Calendar overview 1719
Friedrich August II
, the opera Teofane by Antonio Lotti will be premiered in the newly opened
Opera House am Zwinger in Dresden.
Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe
Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon , second wife of
Louis XIV , dies.
|1719 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1167/68 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1711/12 (New Year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1124/25 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2262/63 (southern Buddhism); 2261/62 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1081/82 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4052/53 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1131/32 (turn of the year 13/14 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5479/80 (September 13-14)|
|Coptic calendar||1435/36 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2029/30 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2030/31 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1775/76 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Great Northern War
- January 12 : The Swedish army under General Carl Gustaf Armfeldt breaks off the siege of Trondheim in the Great Northern War . The occasion is the news of the death of King Charles XII. during the siege of Frederikshald , which arrives one month late. However, it had already been shown that the siege without siege weapons promised no success and due to illnesses the fighting force had already shrunk to only 4,000 men. Armfeldt begins the retreat towards Sweden . As the army crossed the Öyfjell , a snowstorm was so violent that 3700 of the 5800 strong army freeze to death. This will go down in history as the Carolinian death march .
- January 23rd : Karl's sister Ulrika Eleonore is elected Queen of Sweden and crowned in Uppsala on March 17th . For her election, however, she had to agree to a reform of the Reich that puts power in the hands of the Reichstag . This opposes the government participation of Ulrika Leonores husband Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel .
- Georg Heinrich von Görtz , former minister of Charles XII, is sentenced to death in a sham hearing for high treason and “wrong advice” and is beheaded on February 19 .
- May 24th : The Russian fleet, under Naum Akimowitsch Senjawin , wins its first victory in an open sea battle against Sweden near Ösel near Saaremaa . The commander of the Swedish association, Anton Johan Wrangel , is captured.
- May 27 : Russia and Sweden resume negotiations in Aland . The Swedish delegation is led by Count Johan Paulinus Lillienstedt . The Russian delegation is led by Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann and General Jacob Daniel Bruce .
- July 11th to 15th : Danish captain Peter Wessel Tordenskiold succeeds in conquering Marstrand and the fortress Carlsten . In Sweden the handover of the fortress is considered a cowardly act and the fortress commander Henrich Danckwart was sentenced to death for it and executed on September 16 .
- July 21 : Peter Wessel Tordenskiold tries in vain to destroy the fortress Nya Elfsborg and to conquer the port of Gothenburg and Gothenburg himself .
- August: Russian devastation in Sweden 1719 to 1721 : Numerous attacks by the Russian galley fleet under Fyodor Matwejewitsch Apraxin spread unrest on the Baltic coast of Sweden . 13 cities, 361 villages and 441 aristocratic estates are burned to the ground. At the same time a landing takes place south and north of Stockholm . 20 ships of the line, several hundred rowers and 26,000 landing troops are involved in the operation. In the course of the invasion, eight larger cities are destroyed, including Norrköping, Sweden's second largest city at the time .
- August 13 : In the battle near Södra Stäket , Sweden wins under Rutger Fuchs over the superior Russian fleet Fyodor Matwejewitsch Apraxins. The immediate danger for Stockholm is thus averted.
- October: The Russian delegation breaks off the Russian-Swedish negotiations as Sweden refuses to cede Livonia and Riga to Russia.
- On November 7th (July) a secret treaty is signed between Sweden and Poland confirming the peace of Oliva . August the Strong dissolves the alliance with Peter I. In January August formed an alliance with Austria and Great Britain, which promised him aid against an attack by Russia on Poland-Lithuania . Ulrika Eleonore recognized him as King of Poland.
- November 22nd : Through the mediation of the British John Carteret in Stockholm, Sweden concludes a preliminary peace with the Electorate of Hanover and Great Britain in the Great Northern War . As a result, Queen Ulrika I Eleanor left the Duchies of Bremen and Verden to the Germans in exchange for receiving 1 million Swedish Reichstalers .
- November: Denmark also stops fighting with Sweden.
Quadruple Alliance War
- April: Under the leadership of James Fitzjames, 1st Duke of Berwick , a French army marches over the Pyrenees into the Basque Country and Catalonia and conquers Fuenterrabia , La Seu d'Urgell and San Sebastián . After that, however, the attackers are repulsed by the Spaniards under Elisabeth Farnese . In November they have to withdraw due to illness and the poor supply situation.
- August: After the Netherlands also entered the war of the Quadruple Alliance , Spain tried to take the negotiating path.
- December 5th : Cardinal Giulio Alberoni , Spanish Prime Minister, is relieved of all his posts and asked to leave the country within three weeks. He goes to Italy, but where he is from Pope Clement XI. is threatened with a lawsuit.
- Beginning of the year: After France declared war on Spain, the Jacobite court in exile of the British pretender James Francis Edward Stuart moved to Rome.
