Receiving water and receiving water are terms used in water management in connection with drainage . Literally, they are to be understood as "before the flood", ie as "measures before the threat of flooding ". Receiving water and receiving water belong to the terminology of hydrotechnology . Receiving water is required wherever wastewater occurs and must, if necessary, be verified in the approval process. Wastewater in the sense used here also includes unpolluted water, for example rainwater flowing off an area ( surface water ). A flood is also important for agricultural land use on waterlogged areas, for example for the operation of drainage , depressions and other drainage ditches. Here, the groundwater level is to be regulated to a level conducive to plant growth by the receiving water .
The definition of DIN standard 4049 is most frequently used : Receiving water is the possibility for water to flow away with a natural gradient or through artificial uplift (natural and artificial receiving water). The waters serving the receiving water are referred to as receiving waters. It should be noted that according to this definition, a receiving water is always a body of water (mostly a flowing water , rarely a lake or the groundwater ). In urban water management, a distinction is therefore made between the discharge of wastewater into the sewer system or directly into the receiving water. In this case, the sewage system is the receiving water for the wastewater, but not a receiving water. However, these language regulations are not always followed with the utmost rigor and consistency in use. The discharge of wastewater directly into a receiving water (a body of water) usually requires a permit under water law.
Natural receiving water is receiving water through simple drainage following gravity. If this is not possible, artificial receiving water can take its place. Artificial receiving water is based on the lifting or conveying of wastewater or excess water by pumps or pumping stations . One area that cannot be drained by natural drainage is a polder . It should be noted: "Natural" in this context is any drainage following gravity. The drainage through a ditch or canal without sluices, pumping stations, etc. is therefore “natural receiving water”, although the waters were created “artificially” by humans.
Groundwater receiving waters
In hydrogeology , the groundwater flood is the possibility for the groundwater to flow off following the natural gradient. Groundwater receiving water is normally a flowing body of water such as a stream or a river (exceptions, especially for karst bodies of water ). It is rare for bodies of water to flow above the water table. This can be the case , for example, with brooks in floodplains , if not the brook but the distant river is the groundwater receiving water. In this case one speaks of "floating" flowing. The location and height of the groundwater receiving flood influences the groundwater gradient and the height of the groundwater surface.
Ensuring an orderly receiving water is one of the tasks of water maintenance . Measures include, for example, trench clearance or "weeding" (removal of the reeds and the vegetation growing submerged, for example with mowers or mowing baskets).
Main receiving water and secondary receiving water
In hydraulic engineering, a distinction is made between main and secondary waterways in the creation or maintenance of bodies of water in their capacity as receiving waters. The main receiving water is the large outflow, e.g. B. the river , which on its way absorbs the water from the receiving waters and lets it run off to the sea, thus returning it to the natural cycle. The auxiliary waterway is called the auxiliary that absorbs the amount of water that exceeds the capacity of the receiving water. This is a branch of the receiving water, which either leads back via a detour at another point into the receiving water there, or has its own direct or regulated drainage into the main receiving water. Is the natural discharge via the receiving water not possible, for example because it does not have its own drain, or because the main receiving water z. B. in lowland regions is higher than the receiving water, so artificial derivative via a pumping station (pump system). In this case, the receiving water leads the water to the pumping station, which is equipped with a correspondingly large pre-basin, the Mahlbusen . There the pump operation is regulated by a level control.
- in Germany regulated in Water Management Act (definitions for wastewater disposal). the
- DIN German Institute for Standardization eV: DIN 4049-1: 1992-12. Hydrology; Basic concepts.
- Willi Gujer: Urban water management . Springer Verlag 2007. ISBN 978-3-540-34329-5
- Georg Matthess, Károly Ubell: General Hydrogeology. In: Textbook of Hydrogeology. Borntraeger Verlag, 2nd revised and expanded edition 2003. ISBN 978-3443010492 .