A house number is a name that uniquely identifies a specific building in a street or town . It is used for addressing , orientation and the findability of a building. In Germany , Austria , Liechtenstein and Switzerland the house number is officially assigned as part of the building addressing . It is recorded in official registers such as the real estate cadastre or the land register and is part of the official description of the location of a property .
In order to fulfill its purpose as a guide, the house number should be permanently and clearly visible on the house wall or the property line. The first house numbers were therefore painted on the houses with weatherproof paint. Some of them are still preserved on historical buildings. In contrast to street signs , the affixing of house number plates is usually the responsibility of the private home owner. Simple, standardized enamel signs in black and white or white and blue are widespread . Ornamental plates made of ceramic , wrought iron , wood , plastic or other materials are also in use ; there are signs with the addition of the street name and illuminated house numbers. The municipal or monument protection regulations can significantly restrict the freedom of design: shape, color, size, font and location can be specified in a house number ordinance. Illuminated house numbers are mandatory in several German federal states, such as Hamburg and Berlin .
The shape of the house number sometimes reflects historical developments. In the Habsburg monarchy, for example, all streets leading from the outside into the center had rectangular number and street signs, while all others were provided with oval signs. Three examples from Graz are given: Klosterwiesgasse leads towards the center, Merangasse and Jungferngasse do not. Some homeowners have painted the originally gray panels so that the original color is not always visible.
A “special” form of the house number can also serve as an award. The Golden house number got home communities in the GDR for exemplary maintenance and design of their home.
The Saarland has been awarding a green house number for environmentally conscious building and living since 1996, and some municipalities such as Erfurt and Mainz followed suit.
Baarle (Belgium / Netherlands)
In Baarle , due to the unique borderline, each house number plate is also provided with a nationality (Dutch or Belgian).
Before the houses were given numbers, there were individual house signs and house names to distinguish them . The houses in the cities were mostly recognizable by the painted signs. There were farm names in the villages that did not have to match the family name of the farm owner.
The oldest house numbers come from the early modern era. The 68 houses on Paris' Pont Notre-Dame were numbered as early as the 15th century , and the houses of the Augsburg Fuggerei had been numbered since 1519 . House numbers were only introduced across the board in the 18th century: This began, for example, in the Parisian suburbs in 1724–1728 or in the Jewish city of Prague in 1727. Small towns in Prussia that were to serve as military quarters followed in 1737. From the middle of the 18th century house numbering was finally introduced across Europe: 1750 in Madrid, 1754 in Trieste, 1762–1765 in London, from 1779 in Paris. Berlin, as one of the last major cities to be assigned house numbers, did not join this trend until 1799.
In Vienna, the discussion about the introduction of house numbers began in 1753. They were to be introduced as part of a police reform and made palatable to the population with the prospect of facilitating the fight against crime. It was not until new discussions in the middle of the 1760s that the house number system was transferred to the entire Austro-Hungarian monarchy in a census under the heading of soul conscription . Among other things, Empress Maria Theresia instructed the Mayor of Vienna in 1770 to “mark the numbers on the houses with a fine of 9 guilders.” The numbers were painted directly on the walls of the house in black or red.
House numbering was always an official measure that extended state control into the area of domestic privacy. The concrete justifications varied: recruitment measures, billeting of the military, fighting beggars , tax and insurance matters. The subjects defended themselves in many places, scratching off the house numbers or throwing dirt on them. The nobility also tried to prevent the numbering of castles and mansions. However, the system caught on and by the end of the 18th century house numbers for postal addresses were in use.
The oldest method of nationwide house numbering was the system of conscription numbers. The houses in a locality were first completely numbered. All new buildings were then given a consecutive number in the order in which they were built. This number can still form the deposit number in the land register if it has remained the same with different renumbering and nothing has changed significantly in the land around the house . This is the case in some districts of Vienna, but it is no longer the general rule. There are still scattered settlements in rural areas that have no streets with names and therefore no consecutive numbering, but in which historical conscription numbers are still used for orientation. The house number is not an addition to the street, but to the district or hamlet or to the peasantry, as there are no street names that are widely used (example: A-1111 Musterdorf, Einöd 7). The system is partially broken when older houses are demolished and these numbers become free. In this case, they are often given to new buildings elsewhere.
