Porsche 911

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Porsche 911
Production period: since 1963
Class : Sports car
Body versions : Coupé , cabriolet , roadster
Previous model: Porsche 356
Porsche 911 model year 1964

The Porsche 911 , also briefly nine-eleven , or only penalty called, is the most famous sports car of Porsche and is regarded as the epitome of this brand. The latest model series 992 has been available since 2019.

The first 911 was presented on September 12, 1963 at the IAA in Frankfurt am Main as the successor to the Porsche 356 with the designation Porsche 901 . However, three-digit numbers with a zero in the middle were protected as a type designation for Peugeot , so that the car came onto the market in 1964 as the Porsche 911.

The car is a typical 2 + 2-seater with two seats and two jump seats. It is powered by a 6-cylinder boxer engine in the rear. With the rear-engine design, the 911 continues a classic design principle that can already be found in earlier Porsche developments, for example the VW Beetle and the Porsche 356. The Porsche 911 usually has rear-wheel drive (Carrera); vehicles with all-wheel drive (Carrera 4) have also been offered since 1989 . The top model since 1974 has been the 911 Turbo equipped with a turbo engine. In addition, since 1995 the 911 GT2 , a weight-optimized and performance-enhanced version of the 911 Turbo, has been produced in a small series.

Body variants of the Porsche 911 are the Coupé , the Cabriolet and the Targa . In the years from 1989 to 1993 and 2010, a roadster-like variant called the Speedster was also produced in small series. This name goes back to the version of the Porsche 356, which appeared in September 1954, with a flat windshield , blind windows in the doors, bucket seats and a fully retractable hood.

The Porsche 911 and its offshoots, such as the Porsche 934 and 935 models , have been used successfully in the past as racing cars in the World Sports Car Championship and the German Racing Championship . Today, 911-based racing cars are mainly used in one-make cups such as the Carrera Cup .

History of origin

The previous model of the Porsche 911, the Porsche 356

At the end of the 1950s, Porsche began developing a successor to the 356, which had been produced almost unchanged since 1950 and no longer corresponded to the state of the art. Above all, the 4-cylinder boxer engine could no longer be further developed and manufactured due to its design. With two liters it was at the end of its displacement and power development. The new model should be superior to the old 356 in all areas without giving up the typical basic shape of a Porsche. As head of the Porsche body construction department, Erwin Komenda was initially entrusted with developing the design of the Porsche Type 901. At the same time, Ferdinand Alexander Porsche (Ferdinand junior, called Butzi), the son of Ferry Porsche , developed a model of the new car, whereby he had to adhere to the few specifications, including a wheelbase no longer than 2.20 m, engine and Rear drive. Both designers influenced each other with their designs. In the end, Ferdinand junior's design was accepted because it best matched the character of a Porsche automobile and the relationship to the 356 was immediately recognizable. The new car was about six inches longer than the 356, but also about six inches narrower, had larger windows for better all-round visibility, and a larger trunk. The interior design was also revised and adapted to the taste of the 1960s. Besides modern technology with front shock absorber struts and wishbones instead of the crank arm axle and a rear trailing arm suspension instead of the pendulum axle, the drive was the most significant change offered by the 901 and 911. The engine was a 2-liter six-cylinder boxer with overhead camshafts instead of a four-cylinder, the valves of which (except in the 356 Carrera) operated a lower camshaft via bumpers and rocker arms. The new engine developed 96 kW (130 hp) at 6100 rpm. In the first sales brochures, Porsche stated that the fuel consumption was 11-14 liters per 100 km. The sound of the air-cooled engine with dry sump lubrication was already the unmistakable sound of the 911. Former Porsche engine boss Hans Mezger , who later designed the Porsche 917 and the TAG McLaren engine with the, was responsible for the development of this Porsche engine the English racing team won the Formula 1 World Championship three times in a row .

Model development

The Porsche 911 has been continuously developed over the course of its fifty-year history.

Porsche 911 original model (1963–1973)

Porsche 911 (master model) with contemporary paintwork from the 1960s

The first 911 version, which was built in series from September 1964, was the so-called original model presented at the IAA 1963 with a 2-liter six-cylinder boxer engine producing 130 hp. Unlike the Porsche 356, which was still based on the VW Beetle in terms of body and chassis , the 911 had a self-supporting body and wheel suspension with triangular wishbones and shock absorbers at the front and trailing arms at the rear. The rack and pinion steering with twice angled safety steering column was also new .

The car was produced with the 130 hp carburettor engine for two years until the 911 S with the same displacement but more powerful was added in the summer of 1966 (model year 1967). The higher compression engine of this sportier version developed 118 kW (160 hp) and it was more extensively equipped than the simple model. Outwardly it could be recognized by the distinctive light alloy wheels from Fuchs , the Fuchsfelgen .

In order to attract customers for whom a 911 was too expensive, the Porsche 912 was introduced with the final cessation of production of the 356 in 1965 , a more simply equipped 911 with the 90 hp four-cylinder boxer engine of the 356.

To reduce the tendency to oversteer when cornering quickly, the 911 received two cast iron ballast weights, each weighing 11 kg, behind the front bumper in 1966. In 1968 there were instead longer rear swing arms and thus a larger wheelbase.

The 911 base model with a 130 hp engine was named 911 L ( luxury ) in the 1968 model year ; at the same time, the 911 T ( Touring ) with a 110 hp six-cylinder boxer engine and four-speed transmission (otherwise 5-speed) was available as a comparatively inexpensive model . The 911 L with carburettor engine was replaced from model year 1969 by the 911 E with 140 hp (103 kW) and mechanical intake manifold injection , which Porsche also used in the 911 S with 170 hp (125 kW) from then on. In addition to the engine power, the T, E and S models also differ in their equipment.

