Abd al-Aziz ibn Muhammad

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Abd al-Aziz ibn Muhammad ibn Saud ( Arabic عبد العزيز بن محمد بن سعود, DMG ʿAbd al-ʿAzīz b. Muḥammad b. Saʿūd ; † October 2, 1803 ) was the second ruler of the Saudi dynasty from 1765 to 1803 .


Abd al-Aziz ibn Muhammad was appointed heir to the throne of the house of Saud during the lifetime of his father Muhammad ibn Saud († 1765) and was confirmed by Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab . After he had already made a name for himself as a general, he was able to take over rule in 1765 without any problems. He continued the military conversion of the Bedouin tribes to the teaching of the Wahhabis . A first important success was the subjugation of the Emirate of Riyadh in 1773 , which had successfully resisted for 27 years.

In the years that followed, the Bedouins of central Arabia were subjected to an uninterrupted guerrilla war. By 1800, al-Hasa , Bahrain and the tribes of Qatar , as well as the pirate coast , had been subjugated. Campaigns by the Ottoman pashas from Baghdad to al-Hasa were unsuccessful. In 1802 the Wahhabis even conquered and sacked Karbala in Iraq , with the grave of Hussain , one of the most important Shiite shrines, being destroyed.

After religious talks between the Sherif of Mecca and the Wahhabis had remained unsuccessful in 1771 and 1790 , the fighting in the Hejaz expanded from 1795 . After the defeat of Kumrah (1798), Sherif Ghaleb first had to make peace. Later in 1801, Abd al-Aziz broke the peace, sacked the Iraqi cities of Karbala and Najaf , captured Taif and occupied Mecca. Jeddah could not be conquered by the Wahhabis.

On October 2, 1803, Abd al-Aziz I was murdered by a Shiite while praying in the mosque in Diriyya . His successor was Saud I ibn Abd al-Aziz (1803-1814).


  • Jörg-Dieter Brandes: … with saber and Koran, Saudi Arabia or the rise of the Saud royal family and the Wahabites. Thorbecke, Stuttgart 1999, ISBN 3-7995-0094-4 .