled in the city and made up the members of an assembly of 100 to 200 people, from whose midst the government was formed. These patricians often acquired country estates or manors with their own jurisdiction, built castles and led an aristocratic way of life. In the cities they formed the governing council and ousted guilds and craftsmen from power. The result was an aristocracy over which the majority of the inhabitants had little political influence, the so-called urban aristocracy .
With this approach of the bourgeois notables to the way of life of the nobility and the increasing isolation from ascendants, the patriciate was formed in the cities of the early modern period , a term that was introduced in the Renaissance , comparable to the patriciate in the Italian Signoria , such as the Venetian nobilhòmini . Like them - and in contrast to the rest of the landed gentry in the Old Kingdom - the patricians mostly also remained active economically (mainly in trade, but increasingly also in mercenaries ), in contrast to the otherwise socially similarly structured English gentry , who lived mainly on lease income.
Since Switzerland was officially part of the Holy Roman Empire until the Peace of Westphalia in 1648 (the Three Leagues even until 1789), the Roman-German Emperor often conferred imperial nobility on Swiss families.
A few years after breaking away from the empire ( 1648 ), Bern, for example, created its own social hierarchy that was not based on nobility law in the empire. 1651 gradation in patrician, burgers and was within the entire population of tenants made (urban residents without political rights). Within the category of patricians (rulers) an official ranking was created, which included the three predicates Wohledelfest, Edelfest and Fest . This was based on proof of nobility, post office nobility, the mayor's office and diplomatic orders (temporary). At the same time, however, foreign powers such as France, Prussia and the Holy See also conferred titles of nobility on Swiss in their service. At the end of the 17th century, for example, the number of new aristocratic and baron diplomas acquired abroad in the Bernese patriciate rose rapidly, which is why the Grand Council of the City and Republic of Bern decided in 1731 that all diplomas, they are dissmahlen, or other current diplomas were presented It is not known that in our place and country there should be no force nor validity and furthermore in 1737 that the predicate noble festival should be granted to all genders capable of regiment without exception on request; In 1783 the Grand Council issued a decree, according to which all genders of Bern capable of regiment are allowed and are free to use the title of nobility ; up to 1798 only 16 ruling families made use of it. In Neuchâtel , which was ruled by Prussia in personal union until 1848, many patrician families were accepted into the post office by the Prussian king until the 19th century.
Formally, the «Gracious Lords» in the cities of Switzerland temporarily lost their power with the Helvetic Republic and definitely with the liberal revolutions in the 1830s and 1840s ( Regeneration in 1831 and Sonderbund War in 1847). The former patrician families played an important role in Switzerland until the beginning of the 20th century, especially in the cities, and were able to maintain their influence in Swiss politics and economy for a long time. Up until the second half of the 20th century there were people who were called typical patricians, for example Elisabeth de Meuron from Bern and Gonzague de Reynold from Freiburg.
The old patrician families retained their addition of in some cantons even after 1848 . In Switzerland, it is not easy to distinguish between the old nobility (Counts von Erlach , Counts von Hallwyl , Barons von Bonstetten ), modern, post -aristocratic patricians (von Graffenried , von Wattenwyl ) and non-aristocratic names of origin ( von Gunten , von Siebenthal ). In western Switzerland , the German von corresponds to de, such as de Reyff, de Watteville etc. The higher nobility titles ( count , baron ) are at best used unofficially in Switzerland, but not in passports and official documents.