In 1969, the displacement of all engines was increased from 2 liters to 2.2 liters, two years later to 2.4 liters. The engine output increased accordingly, so that the 2.4-liter 911 S developed a maximum of 140 kW (190 hp). With the performance, the fuel consumption rose to 17.0 liters per 100 km. With a top speed of 230 km / h, the 911 S was the fastest German production vehicle in 1972. Production of the 912 was ended.

The 911 Coupé was supplemented by the Targa from model year 1967 . The Targa was a so-called safety cabriolet with a wide roll bar, from which the roof and originally also a remaining top with a rear window (called softwindow) could be removed. The 911 Targa (Italian shield) was presented in 1965 at the IAA in Frankfurt am Main. The name is derived from the Targa Florio , a long-distance race in Sicily that Porsche won five times from 1956 to 1965.

In 1971 and 1972 almost 10,000 Porsche 911 T, E and S of the 2.4 liter E-model were produced as later so-called "oil flap models". In these vehicles, the filler neck for the oil was located under a flap on the outside of the right B-pillar instead of in the engine compartment . With the 1973 model year, the oil flap disappeared again - allegedly also because both the owner and the tank attendant were ignorant of filling the supposed fuel tank with petrol, which is said to have resulted in engine damage.

Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 with additionally mounted Cibie headlights

In October 1972, a special sports version of the 911 was presented at the Mondial de l'Automobile in Paris. The Porsche Carrera RS 2.7, named after the Carrera Panamericana like earlier racing models , was originally planned as a small series of 500 vehicles in order to gain approval as a racing car. The boxer engine, which has been enlarged to a displacement of 2.7 liters, develops 154 kW (210 hp) at 6300 rpm.

To reduce weight, the Carrera RS has, among other things, a front hood made of thin sheet metal and an engine cover made of fiberglass-reinforced plastic. By dispensing with carpeting and insulating material, the otherwise spartan car - also missing rear seats, front passenger sun visor, door armrests, storage boxes and the clock - is very light at 975 kg. In order not to scare off potential buyers, Porsche offered the 911 S as an extra. After the unexpected sales success, the first edition was expanded by more than 1000 vehicles, so that 1590 cars (1308 RS Touring, 217 RS Sport, 55 RSR 2.8 Group 4 and 10 prototypes) left the factory. The cars were used very successfully in racing and are still popular today at historic racing events. The characteristic spoiler lip ("rear spoiler") on the engine compartment cover earned the Carrera RS 2.7 the nickname ducktail .

Porsche 911 G-Model (1973–1989)

Porsche 911 Carrera (G-model) with optional spoiler package

For the 1974 model year, the 911 was fundamentally revised. (Starting with the model year 1968, the A- series , each year up to 1979 (M-series; the letter I was not assigned) was designated with a consecutive letter of the alphabet. The 1980 year was designated the A- program ). Although, strictly speaking, only the vehicles of the 1974 model year make up the G series, all 911s from 1974 to 1989 are generally referred to as the G series or G model.

The most striking external distinguishing feature are the higher and more massive bumpers that merge into the body via black plastic bellows. They were necessary to meet new regulations of the US NHTSA . These determined that a front or rear impact with a solid obstacle up to a speed of 5  mph (8 km / h) should not result in any damage to the body. In order to meet this requirement, the bumpers of cars for the US market were connected to the vehicle body via hydraulic impact absorbers. The impact absorbers were replaced by cheaper impact tubes on models that were not intended for US export. These had to be replaced after parking bumps, which was not necessary with the resetting impact absorbers. The impact absorbers could be ordered as an extra.

The car was only on the market in the versions 911, 911 S and the new top model 911 Carrera . The displacement of the six-cylinder boxer engine, which continues to be air-cooled, has also been increased to 2.7 liters in the weaker engine variants. The 911 developed 110 kW (150 PS), the 911 S 128 kW (175 PS) and the Carrera 154 kW (210 PS). This was equipped with the machine from the RS and was produced in a similar number (Coupé: 1534 copies, Targa: 610 copies). As with its predecessor, the body of the new Carrera was widened by a total of 42 mm to accommodate the larger tires on the rear fenders. Where the approval regulations allowed, it was also equipped with a front spoiler lip and a distinctive spoiler lip attached to the bonnet. At 1075 kg, the new Carrera was just as heavy as the 911 RS touring and therefore offered the same performance.

For the 1976 model year, the displacement of the 911 Carrera was increased to 3 liters. At a speed of 6000 rpm, the engine in this version developed 147 kW (200 hp), a little less than the previous Carrera 2.7 RS model. The engine with 110 kW (150 PS) was no longer offered. The weakest available engine was the 2.7-liter machine of the previous year-911 S, the output of which was now given as 121 kW (165 hp) without any technical change. The semi-automatic Sportomatic, available on request for both models, only had three gears. Load-bearing body parts were hot-dip galvanized on both sides and Porsche was therefore able to offer a long-term guarantee of six years against rust perforation.

In the USA in the 1976 model year, the 912 E with the 1971 cc engine from VW from the Porsche 914 was offered.

Engine compartment of a 911 Carrera with a
3.2-liter boxer engine

Since the Porsche model range already included the 924 and 928 , the 911 program was streamlined from model year 1978: the Carrera was no longer available - the 911 was only available as an SC and Turbo. The 911 SC had the wide body of the Carrera and a three-liter engine with 132 kW (180 hp) with mechanical K-Jetronic . The car was surpassed in performance and top speed by the Porsche 928, which, according to the ideas of the Porsche management, was to replace the 911 in the 1980s.