- March 6th : With the help of the Spanish Prime Minister Giulio Alberoni , the Irish nobleman James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde , tries to instigate another uprising of the Jacobites in Scotland against King George I. However, the fleet already fails after its departure from Cádiz in the Bay of Biscay due to spring storms there.
- A month later, another fleet, under the command of George Keith, 9th Earl Marischal , leaves the port of La Coruña . You land at Eilean Donan Castle and occupy it. However, since there is no extensive support from Spain, there is no major uprising by the Highlanders. On May 10th, the small group of Jacobites suffered a defeat against British troops who took back the castle and blew it up.
- June 10 : The insurgents suffer a decisive defeat in the Battle of Glen Shiel. George and his brother James Keith flee to France. In return, the UK is preparing a fleet that will sail to Galicia in October .
- September 3rd : James Francis Edward Stuart marries the Polish Princess Maria Clementina Sobieska in Montefiascone . Great Britain tried to prevent the marriage with Austrian help until the end.
- April: Claudius Florimund Mercy receives the supreme command of the Habsburg troops in Sicily .
- June 20 : Juan Francisco de Bette is able to repel an attack by the Austrian units on the Spanish positions in the battle of Francavilla . Francavilla di Sicilia remains in Spanish hands for the time being.
- June 30th : The Austrians conquer Taormina and march on to Messina , which surrenders on July 20th . A little later the siege of Palermo begins .
- End of the year: Johann Hieronymus von und zum Junge replaces the injured Claudius Florimund Mercy as commander in chief of the Habsburg troops.
Holy Roman Empire
- January 23 : Emperor Karl VI. raises the two counties Vaduz and Schellenberg of Count Anton Florian von Liechtenstein to a principality under the name Liechtenstein .
- June 5 : James Knight , former governor of the Hudson's Bay Company , sets sail from Gravesend with two ships and a crew of 40 to search for the Northwest Passage. Since he has fallen out with his successor at HBC, Henry Kelsey - he accused Kelsey of embezzlement - Kelsey forbids him to come into contact with any HBC station during his trip. So he chooses a sheltered harbor on the eastern tip of Marble Island for the first winter, where the team trades with an Inuit village. Nothing is known about the further whereabouts of the expedition.
- The Cailaco rebellion in Timor begins. Liurais of a dozen or so rich from the two Timorese provinces meet in Camenaça to forge an alliance. The aim is to drive the Portuguese and Christianity altogether from the island. Governor Francisco de Melo e Castro has to flee to Batavia and Cardinal Manuel de Santo António takes over the official business on an interim basis.
- Farrukhsiyar , Mughal emperor of India , is assassinated in a palace intrigue. He is succeeded by Muhammad Shah .
- June: The South Sea Bubble , one of the first speculative bubbles , begins in England.
- The Mississippi company of John Law acquires the rights to the French Royal Mint. The Mississippi Bubble is picking up momentum on a bull market. The speculative bubble bursts in November.
- Emperor Charles VI. founds the Oriental Company to promote mercantilism in the empire. Their task is to export products from the Habsburg sphere of influence to the European part of the Ottoman Empire.
- In order to reduce the growth of the black population and thus the risk of slave revolts , South Carolina is imposing an import duty of 10 pounds for slaves from Africa and 30 pounds for slaves from the British West Indies .
Duty Free Areas
- Emperor Charles VI. declares the port of Fiume as well as the port of Trieste a free port , which increases the importance of both cities.
- January 27th : The book printer Bernhard Christoph Breitkopf marries into the old Müller printing house family. This is considered to be the founding date of the Breitkopf & Härtel music publisher .
- The Monday Churer newspaper appears for the first time.
- The Scheichel bell foundry is founded in Vienna .
- April 25 : The novel Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe is published. The “first English novel” is so successful that within one year three new editions, four German translations and a continuation of the work on August 20 will appear. Other authors will soon publish so-called Robinsonads .
- The Kunstkammer , Russia's first museum, opens.
Music and theater
- January 10th : In the city of Erlangen , located in the Margraviate of Brandenburg-Bayreuth , the Margrave Theater is inaugurated, which is now the oldest baroque theater in southern Germany.
- January 22nd : The world premiere of the musical drama Sofonisba by Leonardo Leo takes place at the Teatro San Bartolomeo in Naples.
- August 21 : The world premiere of the opera Sirita by Antonio Caldara takes place in Vienna.
- September 3 : With the opera Giovi in Argo by Antonio Lotti , the opera house at the Zwinger in Dresden opens after around a year of construction .
- September 13 : On the occasion of the marriage of Kurprinz . Friedrich August II with Maria Josepha of Austria on 20 August in Vienna, the opera Teofane by Antonio Lotti with a libretto by Stefano Pallavicini in the newly opened Opera House at the Zwinger premiered in Dresden.