Thirteen Old Places
Bodmer • Bonstetten (Zurich Line † 1606) • Brun • Bürkli • Escher vom Glas • Escher from Luchs • Hirzel • Holzhalb • Jori • Keller vom Steinbock • Kilchsperger • Landenberg • Landolt • Manesse († 1st half of the 15th century) • Meiss • Meyer von Knonau • Mülner • Oeri • Orelli • Schmid von der Kugel (Zurich line † 1864 extinct) • Pestalozzi • Werdmüller
Goldschmid • Count • Hafner • Hegner • Hettlinger • Merchant • Meier • Steiner • Sulzer (1408) • Winman (before 1400) • Ziegler
Hunziker • Meyer • Rothpletz • Schmuziger
Hünerwadel • Spengler • Strauss
Ringier • Senn • Thut
Zimmermann • Frölich • Frey, u. a. - (18th century)
After the Battle of Sempach in 1386, the families of the city of Lucerne capable of regiment, once declared worthy of knightly service by Rudolf von Habsburg, became the legal successors of the Counts of Habsburg. In the 16th century they established an aristocratic constitution and made access to the ruling small council families increasingly difficult. So in the years 1571, 1588, 1648 and finally with the Fundamental Law of 1773. In addition to the similarly governed towns of Bern, Freiburg and Solothurn, Lucerne had the most concentrated patriciate, as it was limited to around 30 families participating in the government. Its members were entitled to the title Junker, which is common in Lucerne, and the nine-pronged crown of sovereignty, usually a crown of leaves (four strawberry leaves and five pearls), as was typical in the aristocratically ruled city republics. Many served in Swiss regiments abroad, held high military ranks and held diplomatic functions. Some of the small council families that are still flourishing today were awarded nobility diplomas between 1442 and 1858, such as those at Rhyn , Göldlin von Tiefenau , Mayr von Baldegg , Meyer von Schauensee , Pfyffer von Altishofen , Schumacher , Schwytzer von Buonas , Segesser von Brunegg and von Sonnenberg . They all retained their position primarily as academics in professional and social life. The fact that Lucerne was a Catholic suburb and only a few families belonged to the patriciate meant that a great deal of potential was withdrawn from politics and the military, as many members were clerical. This particularly affected careers abroad, especially in France, where the three cities of Bern, Freiburg and Solothurn were major competitors due to their geographical location.
The years in the following list mean in order: First mention, entry into government, extinct (†). The families that are still thriving are in italics.
1. an der Allmend, 1495, 1606, † 1829; 2. Balthasar (von) , 1531, 1598; 3. Bircher, 1500, 1525, † 1791; 4. Cysat, 1538, 1659, † 1802; 5. Dulliker, 1522, 1564, † 1820; 6. Dürler, 1570, 1633, † 1847; 7. Entlin, 1522, 1640, † 1822; 8. Feer, 1372, 1433, † 1794; 9. von Fleckenstein, 1462, 1516, † 1833; 10. zur Gilgen , 1428, 1475; 11. Göldlin v. Tiefenau , 1387, 1655; 12. Haas, 1373, 1423, † 1796; 13. Hartmann (von) , 1424, 1671; 14. von Hertenstein, 1213, 1413, † 1853; 15. Keller (from cellars), 1584, 1677, † 1865; 16. Krus, 1483, 1565, † 1805; 17th Mayr v. Baldegg , 1452, 1517; 18. Meyer v. Schauensee , 1468, 1581; 19. Mohr (von), 1436, 1521, † 1913; 20. Peyer im Hof, 1300, 1730, † 1842; 21. Pfyffer v. Altishofen , 1322, 1509; 22. am Rhyn , 1518, 1564, 23. Rüttimann (von), 1565, 1774, † 1873; 24. Schnyder v. Wartensee , 1350, 1715; 26. Schumacher (von) , 1431, 1568; 27. Schwytzer v. Buonas , 1527, 1633; 28. Segesser v. Brunegg , 1241, 1564; 29. von Sonnenberg , 1357, 1480.