In model year 1980, the output of the SC was increased to 138 kW (188 hp) and further increased in the following model year 1981 by switching from normal to premium petrol to 150 kW (204 hp). The semi-automatic Sportomatic was omitted. The long-term guarantee against rusting through of the body could be extended to seven years with the use of galvanized steel sheets on both sides. This was later extended to ten years.

The company's management planned to phase out the 911 in 1981. The future model range should consist only of the modern, water-cooled cars with front-engined 924, 944 and 928. After CEO Ernst Fuhrmann was replaced by Peter W. Schutz at the end of 1980, this plan was changed. As a signal for the realignment, Porsche presented the study of a 911 convertible with turbo engine and all-wheel drive at the IAA in Frankfurt in 1981. From model year 1983, the Cabriolet was offered as a third body variant for the SC, in addition to the Coupé and Targa.

For the 1984 model year, the name was changed from SC to Carrera and the displacement of the naturally aspirated engine was increased to 3.2 liters, which produced 170 kW (231 hp). The fully electronic Motronic engine control (digital engine electronics, DME) from Bosch replaced the mechanical K-Jetronic . The DME reduced fuel consumption compared to the previous SC model. Due to stricter emissions regulations in the USA, a catalytic converter was also offered for the first time for the 911. These models delivered with a catalytic converter had a lower output than the cars without a catalytic converter. It was initially 152 kW (207 hp), but this was increased to 160 kW (217 hp) from 1986. Upon request, the Carrera was delivered with a front spoiler lip and a large, flat rear spoiler. He increased the maximum speed specified by the factory from 245 km / h for the version without a catalytic converter with 170 kW to 254 km / h measured by auto, motor and sport .

In 1989, the G-model was sold in a limited small series as a puristic, roadster-like variant under the name Speedster , which differed from the 911 Cabriolet primarily through its shortened windshield frame and two humps on the convertible top flap. Porsche also offered the Carrera with the wide fenders and braking system of the 911 Turbo. Due to the slightly higher air resistance, the so-called turbo - wide Carrera were slightly slower than the standard version with the same engine power.

These models and vehicles from special series, such as the limited edition Ferry Porsche and the slightly lighter 911 Carrera Clubsport equipped with a modified Motronic, are considered collectors' items and are rarely found in road traffic.

Porsche 911 Turbo (1974–1989)
Porsche 911 Turbo 3.3 (G-model)

After the BMW 2002 turbo presented in 1973 , Porsche was the second manufacturer to install an exhaust gas turbocharger in a production vehicle the following year . With turbocharging, Porsche achieved great success in racing cars such as the Porsche 917/10 and 917/30 in the early 1970s and gained experience that was incorporated into series production. The new Porsche 911 Turbo developed under the internal number 930 was presented at the 1974 Paris Motor Show. The Porsche Turbo was the first sports car with exhaust gas turbocharger and boost pressure control as standard.

The car with a displacement of 3 liters initially had an output of 191 kW (260 hp). For the 1978 model year, the power was increased to 220 kW (300 hp) through higher compression, an increase in displacement to 3.3 liters and the use of a charge air cooler , which also required a larger rear wing. The fuel consumption of the turbo engines is significantly higher than that of a 911 without turbocharging at around 20 liters per 100 kilometers. Typical features of the 911 Turbo are the greatly widened front and rear fenders and the large rear spoiler with an even more massive spoiler lip made of rubber.

Porsche 964 (1988–1994)

Front view of a Porsche 911 Carrera (type 964) with a bumper integrated in the front apron
Porsche 911 Speedster (Type 964)

In 1989, Porsche embarked on a new marketing strategy with the 964, after all Porsche models (356, 911, 914, 924, 928, 944 etc.) had run under the internal development number in the previous years; except for the 930, which was already sold as the 911 Turbo. Sharply declining sales figures at the end of the 1980s - especially for the 944 and 928 models - and the resulting severe crisis prompted us not to give up the classic 911 and to offer the 964 as the new Porsche 911 .

Compared to the previous model, the 964 was a completely new vehicle that consisted of 80 percent new parts. The body shape remained almost unchanged except for the bumpers. The interior fittings and the vehicle instruments were also carefully revised and were still very reminiscent of the predecessor. The most noticeable revision was in the technology. The car had an anti-lock braking system (ABS) , power steering and, from 1991, airbags as standard , which were not yet available in the previous models. The chassis was completely redesigned and received, among other things, coil springs instead of torsion bar suspension . The air-cooled six-cylinder boxer engine in the 964 had a displacement of 3.6 liters and developed 184 kW (250 hp).

The car was available in two versions with rear (Carrera 2) or with all-wheel drive (Carrera 4). Both versions could optionally be ordered as a coupé, targa or convertible. In 1993, the last year of production of the type 964, the car was produced as a Speedster in a small series of 930 units, with these vehicles being available at basic prices from DM 131,500 at the time.

As of the 1991 model year, the top model was a turbo with the 3.3-liter engine from the Porsche 930, which in this revised version developed 235 kW (320 hp). The car was criticized because its performance no longer stood out as clearly from the 964 as was the case with the previous model 930 compared to the 911. After two years of production, it was replaced from model year 1993 by the Turbo 3.6, whose engine was based on that of the 964 naturally aspirated models with a displacement of 3.6 liters and developed an output of 265 kW (360 hp).