Sometimes the old, consecutive numbers were retained after the introduction of the street names, examples of this can be found in the Koblenz district of Ehrenbreitstein (Hofstrasse 277) , in Landsberg am Lech (Hofgraben 489) , in the historic center of Landshut (Freyung 632b) and on Helgoland (Ringstrasse 1156) . The mother Beethoven house in Koblenz has the address Wambachstrasse 204, although this street has far fewer houses, as the old number relating to the whole town has been used instead of the houses being renumbered street by street. In this way, Helgoland even has four-digit house numbers like in Cologne. In Osterspai (Gartenweg 284) and in the district of Treis an der Mosel (Am Laach 435) this numbering was abandoned in the 1980s and the streets were regularly numbered.
In both the Czech Republic and Slovakia , the conscription numbers introduced in the Habsburg Empire are often still used as house numbers and are still standard in ID cards. Some places, especially larger ones, use (additional) orientation numbers; however, there are also some large cities that do not have orientation numbers. The standard address format lists the conscription number and the orientation number together in one line, separated by a slash (Václavské náměstí 646/17). However, it is also possible to find a way of listing the numbers in the reverse, incorrect order. In the Czech Republic, temporary buildings and buildings for individual recreation have a registration number (evidenční číslo) instead of a conscription number (popisné číslo, čp.). From the conscription number, the registration number is displayed either by an abbreviation (č. Ev., Če., Ev. Č.) Or by the color of the table (typically black-yellow or green) or by a zero added in front of the number (023 instead of 23), or through words that indicate the type of building (emergency building, hut).
As a modification of this system, individual quarters or blocks of houses can be numbered instead of the entire village. In the Mannheim squares , the numbering takes place consecutively around the squares. In Heidelberg , the university campus Im Neuenheimer Feld is consistently provided with three-digit house numbers, the first digit of which indicates the approximate location. In Venice , all the houses in a quarter are numbered according to the age they were built. An address can thus be Cannaregio 2341. In order to find a house, another directory is necessary, based on which the property can be assigned to a street or a canal. The directories can be viewed at post offices or newspaper kiosks.
The system of conscription numbers quickly became confusing as the cities grew. Therefore, in the 19th century, most of the larger towns changed their system to street-by-street numbering. The most common system is reciprocal numbering, also known as "orientation numbering" or "zigzag principle". It was introduced in Paris in 1805. Here, the right side of the road was straight and the left side of the road, the odd numbers. Right and left are often seen from the town center on radial roads, and defined clockwise on tangential roads . If a German street runs from the city center out of town, the smallest number of a house is in the city center and the largest is at the end of the street. Due to the different size of the individual plots, it often happens that numerically adjacent numbers do not face each other. Also, by widening the streets at intersections, individual house numbers are often swallowed up when the land has been added to the street. Changes are possible if the plots have been changed, by inserting or combining. This can be avoided by omitting number ranges beforehand.
In Düsseldorf , reciprocal numbering is used, which differs from the current system in that the right side of the street is given the odd and the left side of the street is given the even numbers and the numbering direction is not differentiated into radial and tangential streets, but the numbers primarily from Increase north to south and west to east.
In Hamburg it is officially stipulated that on streets going radially from the city center (Rathausmarkt) uneven house numbers are used on the left and even house numbers on the right. In the case of cross streets, the numbering starts from the radial street from which you branch off. If a cross street connects two radial streets, the more important one is assumed. Exceptions with consecutive numbering on each side of the street occur for historical reasons, for example: Davidstraße .