- 1st Advent: The cantata Machet die Tore weit by Georg Philipp Telemann is premiered in Eisenach.
- The Royal Academy of Music is founded in London under the auspices of King George I. While Johann Jacob Heidegger takes over the commercial management, Georg Friedrich Handel becomes musical director.
- June 26th : The Great Christian Fire breaks out in Frankfurt am Main and within three days destroys the north-west of the imperial city with around 400 houses.
First half of the year
- January 3 : Friedrich Karl Joseph von Erthal , Archbishop of Mainz († 1802 )
- January 14 : Daniel Nettelbladt , German lawyer († 1791 )
- January 17 : Johann Elias Schlegel , German poet, lawyer and poetry theorist († 1749 )
- January 17 : Jean-Joseph Vadé , French composer and writer († 1757 )
- January 24 : Heinrich Otto Duysing , German Protestant theologian and university professor († 1781 )
- February 15 : Wilhelm Sebastian von Belling , Prussian hussar general († 1779 )
- February 19 : François de Théas Count von Thoranc , French officer and art collector († 1794 )
- April 2 : Johann Wilhelm Ludwig Gleim , German poet († 1803 )
- April 2 : Franz Anton Hillebrandt , Austrian architect († 1797 )
- May 7 : Gottfried Schütze , German educator, librarian and Protestant theologian († 1784 )
- May 17 : Bjarni Pálsson , Icelandic doctor and educator († 1779 )
Second half of the year
- August 4 : Johann Gottlob Lehmann , German mineralogist and geologist († 1767 )
- August 16 : Johann Friedrich Hirt , German Protestant theologian and orientalist († 1783 )
- August 20 : Charles-François de Broglie , French diplomat († 1781 )
- August 20 : Christian Mayer , German experimental physicist, astronomer, geodesist, cartographer and meteorologist († 1783 )
- August 25 : Charles-Amédée-Philippe van Loo , French painter († 1795 )
- August 26 : Johann Gottfried Sammet , German lawyer and university lecturer († 1796 )
- September 3 : Ferdinand Zellbell , Swedish composer († 1780 )
- September 4 : Johann Conrad Seekatz , German painter († 1768 )
- September 10 : Johann Wilhelm Baumer , German physicist, physician and mineralogist († 1788 )
- September 21 : Ferdinand Graf Tige , Austrian cavalry general and President of the Court War Council († 1811 )
- September 23 : Johann Baptist Wenzel Bergl , Austrian painter († 1789 )
- September 24 : Johann Gottlob Werner , German Protestant theologian († 1781 )
- September 27 : Abraham Gotthelf Kästner , German mathematician († 1800 )
- October 13 : Maurizio Pedetti , Italian architect († 1799 )
- October 20 : Gottfried Achenwall , German historian and lawyer, founder of modern statistics († 1772 )
- November 5 : Jordan Simon , German Catholic theologian († 1776 )
- November 14 : Leopold Mozart , German composer and musician, father of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart († 1787 )
- November 17th : Marie Marguerite Bihéron , French artist, draftsman and creator of anatomical wax preparations († 1786 )
- November 23 : Johann Gottlob Immanuel Breitkopf , German music publisher and typographer († 1794 )
- November 30th : Augusta von Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg , Princess of Wales and mother of the British King George III. († 1772 )
- December 15 : Louis IX. , Landgrave of Hesse-Darmstadt († 1790 )
- December 25th : Marie Elisabeth von Ahlefeldt , conventual and lady-in-waiting of Princess Louise of Denmark and Norway († 1769 )
- December 27 : Johann Stapfer , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor († 1801 )
- Johann Christoph Altnikol , German composer and organist († 1759 ) December:
Exact date of birth unknown
- Joseph Abenthung , Tyrolean builder and plasterer († 1803 )
- Katharina Magdalena Brückner , German actress († 1804 )
- Christoph Andreas Mangold , German scholar, physician and chemist, professor of anatomy, chemistry and philosophy at the University of Erfurt († 1767 )
- Josep Antoni Martí , Spanish composer († 1763 )
- Porporino , German-Italian singer († 1783 )
- Juan José de Vértiz y Salcedo , Spanish politician and viceroy of the Río de la Plata († 1799 )
- Takebe Ayatari , Japanese poet and painter († 1774 )
Born around 1719
- Thomas Jefferys , English geographer, cartographer, engraver, bookseller, publisher and printer († 1771 )
First half of the year
- January 3 : Wenzel Norbert Octavian Graf Kinsky , Bohemian governor and president of the appeal (* 1642 )
- January 14th : Lorenz Luidl , Bavarian sculptor (* around 1645 )
