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Georg Decker: Portrait of the Emperor Joseph II.
Joseph II. Is Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire .
ASS Altenburger logo
Johann Kaspar Kern founds a playing card factory .
Caricature by Benjamin Franklin on the Stamp Act
The British Stamp Act
feeds the resistance of the American colonies .
1765 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1213/14 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1757/58 (turn of the year 10/11 September)
Bengali solar calendar 1170/71 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2308/09 (southern Buddhism); 2307/08 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 74th (75th) cycle

Year of the Wood Rooster乙酉 ( at the beginning of the year Wood Monkey 甲申)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1127/28 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4098/99 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1143/44 (around March 21)
Islamic calendar 1178/79 (June 19-20)
Jewish calendar 5525/26 (September 15/16)
Coptic calendar 1481/82 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 940/941
Seleucid era Babylon: 2075/76 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2076/77 (New Year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1821/22 (turn of the year April)

In 1765 , Emperor Franz I Stephan von Lothringen dies unexpectedly of a stroke or heart attack. His eldest son Joseph II , who was crowned Roman-German King as co-regent last year, becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and official co-regent of his mother Maria Theresa in the archducal lands. The Grand Duchy of Tuscany went to the second-born son Leopold as a secondary school , with whom a time of reforms began.


Politics and world events

Holy Roman Empire and Grand Duchy of Tuscany

The wedding couple on the Triumphal Gate

On January 23, the imperial heir to the throne, Joseph II, against his will, under pressure from his mother Maria Theresa, gave the Bavarian Princess Maria Josepha the word of consent in her second marriage . His brother, the future Tuscan Grand Duke Leopold, married the Spanish Princess Maria Ludovica in Innsbruck on August 5th , after a proxy wedding took place in Madrid on February 16, 1764 . The Triumphal Gate is erected in the city on the occasion of the wedding .

Large coat of arms of Emperor Joseph II.

Leopold's father, Emperor Franz I. Stephan von Lothringen , who was still in Innsbruck after the wedding of his second eldest son, died surprisingly on August 18 of a stroke or heart attack. His eldest son Joseph II , who was crowned Roman-German King as co-regent last year, becomes Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire and official co-regent of his mother Maria Theresa in the archducal lands. After being laid out for several days, Franz Stephan's body was transferred to Vienna and buried there on August 31 in the Capuchin crypt.

The Grand Duchy of Tuscany goes as Sekundogenitur to the second son Leopold , who is involved in the administration of the country since the 1761st The economic situation of the Grand Duchy at this point in time was extremely difficult due to a great famine and neglect by previous rulers. Development stagnated under the last rulers of the Medici family . Even Leopold's father did not take care of the land intensively and had it administered by agents. In addition, Leopold's brother Joseph II demands the release of the “Tuscan reserve fund”, which permanently worsens the relationship between the brothers. Under Leopold, the leadership of the Tuscan government passed from Antoniotto Botta Adorno to Franz Xaver Wolfgang von Orsini-Rosenberg , whom Leopold's mother Maria Theresa sent to the court of Florence at Leopold's request . With him the time of the great reforms began in the Grand Duchy.

Other events in Europe

Maria Luisa 1765

Duke Philipp of Parma , Piacenza and Guastalla dies on July 18th in Alessandria while he accompanies his youngest daughter Maria Luise on the way to her wedding with Prince Charles of Asturias . His successor is his 14-year-old son Ferdinand . The wedding between Maria Luise and Karl takes place on September 4th in the palace of La Granja .

Border at Burlo according to the 1765 Convention

With the signing of the Burlo Convention in Mariengarden Monastery on October 19, the state border , which has been in dispute for centuries between the Duchy of Geldern as the province of the United Netherlands and the Duchy of Münster, is finally determined. The regulations that have been made are still in place today.

The Russian fortress Mosdok in the Caucasus , part of the Caucasian Line , was built in 1763 and granted city rights . A conflict with the Kabardine people breaks out around the fortress .