In Vienna in 1862 the system was changed from conscription to orientation numbering. However, the old numbers were still used in the land register as deposit numbers. The new system with the separation into even and odd house numbers was created by Michael Winkler and is still known as the Winkler system of house numbers . (see also: Streets in Vienna ). An exception is Fred-Liewehr -Gasse, where the even house numbers were erroneously set on the left.
In 1920 the surrounding suburbs were included in Greater Berlin. In the inner suburbs, horseshoe numbering had existed since the 1850s, and orientation numbering was increasingly used on new streets. In the included villages and places of the Barnim and the Teltow, the conscription number with location-specific numbers or using property designations such as Schadel'sches Haus still existed in some cases beyond 1900. With the formation of the large association, such peculiarities were eliminated and subsequently numbered in zigzag. ( see also: Streets of Berlin )
Cologne house numbers (with the exception of American military barracks) are among the highest house numbers in Germany and sometimes have four digits: Venloer Strasse 1451 (in Pulheim continues until 1501), Aachener Strasse 1420, Bergisch Gladbacher Strasse 1248, Olpener Strasse 1096, Berliner Strasse 1027. In Belgium there are even streets with house numbers over 2000 (Haachtsesteenweg 2020, Brussels ; Waversesteenweg 2245, Oudergem ).
In what was then the Kingdom of Prussia , "horseshoe numbering" (consecutive numbering) was generally used. If there is no significant reason for renumbering, this form still exists. The numbering starts with the first house on the right-hand side of the street, runs to the last and continues on the left-hand side (but in the opposite direction) to the last house, similar to the shape of a horseshoe. This number assignment was used for both radial and tangential roads .
This system was used in Berlin for newly laid roads until 1929. The numbering started from the city center, based on the city palace . Since the "Principles for the Numbering of Properties of January 15, 1929" came into force in Berlin, the reciprocal numbering system has been used for all streets to be numbered anew. Existing numbering was not changed so that both systems exist side by side. The famous Kurfürstendamm has horseshoe numbering. The plots begin (after Budapester Strasse was separated in 1925) on the north side at No. 11 next to the Memorial Church . The numerical sequence of the house numbers leads west to Rathenauplatz (driveway A 100 ). On the southern side of the street, house numbers 125 to 237 follow back to Breitscheidplatz ( Tauentzienstrasse ).
The horseshoe numbering was used, for example, in some Hamburg districts, in the Braunschweig core city (here the numbering starts on the left side of the street), in Delmenhorst , Erfurt , Hildesheim , Kamen , Speyer and cities in Saxony-Anhalt and Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania . Whereby tangential streets can be numbered according to the reciprocal system.
This system was also common in Munich's old town, where the reciprocal system was only introduced around 1960 "at the suggestion of the Munich business community".
In the United States , Canada , Australia , New Zealand, and parts of Latin America , it is common practice to determine the numbers based on the location of the property in a Cartesian coordinate plane centered on the nearest city center. The value in feet or meters is often adopted as the house number, sometimes in 10-meter or 20-meter sections. In North American cities, a new section of 100 often begins at every cross street. Since American urban areas can be very large because of their development with single-family houses, there are extremely high house numbers. House numbers 10,000 are normal and even numbers 20,000 are not uncommon. In Key Largo there is the address “107900 Overseas Highway”.
In Manhattan, on the other hand, all major north-south avenues have a European house number, such as Madison , Park , 5th , 9th and 10th Avenues . All of them finally flow into Broadway , which reaches the city limits with over 6500 house numbers.
In Toronto , Canada, which is obviously numbered in Europe based on the one- and two-digit house numbers, there is Yonge Street , which begins in the south of downtown near Lake Ontario and continues over 60 kilometers under the same name and with consecutive numbering through several locations North until it - after a break in the road - ends with the highest registered house number 22002 for an agricultural warehouse.