The fuel consumption of all 964 models has been further reduced compared to the previous models, so that the Carrera is 14.0 liters and the Turbo 3.6 is around 18.0 liters of premium gasoline per 100 km.

In addition to the large series vehicles, other small series vehicles were built on the 964 platform, such as the Carrera RS or Turbo S, which were specially developed for sporty and ambitious drivers.

Porsche 993 (1993–1998)

Porsche 911 Carrera (Type 993)
Rear view of a
Porsche 911 Carrera 4S (type 993)

The Porsche 993 replaced the Porsche 964 in 1993. It is the last 911 with an air-cooled engine, which is why it has a special appeal for some fans of puristic Porsche sports cars.

The 993 was improved in many details that were new in the 964 and still led to problems. This gave the 993 a reputation as a particularly sophisticated and reliable sports car among the 911 models.

The body is a much acclaimed design by Harm Lagaay , which is particularly noticeable due to the harmonious integration of the bumpers into the body. Despite their width, the rear fenders are not exaggerated, so that the vehicle gives off a harmonious overall picture. In contrast to the previous models, the front section is flatter, which was only made possible by using the new polyellipsoid headlights instead of the round headlights previously used. The car was sold in the body versions Coupé, Targa and Cabriolet.

The engine of the 993 equipped with hydraulic valve lifters achieved an output of 200 kW (272 hp) from a displacement of 3.6 liters; from model year 1996 it was 210 kW (285 hp) with the same displacement, among other things because of the improved intake system. The average fuel consumption has not increased despite the increase in performance and is around 11.5 liters / 100 km (SuperPlus, 98 octane) for this model. A six-speed gearbox was now standard on both the naturally aspirated and the turbo models.

As with the 964, the 993 was offered with rear-wheel drive (Carrera) or with all-wheel drive (Carrera 4). In 1996, Porsche remembered the tradition of designating stronger and higher quality vehicles with an additional S. With these vehicles, too, the customer could choose between rear-wheel drive (Carrera S) or all-wheel drive (Carrera 4S). With 210 kW (285 hp), the engine corresponded to the standard Carrera models. However, the cars had the four centimeters wider body of the Turbo and the Carrera 4S also had its more powerful braking system.

Traditionally, the most powerful 911 model in a series is equipped with a turbo engine. In the 993, the turbo has an output of 300 kW (408 hp) and is the first series model since the Porsche 959 to exceed the 400 hp mark. The average fuel consumption for turbocharged engines remains moderate at around 13.2 l / 100 km. The engine is equipped with two turbochargers (bi-turbo) plus charge air coolers. Arranged under the fixed rear wing, which externally sets the turbo apart from the other 993s, these completely hide the view of the engine.

For customers who want to drive their Porsche more on the racetrack than on public roads, Porsche launched the Carrera RS and 911 GT2 models . Both vehicles are lighter than the production models and have a comparatively higher engine output. The Carrera RS has a 3.8 liter engine and 221 kW (300 hp) without supercharging, while the GT2, like the Turbo, comes with two turbochargers.

Porsche 996 (1997-2006)

Porsche 911 Carrera 4S Coupé (type 996) with the headlights changed from 2002

The era of air-cooled engines in the Porsche 911 ended with the 996 in 1997. Starting with this model, Porsche installed a water-cooled engine in the rear of the car. The number of cylinders remained at six and the principle of the boxer arrangement was retained.

The 3.4-liter engine developed 220 kW (300 hp) at 6800 rpm. With the 2002 model year, the engine output was increased to 235 kW (320 hp) and the displacement to 3.6 liters.

Despite the heavily revised lines, especially in the front and rear, the exterior of the 996 still shows the distinctive features of the 911. Overall, the 996 is larger than the previous models and aerodynamically improved.

expanded boxer with ancillary units

In order to reduce production costs, many parts of the Porsche Boxster were taken over during the development of the 996 . Apparently this was the case with the headlights - often called fried egg lights because of their shape - which meant that the front view of the 911 was almost indistinguishable from the Boxster. Customer criticism prompted Porsche, in addition to a few technical changes, to replace the front headlights with newly designed ones in the 2002 model year, so that an independent 911 design was given again.

Porsche 911 Carrera 4S Cabriolet (Type 996)

When developing the 996, the focus was on suitability for everyday use and driving comfort. The type of car can therefore be compared more with a Gran Turismo like the Porsche 928 than with a Spartan sports car like its predecessors were.

The interior, especially the dashboard with the instruments and the center console, has been redesigned and no longer shows any resemblance to that of the 911, 964 and 993 series.

The 996 was sold as a Coupé, Targa and Cabriolet with rear-wheel or all-wheel drive. In addition to the standard Carrera models, there was also the 4S version, which stood out on the outside. This model has the wide body and the braking system of the Turbo as well as all-wheel drive. Only the lack of a fixed rear spoiler and the lack of air inlets in the area of ​​the rear fenders differentiated the two models. Based on the previous models, the rear of the Carrera 4S again had the continuous light strip that was omitted on the other 996 vehicles.

The Turbo based on the 996 was only offered three years after the first Carrera model. The engine of this car has an output of 309 kW (420 hp) and 331 kW (450 hp) in the more powerful S version. The car has all-wheel drive as standard and a wider body than the Carrera models and could be ordered as a coupé or cabriolet. The rear wing is smaller than the previous turbos and no longer dominates the entire rear.

The 996 has an average fuel consumption of 11.1 liters (Carrera) and 13.3 liters (Turbo) per 100 km.

For customers who are enthusiastic about racing, Porsche developed sport versions of the 996 based on GT motorsport. These GT models had more power than the production models and were prepared for sport use.

