Johann Heinrich Dannecker

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Johann Heinrich Dannecker - Self-Portrait

Johann Heinrich Dannecker , 1808 by Dannecker , (* 16th October 1758 in Stuttgart , † 8. December 1841 ) was a württembergischer sculptor of Classicism .

life and work

Ariadne on the Panther , restored marble version in the Liebieghaus in Frankfurt am Main
Dannecker's first wife, Heinrike Rapp ( portrait of Heinrike Dannecker , painting by Gottlieb Schick)
Friedrich von Schiller , bust by Johann Heinrich Dannecker
Friedrich von Schiller, bust by Theodor Wagner after Johann Heinrich Dannecker
One of the countless reproductions of Ariadne on the Panther (with a profiled plinth instead of the smooth plinth of the original)

The son of a groom and coachman in the service of the Duke of Württemberg was accepted into the "military nursery school" on the Solitude near Stuttgart in 1771 . Initially as a ballet dancer, soon as a sculptor , Dannecker attended the ducal institute, which was transferred to the military academy in 1773 and to Stuttgart in 1782 and raised to the university as the High Charles School until 1780. In addition to the sculptors, Johann Valentin Sonnenschein (1749– 1828) and Pierre François Lejeune (1721–1790) the painters Adolf Friedrich Harper (1725–1806) and Nicolas Guibal (1725–1784), the head of the artist faculty.

Together with Philipp Jakob Scheffauer (1756–1808), a classmate, Dannecker was appointed court sculptor with lifelong service after completing his academy training and was entrusted with the first, mostly decorative, commissions. A ducal grant enabled the two sculptors to spend two years in Paris in 1783 , where they were able to work in the studio of Augustin Pajou (1730–1809) through Nicolas Guibal . This was followed by four years of study in Rome , which had an artistic impact on Dannecker and Scheffauer. They were on friendly terms with Antonio Canova (1757–1822) and the Swiss sculptor Alexander Trippel (1743–1793).

In addition to smaller works, a large-figure allegorical sculpture group (Seasons) made of marble for Hohenheim Palace was commissioned by the Duke of Württemberg . Initial recognitions reflect Dannecker's honorary membership of the academies of Bologna and Mantua . At the beginning of 1790 Scheffauer and Dannecker returned to Stuttgart. Here the two sculptors were appointed professors at the High Charles School. Dannecker continued his teaching activities after the dissolution of the Charles School in 1794 in a private setting. Under his chairmanship, the top management of the K. Kunstschule , which was newly founded in Stuttgart in 1829, was initially affiliated with the Real- und Gewerbeschule and institutionally disconnected in 1832 , was responsible for the direct supervision of the Nikolaus Friedrich von Thouret Art School .

In contrast to his college friend Scheffauer, Dannecker quickly managed to come to an advantageous arrangement in Stuttgart after his return from Rome, even if the artist rarely received attractive commissions in his court sculpting office. Relieved of material worries by marrying the businessman's daughter Heinrike Rapp (1773–1823), Dannecker was firmly integrated into the bourgeois society of Stuttgart. In 1808 a house in a prominent location on Schloßplatz was built according to his own plans . Apartment, studio, art school and museum at the same time, the so-called Danneckerei soon became a cultural center of the Württemberg royal seat. During this period, Dannecker's artistic work was forced to concentrate on portraits .

After creative years, with numerous portraits and a. also terracotta work , he opened his own art school under his direction. His mental derangement began around 1835 (he mutilated his Schiller bust in one attack - the model was preserved) and on December 8, 1841 Johann Heinrich von Dannecker died. His grave is in the Hoppenlauf cemetery in Stuttgart .

The main works of his time in Stuttgart included the Schiller busts from 1793 and 1805 and the self-portrait from 1797. In 1803 a first clay model of Ariadne on the Panther was made, the marble version of which was completed in 1814. Frankfurter Freiherr Simon Moritz von Bethmann signed the purchase agreement in 1810 and exhibited the marble version in 1816 in the specially built Bethmann Museum (now Seilerstraße 34), the first public museum in Frankfurt. The Ariadne was noticed there by an international audience and achieved extraordinary popularity; it has been reproduced many times. In 1856 the sculptural work moved to a museum (the Ariadneum ) that was attached to the Bethmannsche Gartenhaus and was donated to the city of Frankfurt am Main in 1941 as part of the property's sale. During the Second World War (1943), the marble of the sculpture was partially transformed into lump lime by the heat of fire . At the end of the 1970s, broken parts were reattached and the marble restored with the help of stone preservatives that were new at the time. The restored original is exhibited in the Liebieghaus . A modern copy is in its park, another in the Staatsgalerie Stuttgart , where the preparatory sound work is also located. The original plaster of paris had already been destroyed in the 19th century. Despite the early popularity of Ariadne, she remained one of the rare monumental sculptures by the sculptor who, along with the painter Christian Gottlieb Schick (1776–1812), is one of the most important exponents of Swabian classicism .

Colossal statues of the four evangelists adorn the wall niches in the interior of the burial chapel on the Württemberg . These were made by Dannecker (St. Johannes) and his student Theodor Wagner between 1820 and 1821 from Carrara marble .

Other students of his were Ludwig Mack , Joseph Wilhelm Ludwig Mack , Heinrich Max Imhof and Hans Baur .

Other works


In 1808 Dannecker was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of Civil Merit, which was associated with the personal nobility. In 1818 he was awarded the Knight's Cross of the Order of the Württemberg Crown .

Individual evidence

  1. From information in the personal file of the Hohen Karlsschule and in the baptismal register of the Stuttgart collegiate church, it can be concluded that Dannecker was not born in Waldenbuch on October 15, 1758, as was previously often assumed, but one day later in Stuttgart, see article in the Filder Newspaper of October 30, 2008  ( page no longer available , search in web archivesInfo: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.@1@ 2Template: Toter Link /  
  2. Wolfgang Kermer : Data and images on the history of the State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart . Stuttgart: Edition Cantz, 1988 (= improved reprint from: The State Academy of Fine Arts Stuttgart: a self-portrayal . Stuttgart: Edition Cantz, 1988), o. P. [4].
  3. ^ Christian von Holst: Johann Heinrich Dannecker, Volume 1: The sculptor . S. 285-292 .
  4. Ellen Kemp: Ariadne on the panther . 1979, p. 44 .
  5. ^ Bruno Müller: Foundations in Frankfurt am Main. History and art. Revised and continued by Hans-Otto Schembs. Frankfurt am Main 2006, p. 181.
  6. ^ Hermann Alexander Müller: Biographisches Künstler-Lexikon , Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig 1882, p. 31 f.
  7. Princess Paul returns to Hildburghausen in Thüringer Allgemeine from April 6, 2010, accessed on March 18, 2012
  8. Royal Württemberg Court and State Manual 1815 , p. 37
  9. Royal Württemberg Court and State Handbook 1824 , p. 30


Web links

Commons : Johann Heinrich Dannecker  - Collection of images, videos and audio files