In southern Ontario , Canada, near the border with the United States, there is a road about five miles long that connects the village centers of Tavistock and Punkeydoodles Corners . House numbers start at 985.296 and end at 986.075 Perth-Oxford Road in Punkeydoodles Corners. In the neighboring town centers there are streets with one-, two-digit and four-digit house numbers and one street with numbers in the 730,000s.
In the Dutch city of Nijmegen , the settlement area of the Zwanenveld settlement is divided into sections, which have been assigned two-digit numbers. The house numbering is added as third and fourth digits. In section 52 there are the even house numbers from 52.02 to 52.54 and the odd ones from 52.01 to 52.59. In section 90 , however, the four-digit numbers were not enough and simply continued to number: 90102, 90104… 90120. However, the odd numbers only contain the five-digit numbers 90101 and 90103. Thus, the address Nijmegen, Zwanenveld 90120 is one of the highest in Europe Have house numbers.
A similar system, numbering according to residential districts (buurts) , also existed in Apeldoorn in the 1980s . The streets had regular names, but the house numbers were all four and five digits. Apparently the system has not proven itself, on Google Maps only streets with conventional zigzag numbering can be found.
In The Hague , house numbers are sometimes not assigned to individual houses, but to residential or business units, so that buildings sometimes have several house numbers.
In Switzerland, the zigzag system is used in most places, similar to Germany. In some places (mainly in rural areas) the house numbering is still based on the so-called building insurance number. In most cantons there is a cantonal building insurance, with which every building must be insured. This gives each house an insurance number that starts with 1 in each municipality and can theoretically be infinitely large. This means that addresses with partially four-digit house numbers are possible. However, this system is increasingly proving to be impractical, as the buildings within a street are randomly numbered and therefore difficult to find (e.g. in a village on the main street the buildings 45, 321, 789, 4 and 432 could be right next to each other) . In recent years, more and more municipalities in which this system is still used have moved away from it and have introduced the classic zigzag system. There are no regulations for the signs indicating the houses. Numbers with street names are mainly used.
In Brazil , the system of reciprocal numbering (orientation numbering) is used, but the official house numbers are then assigned in meters according to the distance from the starting point of the respective street. The only thing that counts is the location of the property front, the house entrance is not precisely defined. The system has the great advantage that the search for a property is very easy, as one can easily estimate the remaining distance to the property using the house numbers along the street. Also, in the case of property division, there is usually always a sufficient supply of numbers so that under-numbering with letters is not common.
In addition to the house numbers, private internal numbering takes place in locked condominios according to the house blocks (quarteirão) on the property with numbers (example: Q2, L5, i.e. district number 2, access 5). Some of these condominios have names for the internal access road.
Plots on rural roads outside the towns are addressed under the kilometer indication, often with a supplement to make it easier to find (examples: " Estrada do Coco Km 4.5" or "Rodovia BR-101, Km 143 - Anexo Flamingo").
In Japan, it is not the streets that form the core of the addressing scheme (in fact, most streets do not have any designations such as names or numbers), but rather the enclosed property areas or blocks of houses that are numbered. Originally, the properties contained therein were given a conscription number, so that several houses on one property had the same address. Starting in 1962, these blocks were therefore continuously subdivided from one corner clockwise into sections of fixed length (usually 10 to 15 m) and these sections were numbered consecutively. The house number depends on the section of the house entrance. If the entrances of two houses fall in the same section, both houses again have the same number.