The Porsche 911 GT3 had a six-cylinder naturally aspirated boxer engine with an initial 265 kW (360 hp). From the 2002 model year, the engine in the GT3 had an output of 280 kW (381 hp). In terms of engine power, the GT3 was even surpassed by the Porsche 911 GT2 . The GT2 had a six-cylinder boxer engine with turbocharging in the rear, which delivered 340 kW (462 hp) up to the model year and 355 kW (483 hp) later.

All GT models could be ordered with an optional Clubsport package and had no electronic driving aids, as were standard in the high-volume models.

Porsche 997 (2004–2012)

Front view of a Porsche 911 Carrera S (type 997) as it was introduced in 2004

With the 997 series, the vehicle design was again based more on the Porsche 993 in order to emphasize the traditional features of the 911, which some customers missed with the 996. The front section in particular with the round headlights is reminiscent of the classic Porsche 911.

From a technical point of view, little has changed compared to the previous 996. The engine was still a water-cooled six-cylinder boxer engine .

However, the structure of the model range was changed and it was aligned with that of the Porsche Boxster and Porsche Cayenne . Since then, the element that determines its name has primarily been the engine power. More powerful models are given the suffix S or GTS . In addition, the cabriolet body shape (addition Cabriolet ) and the all-wheel drive type (addition  4 ) determine the additional additions to the model name.

The Porsche 911 Carrera was offered in two performance variants, the Carrera and Carrera S. The 3.6 liter engine of the Carrera has a maximum output of 239 kW (325 PS) and the 3.8 liter engine of the Carrera S has a maximum output of 261 kW (355 PS). Both models were available in coupé and cabriolet body styles and could be ordered with rear-wheel or all-wheel drive.

From November 2006, the 997 series was supplemented by the Targa 4 and Targa 4S models, which were supplied exclusively with all-wheel drive. External differences to the 997 Carrera can be found in particular in the large panoramic glass roof and in the silhouette, which was characterized by the tapering rear side windows and the anodized and polished aluminum trim strips on both sides . Like the Carrera, the engine of the Targa 4 had an output of 239 kW (325 PS) and the Targa 4S was produced with the more powerful engine of the Carrera S with 261 kW (355 PS).

Front view of a Porsche 911 Carrera GTS (type 997) with a modified design from 2009

In the 2009 model year, the model series was given a facelift . Apart from changed air inlets and redesigned LED taillights and LED daytime running lights, there have been major technical changes. The engines of the Carrera and Carrera S were converted to direct injection . This increased the output of the Carrera to 254 kW (345 hp) and that of the Carrera S to 283 kW (385 hp). The Targa 4 and Targa 4S were also revised and delivered with the more powerful engines. In the same model year, the Carrera S was available with an engine output increased by 16 kW (23 hp) to 300 kW (408 hp).

In the same year, the Carrera GTS was introduced to the model range by Porsche. This car, produced both as a coupé and as a convertible, had the more powerful boxer engine from the Carrera S, which developed 300 kW (408 hp) at a speed of 7300 rpm. With the standard six-speed manual transmission, the car reached a top speed of 306 km / h. The vehicle filled the performance gap between the Carrera S and the GT3. The most noticeable distinguishing feature was the 44 mm wider body on the rear axle than the Carrera S. The GTS could be ordered with rear or all-wheel drive.

The interior of the 997 has been comprehensively revised compared to the previous series, as it was criticized by many customers. When it came to the design, Porsche was also based on the 993. The speedometer instruments and the switches in the center console were specifically changed. As a novelty, an instrument cluster with a 4.6-inch TFT color screen has been integrated, which can display data from the on-board computer, navigation and audio system and warnings.

Porsche 911 Turbo Cabriolet (Type 997)

The top model of the mass production models remained the all-wheel drive 911 Turbo. The built-in 3.6-liter biturbo engine developed 353 kW (480 hp). This turbo, as the first series-produced vehicle with a gasoline engine from a German manufacturer, had adjustable guide vanes on the exhaust gas turbines of the two turbochargers. In the lower speed range, these ensured more spontaneous response and better pulling power. The 997 Turbo accelerated to 100 km / h in 3.8 seconds. The top speed was 310 km / h.

After the model revision in 2009, the displacement of the engine was increased to 3.8 liters, whereby the engine output of the turbo increased to 368 kW (500 PS). The Turbo S was also introduced, with its 3.8 liter engine developing 390 kW (530 hp). Both the Turbo and the Turbo S could be ordered as a Coupé or Cabriolet. Compared to the Carrera models, the Turbo has a wider body on the front and rear axles. In addition, the bow and stern cladding are drawn lower down to street level and contain larger ventilation openings. There are air inlets on both sides in front of the rear axle, which clearly distinguishes the Turbo from the 911 with naturally aspirated engines when viewed from the side. Traditionally, a large rear spoiler is mounted on the bonnet, which in the 997 Turbo extends at 120 km / h and retracts again at 60 km / h.

In all 997 models, fuel consumption has been reduced compared to the comparable 996 models despite the increase in performance. This is an average of 10.3 liters (Carrera) and 11.6 liters (Turbo) per 100 km.

The Porsche 911 GT3 (type 997) is intended as the basis for motorsport

In addition to the large series models, several small series were produced especially for racing use. As with the 996, these differed between vehicles with a six-cylinder naturally aspirated boxer engine ( Porsche 911 GT3 ) and vehicles with a six-cylinder boxer engine with turbocharging ( Porsche 911 GT2 ). Both models have rear-wheel drive . These model series can be distinguished from the standard models by the large rear spoiler and wide body with large openings for brake and engine cooling. The interior is spartan and designed purely for sports use. Instead of the standard sports seats, bucket sports seats are included. There are no seats in the rear. A safety cage was built into all models.