Great Britain and its colonies

O! the fatal STAMP , Pennsylvania Journal , October 1765

The British Stamp Act of March 22nd, passed by the government under Prime Minister George Grenville , feeds the resistance of the American colonies . The law, which comes into force in November, stipulates that every official piece of paper and document, but also newspapers, card and dice games in the North American colonies must be stamped. The tax or customs stamp on playing cards has it on the Pik - Ass to be. The background to the first direct tax for the colonies is the financial problems of Great Britain after the Seven Years' War . In addition, the stationing of troops on the border to the Indian territory , which is necessary to prevent further conflicts between settlers and Indians, also devours money. The colonies should now share in these costs. From the point of view of the colonists, especially the newly founded Sons of Liberty , it is, however, the climax of a policy of exploitation by the British mother country. The conflict is further fueled by the resolution passed by the British Parliament on March 24 and by King George III. Quartering Act signed on May 15, which stipulates that all North American colonists must billet British soldiers. From October 7th to 25th, 27 delegates from nine of the thirteen colonies will meet in New York to discuss how to proceed against the law.

William Tryon

William Tryon is appointed governor of the Province of North Carolina on July 10th, succeeding Arthur Dobbs , who died on March 28th, and makes the port city of New Bern, founded in 1710 , the capital of the British colony. Tryon refuses to approve meetings of the Colonial Council until the end of the year, preventing North Carolina from attending the Stamp Act Congress in New York.

Charles Watson-Wentworth, 2nd Marquess of Rockingham

John Byron's circumnavigation

John Byron, painting by Joshua Reynolds

The British Admiral John Byron is sailing around the world from the Patagonian port of Puerto Deseado , landing on Saunders Island near West Falkland , founding Port Egmont and taking possession of the entire group of islands in the Falkland Islands for the British Crown without knowing that it was going to be around the world At this point in time a French settlement founded by Louis Antoine de Bougainville in the previous year was already located on the islands.

Then the small fleet, consisting of the two ships Dolphin and Tamar , sails through the Strait of Magellan into the Pacific and first calls at the island of Mas Afuera - one of the Juan Fernández Islands . With a north-westerly course it goes to Takaroa , where Byron ends up despite the unfriendly reception to supply himself with fresh provisions. After sailing westward through various archipelagos and being the first Europeans to see the Tokelau Island, Duke of York's Island ( June 4th ) and some Gilbert Islands , Byron lands on June 30th on Tinian (Northern Mariana Islands), where the Expedition stays for nine weeks before heading west for home.


Great Britain founds the Crown Colony of Senegambia as the first colony in West Africa . The Kingdom of Great Britain took over the area from France in 1763 after the Seven Years War .


The course of the war from 1765


Taxation and banking

Business start-ups

Other economic events

science and technology


Architecture and fine arts


Music and theater

Il Parnaso confuso , first performed by the children of Maria Theresa


The wolf killed by François Antoine at the presentation to Louis XV.
  • September 21 : After several hunts on the so-called " Beast of Gévaudan " were unsuccessful, the royal commissioner François Antoine hunted down a stately wolf , which was presented as a "beast" at the king's court. Since further attacks by the beast do not take place at first, Antoine receives the head bonus that is placed on the beast. But on December 2, two children are attacked again.
Goethe shortly before his student days in Leipzig, oil painting by Anton Johann Kern




Historical maps and views

Panorama of Rome 1765,
Giuseppe Vasi
Travel times in France in 1765 - given in days


January to July

Joseph Nicéphore Niépce

August to December

William IV

Exact date of birth unknown


January to April

Mikhail Vasilyevich Lomonosov's tombstone in St. Petersburg

May to August

Grave of Emperor Franz Stephan in the Capuchin Crypt

September to December

Exact date of death unknown

Died around 1765

Web links

Commons : 1765  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files