House number supplements
If there are changes in the existing building and there are no more free house numbers available, the numbers are supplemented with additions for street-by-street numbering. This is always necessary after a plot of land has been divided , when building gaps are closed or if another house, independent of the main building, is built on a plot of land. The addition is usually a letter (7 A) which can also be written in lower case. In Darmstadt the upper case of trailing letters is mandatory and in Halle the lower case. Sometimes, especially in Württemberg , the addition is a number (8/1, also 8-1), in France the terms “bis”, “ter”, “quater” (12bis; Latin adverbs for two, three, four times ). In The Hague , letters are also used to supplement house numbers. If you want to subdivide from these again, digits are added again. This is how house numbers such as "55 b 1" are created. Previously, fractions were also used: "3, 3 1 ⁄ 4 , 3 1 ⁄ 2 , 3 3 ⁄ 4 ". For example, the cities of Augsburg , Ingolstadt , Marburg , Bad Tölz , Füssen , Bad Nauheim and Bad Vilbel , the municipality of Kirchanschöring and the districts of the municipalities of Jachenau , Tübingen , Erlangen , Friedberg and Issigau still have “fraction house numbers”. The house number 1 1 ⁄ 2 of the Mathematical Institute in Erlangen was particularly well known as a curiosity. In Regensburg in the old town under the current house number on a house number plate, the historical from the district numbering is also given, often also here with a fraction number. This numbering variant also existed in Dortmund until the 1970s . Since then, they have been replaced by additional letters: The house at Große Heimstraße 2 1 ⁄ 2 became No. 2a and the house Stockumer Straße 398 1 ⁄ 2 became No. 398 a. Fractional and letter combinations are also used.
Augsburg has a very high fraction number on Schertlinstrasse. A whole new single-family home area with more than 150 houses was built behind house no. Instead of giving the individual cross streets their own names such as Schertlinhof, all houses were given fractional numbers facing Schertlinstrasse 11, up to the record number 11 1 ⁄ 187 .
When dividing a large property into several small ones, for example when developing new building areas with single-family houses, trailing letters also appear from the back of the alphabet. In some cases, letter supplements also occur without property subdivisions for identification. Examples of house numbers from the last letter area are: Bad Vilbel , Am Sportfeld 2 t and Schlesienring 30 t; Goch , Klever Strasse 59 t; Dresden , Österreicher Strasse 84 t; Berlin , Alt-Wittenau 38 v; Herten , Feldstrasse 156 v; Berlin, Pilgramer Strasse 286 v and 288 w; Lünen , forest height 2 w; Lübeck , Kronsford Landstrasse 10 w; Bergkamen , Hünenpad 10 x; Freiburg im Breisgau , Vaubanallee 8x; Constance , Mainaustrasse 209 y; Frankfurt am Main , Brussels Street 1 z; Garbsen , Lise-Meitner-Strasse 1 z; Dresden, Wilhelm-Weitling-Strasse 41 z; Cologne , Bergisch Gladbacher Strasse 263 z.
Amalgamation of properties often leads to house numbers being combined (Mariahilfer Straße 38–40 and 42–48). If the system is too severely broken, it may be necessary to renumber the entire street.
In the case of residential complexes or larger buildings, additions such as the staircase number (staircase number, staircase number) for the staircase or apartment number (door number) for the apartment can be added, which are then separated by a slash to give the address in more detail. In Vienna , the numbering of stairs or houses and residential units is mandatory, then the buildings are assigned to orientation numbers according to the access situation, whereby several buildings can share one orientation number. For example, the address Biberhaufenweg 100 includes a row house settlement with 178 houses and the address Geistingergasse 1, stairs 1 to 11 of the Karl-Marx-Hof . This results in three-part house numbers in the form of orientation number / stair / door. Such house numbers are also common in the inner city districts of Berlin.
In Building Code provides that the owner has provided his property with the limits set by the community number. From this only the obligation of the house or property owner to affix the numbering is justified, which gives the authority the opportunity to order a numbering . From Section 126 (3) of the BauGB it emerges that the rest of the state regulations apply. These regulate - in conjunction with detailed municipal statutes - in detail which authority is responsible for the allocation, for which units house numbers are allocated - for example, whether undeveloped land and ancillary buildings are given their own number - how the house numbers have to look and where they are to be attached. The assigned house numbers are recorded in the real estate cadastre with the associated street names as the location of the parcels .para. 3
There are a large number of different regulation variants. In North Rhine-Westphalia , the assignment of a property to a specific street and its numbering is based on § 14 OBG NRW . In Lower Saxony , Section 11 of the Law on Public Safety and Order comes into consideration. In Berlin , the numbering ordinance (NrVO) applies , which prescribes illuminated signs. The Cologne road code applies in Cologne .