The 911 GT3 was presented at the Geneva Motor Show in March 2006 . Compared to its direct 996 predecessor, it is 25 kW (34 hp) more powerful and thus develops 305 kW (415 hp) from a displacement of 3.6 liters. After the model revision, the engine output of the GT3 rose to 320 kW (435 hp) with a simultaneous increase in displacement to 3.8 liters. The GT3 was later replaced by the GT3 RS and GT3 RS 4.0, whose output increased to 331 kW (450 PS) and 386 kW (500 PS), respectively. The displacement of the GT3 RS remained unchanged. The displacement of the GT3 RS 4.0 has been increased to 4 liters. This is the first time Porsche has developed a naturally aspirated engine with an output that was previously only possible using a turbocharger. This racing car accelerates from zero to 100 km / h in 3.9 seconds.

The GT2 of the 997 series introduced in 2007 was also produced later in 2010 as the GT2 RS with a larger engine power. The first model developed 390 kW (530 PS) and the successor model developed 456 kW (620 PS) with an unchanged displacement of 3.6 liters. The GT2 RS was limited to a number of 500 copies.

In addition, several special models of the 997 were produced. In the 911 Sport Classic , some stylistic elements such as the rear spoiler of the 911 Carrera RS from 1973 were taken up. Only 250 pieces of this special model were made. The body of the 911 Speedster was delivered with the typical shortened windshield frame and two humps on the convertible top lid. The car was limited to 356 pieces.

Porsche 991 (2011-2019)

Porsche 911 Carrera Cabriolet (type 991) with closed convertible top

The Porsche 991 is the seventh generation of the Porsche 911 since its premiere in 1963. Porsche presented it at the 64th  IAA in Frankfurt. The body was new, almost half of which is made of aluminum and is approx. 60 kg lighter than that of its predecessor. To build this new type of body, Porsche introduced new manufacturing methods to join the parts together. The 991 was initially only offered as a coupé in two different model versions, the 911 Carrera with 257 kW (350 hp) and the 911 Carrera S with 294 kW (400 hp). In the two model variants, a six-cylinder boxer engine with a displacement of 3.4 liters for the Carrera and 3.8 liters for the Carrera S is built into the rear of the vehicle, as is typical of the 911. The 911 Carrera takes 4.8 seconds to accelerate from zero to 100 km / h with a manual transmission, and the more powerful S model takes 4.5 seconds. The Porsche 991 was the first production vehicle with a seven-speed manual transmission.

Since the beginning of 2012, the 991 has also been available in two convertible versions with the same engine performance as the two coupé versions Carrera and Carrera S. In addition to the rear-wheel drive sports cars, the all-wheel drive Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S have also been available since July 2012. From the outside, these vehicles differ from the vehicles with rear-wheel drive in that they have a 44 mm wider body and a narrow, red strip of taillights between the two taillights. The 257 kW and 294 kW six-cylinder engines are still available as engines.

The two most powerful vehicles are the 911 Turbo with 383 kW (520 PS) and the 911 Turbo S with 412 kW (560 PS). Both all-wheel drive cars have a six-cylinder boxer engine with bi-turbocharging. As with the predecessors, both turbo models have wider fenders and a large rear wing that is extended in two stages in order to generate high contact pressure on the rear axle at high speeds for stable handling.

In 2013, the turbo models also received a multi-adjustable three-part front spoiler made of a type of hard rubber, the outer parts of which extend automatically at a speed of 120 km / h. At the push of a button, the driver can also move the middle section downwards in order to increase the downforce of the entire car in conjunction with the rear wing. The system returns to its starting position below 80 km / h.

Lettering of the anniversary model

In 2013, on the occasion of the 50th anniversary of the 911 type, a special model was launched; the model designation on the rear is supplemented with a red "50".

Porsche offers the 911 GT3 for private motorsport use. The car has an uncharged six-cylinder boxer engine that develops a maximum of 350 kW (475 hp) at 8250 rpm. The rear-wheel drive car is lighter than the standard models and equipped with aerodynamic aids such as a front spoiler and a fixed rear wing. Unlike the previous models, the GT3 is no longer equipped with a manual gearbox, but with an electrically shifted dual clutch gearbox with seven gears, in which the driver can select the gears by pressing the paddles on the steering wheel or pushing the selector lever back and forth. In automatic mode, an automatic gearshift controls the gear selection.

At the IAA 2015, Porsche presented a comprehensive facelift. The two basic versions of the 911 (911 Carrera and 911 Carrera S) will be delivered with a turbo instead of a naturally aspirated engine for the first time in the history of the 911 from December 2015. This leads to a significantly higher pulling power from low speeds, but the 911 loses the characteristic sound of the naturally aspirated engine. In addition, the appearance has been changed slightly.

In June 2017, Porsche presented the 911 GT2 RS with an output of 515 kW (700 hp) at 7000 rpm from a six-cylinder boxer engine with bi-turbo charging. This vehicle holds the lap record for street-legal sports cars on the Nordschleife of the Nürburgring (as of February 2019).

Porsche 992 (from 2019)

Porsche 992

The Porsche 992 is the 8th generation of the Porsche 911. The model celebrated its world premiere on the eve of the LA Auto Show on November 27, 2018 in Los Angeles.