- January 15 : Robert Erskine , Scottish doctor, president of the first medical academy in the Russian Empire (* 1674 )
- January 17th : Sophie Amalie Moth , mistress of the Danish-Norwegian king Christian V, countess of Samsø (* 1654 )
- January 31 : Þormóður Torfason , Icelandic historian in the Danish service (* 1636 )
- February 14 : Philipp Karl von Wylich and Lottum , Prussian Field Marshal General (* 1650 )
- February 23 : Bartholomäus Ziegenbalg , German Protestant missionary (* 1682 )
- February 19 : Georg Heinrich von Görtz , Holstein-Swedish politician (* 1668 )
- February 27 : Johann Ernst , Prince Count of Nassau-Weilburg and Imperial Field Marshal General (* 1664 )
- February 28 : Boris Petrovich Sheremetev , Russian field marshal (* 1652 )
- February 28 : Farrukh Siyar , Mughal Mughal of India (* 1683 )
- March 1st : Richard Ingoldesby , British Army officer
- March 11th : Pierre Seignette , French doctor and pharmacist (* 1660 )
- March 13 : Johann Friedrich Böttger , German alchemist (* 1682 )
- April 2 : Nikolaus Wilhelm Goddaeus , Landgrave Hessian lawyer, administrative officer and Chancellor of the Landgrave's government (* 1646 )
- April 15 : Françoise d'Aubigné, marquise de Maintenon , French noblewoman, mistress and later wife of Louis XIV of France (* 1635 )
- May 3 : Pierre Le Gros the Younger , French sculptor in Rome (* 1666 )
- May 7th : Sebastiano Bombelli , Venetian painter (* 1635 )
- Anne Marguerite Petit Du Noyer , French journalist (* 1663 ) May:
- June 11 : Johann Abraham Schmierer , German composer (* 1661 )
- June 17 : Joseph Addison , British writer and politician (* 1672 )
- June 26 : Friedrich Wilhelm I , Duke of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Beck (* 1682 )
Second half of the year
- July 21 : Marie Louise Élisabeth d'Orléans , Duchess of Berry (* 1695 )
- July 22nd : Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Aylesford , British nobleman and politician (* around 1649 )
- July 26 : Hyacinth Petit , German auxiliary bishop (* 1680 )
- August 2 : Karol Stanisław Radziwiłł , Polish magnate and Grand Chancellor of Lithuania (* 1669 )
- August 3 : Johann Philipp von Greiffenclau zu Vollraths , Prince-Bishop of Würzburg (* 1652 )
- August 19 : Carl Hildebrand von Canstein , Brandenburg court official and founder of the Canstein Bible Institute, the oldest Bible Society in the world (* 1667 )
- September 3 : Johann Heinrich May the Elder , German Lutheran theologian, philologist and historian (* 1653 )
- September 4 : Heinrich Hiller , Mayor of St. Gallen (* 1633 )
- September 6 : Carlo Cignani , Italian painter (* 1628 )
- September 7th : John Harris , English clergyman and mathematician (* 1666 )
- September 11th : Domenico Martinelli , Italian architect who also worked in Vienna (* 1650 )
- September 14th : Johann Gallus Hügel , German master stonemason and sculptor (* 1664 )
- September 20 : Jan Weenix , Dutch painter (* 1642 )
- September 21 : Johann Heinrich Acker , German theologian and writer (* 1647 )
- September 26th : Anton Matthäus IV. , Dutch legal scholar (* 1672)
- September 27 : Franz Daniel Pastorius , German lawyer and writer (* 1651 )
- October 14 : Arnold Houbraken , Dutch painter and art writer (* 1660 )
- October 31 : Domenico Piazoll , Austrian plasterer (* around 1645 )
- November 7th : Johann Joseph Seyler , German educator and Protestant theologian (* 1669 )
- November 8th : Michel Rolle , French mathematician (* 1652 )
- November 13 : Georg Johann Mattarnovi , Prussian-Russian architect (* 1677 )
- November 19 : Hans Georg Mozart , German master mason and master craftsman at the Augsburg cathedral chapter (* 1647 )
- November 30th : Heinrich Hartard von Rollingen , Prince-Bishop of Speyer and Prince Provost of Weißenburg (* 1633 )
- November 30th : Yamamoto Tsunetomo , Japanese samurai and author (* 1659 )
- December 25 : Benedetto Vinaccesi , Italian composer and organist (* around 1666 )
- December 31 : John Flamsteed , English astronomer (* 1646 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Caterina di Balbiano , Piedmontese noblewoman, Madame de Brandebourg (* 1670 )
- Devlet II. Giray , Khan of the Crimean Tatars (* 1648 )
- Benjamin Hornigold , British privateer and pirate hunter
- Maria Sophia Schellhammer , German cook and writer (* 1647 )
- Magdalena Sibylla of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Duchess of Mecklenburg-Güstrow (* 1631 )
- William Talman , English architect (* 1650 )