Other families are: Helmlin †; Holdermeyer †; Krebsinger †; of moss; Ritzi
Arnold von Spiringen • von Beroldingen • Bessler • Crivelli • Imhof • Jauch (Urner family) • Kuon • Lusser • Müller • Püntener • von Roll • Schmid • Schmid from Bellikon • Stricker • Tanner • Troger • Zumbrunnen • Zweyer von Evenbach (noble family)
From Yberg • Auf der Maur • Büeler • Reding • Weber
Achermann from Ennerberg • Leuw • Lussi • Trachsler (Traxler) - from flüe - Omlin - Wirz - Imfeld
d'Alt • d'Affry • d'Amman • de Boccard • de Bourgknecht • de Buman • de Castella • de Diesbach • de Duens / de Duding [du Dyn] • d'Englisberg • de Faucigny • de Fégely • de Gady • Griset de Forel • de Gottrau • by Kessler • de Lanthen-Heid • de Lenzbourg • by Maggenberg († 1370) • de Maillardoz • de Montenach • Mossu • d'Odet • de Praroman • de Raemy • de Ratzé • de Reynold • de Reyff • de Rich • Rudellad • de Saydor / von Seedorf • de Schaller • de Schroeter • de Techtermann • de Tiefenthal • de Vevey • de Weck • von der Weid • de Werro • Zellweger
Aregger (from Wildensteg) • Grimm (from Wartenfels) • from Staal • from Sury • from Vigier (de Vigier, Vigier from Steinbrugg) • from Roll • Besenval • Glutz (Glutz from Blotzheim, Glutz-Ruchti) • Wallier (Wallier from Wendelstorf ) • Voitel • Surbeck
Brugger • Geiger • Sutter • Zellweger
Hunger • Falck • Zollikofer von Altenklingen
Abis • Aspermont • Bavier • Beeli • Belmont • Brugger • Buol • Cabalzar • Capol / Capaul • Caprez • Castelberg • Castelmur • Caviezel • Ehrenfels • Enderlin • Flisch von Scheidt • Florin • Frauenberg • Gugelberg von Moos • Guler • Haldenstein • Jecklin • Jenatsch • Jochberg • Juvalt • Latour • à Marca • Marmels • Mont / Demont • Montalt • Planta • Raschèr • Ringg von Baldenstein • Rosenroll (from Thusis) • Ruinelli • Ruchenberg / Ruhenberg • Salis • Scarpatetti • Schauenstein • Schmid • Schorsch • Speaker from Bernegg • Travers • Tscharner • Übercastel • Unterwegen
Principality of Neuchâtel
Chiffelle (Tschiffeli) • Imer • by Ligerz • Rosselet-dit-Charpillod
von Spiegelberg • von Streng
- Patriciate (Bern)
- History of the Canton of Bern
- Civic Community of Bern
- Category: Civil sex (Bern)
- History of the city of Zurich
- Hans Conrad Escher from Linth
- Category: Swiss noble family
- Roland Gerber: Münzer versus Bubenberg . Relationships and factions in the Bern Council at the beginning of the 14th century. In: Bern journal for history and local history . Issue 4/2006, Volume 68, 2006, ISSN 0005-9420 , p. 179–234 ( bezg.ch [PDF; accessed January 13, 2020]).
- Manuel Kehrli: patriciate, postage and titulatures . In: Bern's golden age. The 18th century rediscovered . Bern 2008, p. 209.
- Nadir Weber: On the way to an aristocratic republic . The question of title in Bern in the 18th century. In: Bern journal for history and local history . Issue 1/2008, Volume 70, 2008, ISSN 0005-9420 , p. 3–34 ( bezg.ch [PDF; accessed on January 13, 2020] Bachelor thesis June 2007, Historical Institute of the University of Bern).
- Gustav Blösch: Chronicle of Biel. From the earliest times to the end of 1873. Issue 1875. Book printing by Ernst Schüler ( e-rara.ch [PDF; accessed on January 13, 2020]).
- Katja Hürlimann: Landolt (ZH). In: Historical Lexicon of Switzerland. November 14, 2007, accessed March 3, 2020 .
- Baumann, Max; Steigmeier, Andreas: Experience Brugg, Part 1: Spotlights on Brugg's history. here + now, Baden 2005.