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Battle of Ingavi
The Battle of Ingavi ends
the Peruvian-Bolivian War with a victory for Bolivia .
John Tyler, picture by James Reid Lambdin, 1841
John Tyler becomes President of the United States after William Henry Harrison dies as the first President in office.
Marie Lafarge in her memoirs published in 1841
Marie Lafarge is convicted of the murder on the basis of toxicological and chemical evidence.
1841 in other calendars
Armenian calendar 1289/90 (turn of the year July)
Ethiopian calendar 1833/34 (September 10-11)
Bengali solar calendar 1246/47 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)
Buddhist calendar 2384/85 (southern Buddhism); 2383/84 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )
Chinese calendar 75th (76th) cycle

Year of the Metal Ox辛丑 ( at the beginning of the year Metal Rat 庚子)

Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam) 1203/04 (turn of the year April)
Dangun era (Korea) 4174/75 (October 2/3)
Iranian calendar 1219/20
Islamic calendar 1256/1257 (turn of the year 22/23 February)
Jewish calendar 5601/02 (September 15/16)
Coptic calendar 1557/58 (September 10-11)
Malayalam calendar 1016/17
Rumi Calendar (Ottoman Empire) 1256/57 (March 1)
Seleucid era Babylon: 2151/52 (turn of the year April)

Syria: 2152/53 (turn of the year October)

Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar) 1897/98 (April)


Politics and world events


Catholics and liberals fight over the Aargau monasteries , cartoon from March 25th

Other events in Europe

First opium war in China

Battle of Chuenpi
  • January 7th: In the Battle of Chuenpi , British ships and ground troops attack the Chinese coastal defense in the Bocca Tigris in front of the city of Canton . British forces inflict heavy losses on Chinese defenders. As a result, the Chinese Commander-in-Chief Qishan agrees to negotiations with the British, which, however, fail due to the rejection of Emperor Daoguang .
  • January 20th: Great Britain occupies the Chinese city ​​of Hong Kong . Henry Pottinger becomes the first governor . This also conquered the cities of Xiamen , Ningbo and Zhoushan in August .
  • February 23 to 26: In the Battle of the Humen , the British expedition fleet under Charles Elliot succeeds in taking control of the coastal fortifications on the shipping route to the southern Chinese city of Canton .
  • March 18: In the First Battle of Canton , the British expedition fleet conquers the thirteen factories in Canton, which served as an export port for European merchants until the interruption of trade. At the time of the battle, 90% of the population had already left the city against the orders of the Qing military. After the battle, Elliot turns to Yang Fang and tells him to allow canton trade again, otherwise the British troops would not leave the city again. Contrary to the emperor's orders, Yang Fang will resume trading on March 21.
  • May 21-26: In the Second Battle of Canton , British troops crush the organized resistance of Chinese troops near Canton after a failed attack by the Qing military. The military situation is forcing the Chinese commander to sign a ceasefire with the British. After this has been fulfilled, the British will vacate the immediate vicinity of the city in return for diplomatic concessions.
  • 30./31. May: Sanyuanli incident
  • 26./27. August: Battle of Amoy
  • September 29th to October 1st: Conquest of Chusan
  • October 10: Battle of Zhenhai

First Anglo-Afghan War

  • Spring: William George Keith Elphinstone takes over command of the British troops in Kabul from Willoughby Cotton . William Nott is in command of the entire Sindh area and southern Afghanistan . He has had his headquarters in Kandahar since January .
  • August: The British government under Robert Peel reduces payments to the Afghan tribal leaders, thereby withdrawing their support for the British occupation. In the course of the year the unrest increased, fed by tax increases by King Shah Shuja and the dissolute life of some British officers, especially Alexander Burnes .
  • On October 9th, soldiers of the 35th Native Infantry under Colonel Monteath are attacked at the Khoord Kabul Pass. A brigade under Robert Henry Sale was then transferred to Jalalabad and marched off on October 12th.
  • November 2: In Kabul, a crowd gathered in front of Alexander Burnes' house and killed him trying to escape. The inactivity shown by the British encouraged the locals to a general uprising and to siege the British garrison.
  • November 12th: The brigade under Robert Henry Sale arrives in Jalalabad and begins the siege of the city .
  • On November 23, the British garrison made a sortie in Kabul to destroy two Afghan guns. In a subsequent attack on a nearby settlement, it suffers heavy losses and retreats. The arrival of Mohammed Akbar , a son of Dost Mohammed , with 6,000 men in Kabul worsens the situation. There are now around 30,000 Afghan fighters facing around 4,500 British-Indian troops.
  • December 23: Colonial official William Macnaghten is shot dead during negotiations with Mohammed Akbar . Again the British commander Elphinstone does not react. Eldred Pottinger becomes the new UK negotiator and accepts the surrender. Some British officers are said to remain hostage in Kabul after the garrison has withdrawn.


North America

William Henry Harrison
  • March 4: William Henry Harrison takes office as the ninth US President. He replaces President Martin Van Buren , who has been in office since 1837 .
  • April 4: With William H. Harrison, the first US President dies in office and in the shortest term of office to date. The cause of death is pneumonia , which Harrison got during his inauguration speech because he was not wearing a coat as protection against the cold. John Tyler succeeds him as the tenth US President. With his stance that he is a full President and not, as some have assumed, only assuming presidential powers as Vice President, he is setting a precedent for the succession plan for the President of the United States.
  • After arriving in California , the Swiss adventurer Johann August Sutter founds the private colony of New Helvetia on land that he received from the Mexican governor for agricultural use . To do this, he expelled the natives from the country and bought the Russian colony of Fort Ross for 30,000 piastres .

South America


Coat of arms of Ecuador with the ship Guayas

science and technology



Music and theater

Gottfried Semper's first court theater
Carlotta Grisi as Giselle
La rein de Chypre , the performers and the audience; Caricatures by Émile Marcelin





  • March 11: The paddle steamer President , the largest steamship of its time, disappears without a trace on the North Atlantic after casting off in New York on March 11, 1841 with 109 people on board.
  • September 24: In the Sonning railway accident in England, nine people are killed and 16 others are seriously injured.


  • September 3rd: First ascent of the Großvenediger , the fourth highest mountain in Austria , by a group led by Josef Schwab.


January February

Henry Morton Stanley
Pierre-Auguste Renoir

March April

May June

Paul Wallot

July August

September October

  • 0September 2: Hermann Laurent , French mathematician († 1908)
  • 0September 2: Julius Payer , Austro-Hungarian polar and alpine researcher († 1915)
Antonín Dvořák

November December

  • 0November 1: Charles Anne Laisant , French politician and mathematician († 1920)
  • 0November 1: Minna Cauer , German educator and women's rights activist († 1922)
  • 0November 2: Conrad Willgerodt , German chemist († 1930)
  • 0November 4: Carl Tausig , Polish pianist, composer and music teacher († 1871)
  • 0November 4: Giuseppe Callegari , Bishop of Padua and Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church († 1906)
  • 0November 6: Armand Fallières , French statesman and politician († 1931)
  • 0November 8: Jan Otto , Czech publisher († 1916)
King Edward VII of Great Britain

Exact date of birth unknown


January to March

Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner

April to August

William Henry Harrison on his death bed
Elizabeth Gould (1804-1841)

September to December

Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1826
William Hay Macnaghten

Exact date of death unknown

Web links

Commons : 1841  - Collection of Images, Videos, and Audio Files