Tabular representation of the development of the 911

Porsche 911 model history
model 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9
911 Original / F model
G model
964 964
993 993
996 996
997 997
991 991
992 992


Badge on the one millionth Porsche 911
Porsche 911 No. 1,000,000

The Porsche 911 was produced in the following numbers for each model series from 1963 to 2009.

model Total production of
Construction period
911 original / F model 81.032 1963-1972
911 G model 193,605 1973-1989
964 63,753 1989-1993
993 68,839 1993-1998
996 185.843 1998-2006
997 218,443 * 2004-2013
991 233,540 2013-2019
992 2018

* Only includes vehicles produced from 2005 to 2009.

The one millionth Porsche 911 rolled off the assembly line on May 11, 2017. The vehicle, painted in green, will remain in the company's possession and will find its home in the Porsche Museum .

Vehicle developments based on the 911

Porsche 959

One of the best-known developments based on the 911 is the Porsche 959 , which was presented as a Group B study at the IAA in Frankfurt in 1983 .

In the early 1980s, Porsche planned to achieve success in rallying alongside its many circuit victories. For this purpose, the vehicle development department constructed a completely new vehicle with the designation 959 based on the 911. In order to achieve homologation for Group B, at least 200 street-legal vehicles had to be built. The design of the 959 contained many technical innovations for the time and was considered a benchmark in automobile construction. The first road vehicles were not delivered until April 1987, as series production was not possible due to the technical complexity.

The 959 was powered by a six-cylinder boxer engine with a displacement of 2.85 liters, which achieved an output of 331 kW (450 hp) by means of two turbochargers and a charge air cooler. The vehicle had an all-wheel drive that adapted itself to the road conditions. The braking system was already equipped with an anti-lock braking system.

The 959 won the Paris-Dakar Rally in 1986 after the vehicles had to give up the rally prematurely in the previous year.


Even before the 911, vehicles from Porsche had a reputation for being particularly sporty. This was justified by racing cars such as the Porsche 904 and the Porsche 906 at the beginning of the 1960s on racetracks around the world, including on the Nürburgring- Nordschleife and the Targa Florio , with numerous racing victories.

One of the goals of motorsport for Porsche was to incorporate the experience and knowledge gained in developing racing vehicles into production vehicles. This knowledge was applied in the development of the Porsche 911. As a result, the overall design of the 911 was suitable for use in races without any major changes.

This tradition of establishing a close connection between road vehicles and pure racing vehicles based on the 911 has remained unbroken in the 50-year history of the Porsche 911. Overall, the 911 with its racing versions is the most successful racing car that has ever been built. This might not have been suspected in 1964 when the journalist Reinhard Seiffert wrote in issue 8 of the magazine Auto, Motor und Sport : “No question about it: the new sports car, which will be produced in Zuffenhausen from the end of August, is one of the most interesting cars in the world . It is only intended as a touring vehicle, not for Gran Turismo sport. "

Vehicle class Timeline of the Porsche 911 GT racing car
1990s 2000s 2010s
5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9 0 1 2 3 4th 5 6th 7th 8th 9
FIA GT1 993 GT2 Evo 993 GT1 996 GT1 Evo 996 GT1 '98
FIA GT2 / GT (until 2004)
ACO GTS (until 2004)
993 GT2
FIA N-GT (until 2004)
ACO GT (until 2004)
FIA GT2 (from 2005)
ACO GTE (from 2011)
996 GT3 R 996 GT3 RS 996 GT3 RSR 997 GT3 RSR 991 RSR 991 RSR
FIA GT3 997 GT3 Cup 997 GT3 Cup S. 997 GT3 R 991 GT3 R 991 GT3 R
Porsche Carrera Cup 993 Cup 3.8 996 GT3 Cup 996 GT3 Cup 996 GT3 Cup 996 GT3 Cup 997 GT3 Cup 997 GT3 Cup 997 GT3 Cup 991 GT3 Cup 991 GT3 Cup


Jean-Claude Killy in 1968 in the Porsche 911 on the Nürburgring
Porsche 911 S 1970 on the Nürburgring
Porsche 911 Carrera RSR Turbo 2.1 in the 1000 km race on the Nürburgring in 1974
Porsche 953, winning car of the Paris-Dakar 1984
The 294 kW (400 PS) Porsche 997 GT3 Cup from the Porsche Carrera Cup Germany in 2006 and 2007

The Porsche 911 made its racing debut in the Monte Carlo Rally in 1965, in which it finished fifth and won the GT class. It was driven by Herbert Linge and the later Porsche race director Peter Falk . This first 911 racing car also drove successfully in the World Rally Championship later on.

The legendary Porsche 911 Carrera RS 2.7 was a further development especially for GT championships and was particularly light with an empty weight of only around 960 kg (in the sports version). This car won three international and seven national championships in its first racing season. As a Carrera RSR, it won the 1973 24-hour race in Daytona with superior performance against prototypes of the competition with superior performance, such as Ferrari.

In 1976 Porsche used the Porsche 935 , a development based on the 911 Turbo, in the endurance races of the brand world championship. This 440 kW (600 PS) racing car achieved overall victory with the famous racing drivers Jacky Ickx and Jochen Mass in its first race in Mugello . The 935 was further developed over the years and won the endurance world championship for Porsche in 1976 and 1977 in Group 5 of the FIA.

In 1984 Porsche again entered a 911 in a rally. A Porsche 911, the Carrera 4 × 4 ( Porsche 953 ), specially modified for this competition , made a successful start in the Paris-Dakar rally . As a special feature, all-wheel drive was installed in a 911 for the first time. Also in 1984, Porsche built a special series with 21 lightweight and performance-enhanced 911 coupés with Group B homologation, the 911 SC RS. This vehicle with a 3-liter naturally aspirated engine and 184 kW (250 PS) won the Middle East championship right away when the Rothmanns entered the 6,000-kilometer Qatar rally .