The forerunners of today's house numbers were the conscription numbers introduced by Maria Theresa through an imperial patent on March 10, 1770 in Vienna . The fact that the house number assigned by the local authority also has to be attached was regulated in the respective building regulations of the federal states . The house number is part of an address. Addresses usually consist of the designation of a traffic area or (if there are no street names in a town) the town and a number. They are entered in the land register.
While the house number is colloquially an umbrella term for the orientation number in Austria as well, it is exactly the opposite under the law. Legally, the orientation number can be a house number or a conscription number. The rules of the address directory are decisive for use. Land numbers are also possible as orientation numbers (at least for the time being, until an orientation number has been assigned for new buildings, for example). The house number is unique within a street, the conscription number is unique within a town or municipality, the property number is unique within a cadastral municipality. In the case of stand-alone properties (churches, chapels, etc.), property numbers can be permanently present as addresses in the address directory. Only 0.03% of all addresses are special addresses that have no orientation number (e.g. sausage stands, market stalls, kiosks that are located on the sidewalks in front of houses). In the address register, notes such as “in front of no. Xy, kiosk” are provided.
In order to prepare for the 2010 census, Switzerland passed the Register Harmonization Act (RHG) in 2008, as a result of which each house had to be assigned a unique building address. This consists of the name of the street, the square or a named area and a house number. The municipalities have largely carried out building addressing in accordance with the Swiss standard SN 612040 issued in 2003 and the recommendation on building addressing and the spelling of street names issued by the Federal Office of Topography in 2005 . The Cadastral Surveying Switzerland managed building addresses coverage throughout Switzerland, keeps them up to date and makes it available.
Use of the house number in address details
House numbers are entered before or after the street name, depending on the language used. Furthermore, regardless of this, they are separated by a comma in some orthographies. In general, the following rules of thumb apply:
- English and French (except Belgium and Switzerland): number in front of the street name, other European languages (e.g. German, Spanish, Italian, also Belgium): after
- Romance languages: separated by a comma, other European languages (e.g. German, English, Polish, Greek): none.
One solution for bilingual environments like in Brussels is that this distribution is used to make the information in both languages (here Flemish and French) "simultaneously" according to the pattern "x-straat 10, rue de x".
House numbers are always given with numbers. In German, a number such as 2-4 is followed by the bis-dash .
In English-speaking countries, especially in the United States and Canada, house no. 1 indicated with "One", ie written out. Since some municipalities accommodate local companies when naming access roads, speaking addresses are possible in individual cases. For a long time , the headquarters of MapInfo Corporation, a manufacturer of geographic information systems , had the address One Global View (in Troy, NY ). The Apple company headquarters is at One Infinite Loop in Cupertino .
Known house numbers
4711 and 2583 1/2
Probably the most famous house number in Germany is 4711 in Cologne on Glockengasse . Another well-known house number in Cologne is that of Cologne Cathedral . The small blue enamel sign with the address Domkloster 4 regularly falls victim to souvenir hunters. When it was numbered in 1794, the cathedral was given the curious number 2583 1/2. The addition 1/2 only identified a property with a public building for which no taxes were payable. This played an important role for the cathedral clergy. The tiny sexton's apartment in the north tower had the full house number 2583 and was therefore taxable. The huge cathedral was only seen as an appendage and was therefore only half the house number. In 1811 the impractical long house numbers in Cologne were abolished and replaced by the current system. A fiction, on the other hand, is the house number Kaygasse number 0 , made famous by a Cologne carnival song, which did not exist like that, unlike the teacher Heinrich Welsch sung about in the song .
10 Downing Street
Number 10 Downing Street in London is one of the most famous in the world. This address has been the residence of the First Lord of the Treasury, who is generally also the British Prime Minister , at this address since 1902 . Originally the building was number 5.
55, Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré
The house number 55, Rue du Faubourg Saint-Honoré is the famous address of the French President in Paris . He resides in the Elysée Palace, built there in 1718 by Armand-Claude Mollet . At first it served as a Hôtel particulier , later as a dance hall, until it was chosen as the official residence of the President in 1873.
1600 Pennsylvania Avenue NW
221B Baker Street
The fictional place of residence of Sherlock Holmes . This number did not exist when the novels were written, but today it is on Baker Street in London; it houses a bank. A few doors down is the Sherlock Holmes Museum .
77 Sunset Strip
77 Sunset Strip is one of the most famous American crime series from the 1950s and 1960s. It denotes the address of the Bailey and Spencer detective agency in Los Angeles on Sunset Boulevard. In the opening and closing credits of the individual episodes, the address was written in large letters on the front of the canopy above the entrance.
Sigmund Freud lived in the house at Berggasse 19 in Vienna for 47 years from 1891. This is also the address of a museum and archive on his life and work. Under this title there is also a film with Curd Jürgens as Sigmund Freud.
Porsche Street 911
The Porsche AG by the community Weissach available at the Porsche road for their development and motor sports center at number 911th Awarding the number 911 is an honor to the Porsche 911 , the sports car is the epitome of the company's brand. This is proven by the allocation of private house numbers that are interwoven with economic residents' interests and that deviate from the general principles of house numbering.
Official house coordinates
A community for disseminating house coordinates (GVHK) was founded for Germany in 2003 . The Working Committee of the Surveying Authorities of the States of the Federal Republic of Germany so (AdV) aims for all included in the real estate register and provided with a number building a relationship between the address (location name with house number) and a corresponding pair of coordinates in different coordinate systems and to provide it on to offer to the market.
The customer (location-based services, publishers, insurance companies, suppliers, delivery services) can then blend this data with a graphic available to him. Every address you are looking for can be displayed immediately in the graphic. The official house coordinates thus define the exact position of a house address and are distributed in a standardized data format - covering the entire area of the Federal Republic of Germany. Preparations are currently under way (2011) to set up a geocoding service ( gazetteer service) on the basis of this data, which will enable online encoding of addresses in the Internet, in order to make them available via an OGC- compliant web service. The technical implementation is planned as a project of the GDI -Initiative Deutschland-Online .
- Hans-Gerd Becker: House numbering - a geodetic task of order. In: Senate Department for Urban Development Berlin (Ed.): Geoinformation 2010 in Berlin - Changes and Challenges. November 2010, pp. 97-100 ( PDF file ).
- Jürgen Beyer: Addresses of printers, publishers and booksellers in the 18th century. At the same time a contribution to the discussion about a VD18. In: Wolfenbüttel notes on book history. 31 (2006), pp. 159-190.
- Wilfried Matzke: The little known history of addressing in Augsburg. In: ESRI Deutschland GmbH (Ed.): ArcAKTUELL 2/2015. 2015, pp. 12–13 ( epaper ).
- Reuben S. Rose-Redwood: Indexing the great ledger of the community: urban house numbering, city directories, and the production of spatial legibility. In: Journal of Historical Geography. 34 (2008), pp. 286-310 ( doi: 10.1016 / j.jhg.2007.06.003 ).
- Martin Schlatter: Recommendation for building addressing. Publisher: Building Department Canton Zurich, Switzerland (26 pages; PDF, 1.4 MB ).
- Anton Tantner: Order of Houses, Description of Souls - House Numbering and Soul Conscription in the Habsburg Monarchy. Dissertation at the University of Vienna , Faculty of Humanities and Cultural Studies, 2004 ( E-Text ).
- Anton Tantner: The house number. A story of order and disorder. Jonas Verlag, Marburg 2007 (80 pages; e-text ).
- Anton Tantner: Addressing Fragments. Conscription numbers in Vienna. In: dérive. Urban Research Journal . 11 ( E-Text ).