With the Porsche 959, the factory built on the success of the 911 Carrera 4 × 4. The 959, which later significantly influenced the development of the Porsche 911 as a technology carrier, won this rally in a special racing version in 1986.


As early as the 1980s, Porsche withdrew from the racing competitions as a works team and only supplied the vehicles to private racing teams.

Due to various rule changes by the FIA, GT racing, which was the main field of activity for Porsche, lost more and more interest and was increasingly displaced by the media spectacle of Formula 1 . As a replacement, Porsche created so-called brand cups, in which customer teams use racing versions of the Porsche 911 GT3.

GT motorsport has been experiencing a renaissance since the 2000s and is once again enjoying greater popularity with the public. Porsche therefore developed racing versions of the Porsche 911 GT3 for use in cross-brand racing series.

Porsche Carrera Cup

The Porsche Carrera Cups are held as national brand cups in different countries. The Porsche Carrera Cup Deutschland started in 1990 as the first national one-make cup for racing versions of the Porsche 911. Over time, offshoots of the Porsche Carrera Cup also established themselves in other countries. In 2012, eight different Porsche Carrera Cups were held around the world, including the one-make cup from Germany as well as those from France , Great Britain, Scandinavia, Italy, Japan, Asia and Australia.

Racing cars of the type 911 GT3 Cup are used , which are available to all racing teams in identical equipment. The 997 GT3 Cup from model year 2012 is based on the production model 997 GT3 RS . It had a 3.8-liter six-cylinder boxer engine that was largely close to series production, developing 331 kW (450 hp) and reaching a maximum engine speed of 8500 rpm. The power is transmitted via a sequential six-speed manual transmission. The curb weight of the vehicle is 1200 kg.

Porsche Supercup

The Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup has existed since 1993 and is the international superstructure of the Porsche one-make cups. The Porsche Mobil 1 Supercup will be held on the respective Formula 1 race tracks as part of the supporting program of the FIA Formula 1 World Championship .

In the Supercup, new models are usually introduced a year earlier than in the Carrera Cups. Otherwise, the cars used in the Supercup are largely identical to those in the Carrera Cups. The 997 GT3 Cup of the 2012 model year differs in the version for the Supercup from the version for the Carrera Cups due to a modified exhaust system and the Porsche ceramic composite brake PCCB .

Porsche Sports Cup

The Porsche Sports Cup Germany has been held as a customer sport series since 2005. It should be the link between amateur sport and the brand cups for professional racing drivers. In the races, the participants compete in different series and classes, since both street-legal and Porsche retrofitted for racing can be involved.

Racing versions for cross-brand racing series

In addition to the 911 GT3 Cup racing cars for use in Porsche one-make cups, Porsche has also developed other racing versions of the 911 GT3 for cross-brand racing series. These are adapted to the regulations of the GT classes of the FIA or the ACO and are used in the racing series that are driven according to these regulations.

On the Regulations of the FIA Group GT2 and the ACO Group later LMGTE was the Porsche 911 GT3 RSR . He is the spearhead in the Porsche customer racing program. The 2012 model year 997 GT3 RSR is based on the production model 997 GT3 RS . It has a 4-liter, six-cylinder boxer engine which, with an air flow limiter specified by the regulations, delivers 338 kW (460 hp). The power is transmitted via a sequential six-speed manual gearbox that is operated using paddle shifters on the steering wheel. The racing car is intended for use in the 24 Hours of Le Mans , the FIA World Endurance Championship , the European Le Mans Series , the American Le Mans Series or the International GT Open . The purchase price is 498,000 euros plus VAT.

With the advent of the FIA group GT3 , Porsche also developed racing vehicles based on these regulations. It started with the 997 GT3 Cup S , the later the 997 GT3 R was replaced. In the Porsche customer racing program, these models rank between the 997 GT3 RSR and the 997 GT3 Cup . The 2012 model year 997 GT3 R is based on the production model 997 GT3 RS . The car has an empty weight of 1200 kg and has a 4-liter, six-cylinder boxer engine with an output of 368 kW (500 hp). The power is transmitted via a sequential six-speed manual gearbox that is operated using paddle shifters on the steering wheel. The racing car is used in the FIA GT1 World Championship , the FIA GT3 European Championship , the Blancpain Endurance Series , the ADAC GT Masters and the VLN Endurance Championship Nürburgring . The purchase price is EUR 304,500 plus VAT.

In addition, the 997 GT3 R Hybrid , Porsche's first racing car with hybrid drive , has existed since 2010 . It has a 342 kW (465 hp) 4-liter six-cylinder boxer engine and a flywheel accumulator. Two 75 kW (102 PS) electric motors each drive the front wheels. As a technology carrier, the vehicle is only used at the factory and cannot be purchased.

At the Geneva Motor Show 2016, Porsche presented a limited special model of the 911: the Porsche 911 R - a very purist sports car. This model builds on the lightweight construction of its predecessor. The so-called high-performance sports car has a four-liter boxer naturally aspirated engine and a six-speed manual transmission.


In the Stuttgart local network, the 911 is the head number of the Dr. Ing.hc F. Porsche AG. All Porsche locations in Baden-Württemberg can be reached via this system connection . Especially in the US, 911 is the number for emergency calls .


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Web links

Commons : Porsche 911  - Collection of Pictures, Videos and Audio Files

Individual evidence

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This article was added to the list of articles worth reading on March 24, 2007 in this version .