- Bernhard Wittstock: The house number in Berlin from the beginning at the end of the 18th century to the present in the German and European context. Pro Business Verlag, Berlin 2008 (collection of materials on Berlin and European house numbering with information on the contemporary environment; 5 volumes, 2828 pages).
- Bernhard Wittstock: digit number order. The house number in Berlin from the beginning at the end of the 18th century to the present in a German and European context. Dissertation at the Technical University of Berlin, Faculty VI, Planning, Building, Environment, Berlin 2011.
- Homepage of Anton Tantner (with "Gallery of House Numbers " and weblog for house number research)
- Law on House Numbering in the Kingdom of Hanover 1857 ( Memento of October 12, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) (PDF; 104 kB)
- House numbers worldwide (World Bank) (PDF; 5.9 MB)
- Berlin ordinance on property numbering
- Information from the AdV on official house coordinates
- History of house numbers (Engl.)
- Examples of historical house numbers on hausnummer.tantner.net accessed on June 4, 2009.
- Berlin ordinance on property numbering of December 9, 1975, last amended on December 10, 1990.
- Hamburgische Bauordnung (HBauO) of December 14, 2005, last amended on January 28, 2014 (PDF; 1,084 kB).
- Press release of December 4, 2008 about the 500th green house number in Saarland ( Memento of June 4, 2009 in the Internet Archive ).
- Anton Tantner: The house number. A story of order and disorder. Jonas Verlag, Marburg 2007, pp. 16–24.
- Vienna addresses - The introduction of house numbers - UNI Vienna from July 22, 2002, accessed on May 28, 2009.
- Anton Tantner: The house number. A story of order and disorder. Jonas Verlag, Marburg 2007, pp. 25–37.
- Anton Tantner: The houses numbered. In: Sylvia Mattl-Wurm, Alfred Pfoser: The measurement of Vienna. Lehmann's address books 1859–1942. Metroverlag, Vienna 2011, ISBN 978-3-99300-029-3 (formally incorrect ISBN, corrected ISBN 978-3-99300-029-5 ), p. 263.
- The Düsseldorf Police Ordinance of 1858, The old and new house numbers at  (accessed on May 4, 2014).
- Hanseatic City of Hamburg, Office for Building Regulations and Building Construction ( Memento from June 6, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- kuschk: There's No One Way to Number a House: House Numbering Around the World ( Memento from February 14, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) . The Basement Geographer, December 16, 2010
- Many house numbers are illegal (T-Online)
- Department of Mathematics, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nuremberg. (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on January 22, 2010 ; Retrieved September 21, 2011 .
- zoning plan at wien.at
- Naming of buildings. In: www.wien.gv.at. Retrieved March 15, 2019 .
- Numbering of usage units. In: www.wien.gv.at. Retrieved March 15, 2019 .
- 190 years of house numbering in Vienna. In: City Hall correspondence of March 7, 1960 (accessed on July 19, 2012).
- Adress-GWR-Online (PDF; 116 kB) page 12 point 2.2.38 (accessed on June 3, 2009).
- Statistics Austria: Adress-GWR-Online. Manual Part A, Chapter 2. Maintaining Addresses, Version 0.3 November 22, 2010. pp. 9–10.
- Adress-GWR-Online manual, p. 19.
- The Swiss Register Harmonization Act ( Memento of September 26, 2009 in the Internet Archive ), Surveying and Improvement Office of the Canton of Basel-Landschaft: Orientation on building addresses from October 24, 2008 (PDF; 1 MB) , both accessed on June 4, 2009.
- Recommendation: Addressing buildings and spelling of street names ( memento of January 9, 2016 in the Internet Archive ) Federal Office of Topography, 2005
- On the history of Cologne house numbers: http://www.archive.nrw.de/kommunalarchive/kommunalarchive_i-l/k/Koeln/InformationenUndService/AllgemeineInformationen/ZurKoelnerStadtgeschichte_Teil3.php