|Province (län):||Östergötland County|
|Historical Province (landskap):||Östergötland|
|SCB code :||1192|
|Residents :||93,765 (December 31, 2015)|
|Area :||36.68 km²|
|Population density :||2556 inhabitants / km²|
|List of perpetrators in Östergötland County|
Norrköping ( ˈnɔrɕøːpiŋ ]) is a city in the Swedish province of Östergötland County and the historic province of Östergötland . The city is the capital of the municipality of the same name and has almost 94,000 inhabitants (as of 2015)., [
Norrköping is located on the Baltic Sea coast , not far from Bråviken Bay . The city is traversed by the Motala stöm , the water-rich outflow of the Vättern , which is called here just Strömmen . In the city itself, the river, over which several bridges lead, forms significant waterfalls and rapids, as it negotiates a height difference of 22 meters in the urban area. The city lies on sediments that have formed over the old Scandinavian rock pedestal of the Baltic Shield . In the north, east and west of the settlement there are agricultural areas, while in the south there are even larger forest areas.
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for Norrköping
Traces of prehistory and early history can be found in Herrebro , to the west .
The name of the place very likely refers to its location north (norr) in relation to a place that can no longer be identified today. Analogously, Söderköping got its name from the southern (söder) location. It is believed that it was a court place. Köping is the Swedish name for a minority town . Norrköping was first mentioned at the end of the 12th century, but it was not until the beginning of the 17th century that it gained some importance through the factories of Louis De Geer, who immigrated from Belgium . The population doubled between 1730 and 1770.
It cannot be precisely dated when Norrköping was founded, but it seems likely that it was founded in the early Middle Ages . People began to settle on the wide river that flows east into Bråviken, and used the water and hydropower for mills and fishing. Viking Age traces can be found in the Styrstad rune stone .
The first bridge that was built over the Motala stream was built at the point where the river flowed through a deep and narrow furrow. Here is today the bridge Gamlabro and it is believed that at the same place, a Viking fortress , Knäppingsborg , was located. A market square was built near the bridge , today Gamla torget ("Old Market"), and a little above a simple wooden church that was dedicated to John the Baptist . Another church was later built, dedicated to Saint Olav . It is said to have been mentioned in a bull of the Pope from the 12th century, in which it was mentioned as belonging to Askeby Monastery , which is said to have already had fishing rights in Norrköping. Like the other churches in the city area, which were dedicated to Saint Olav, it was later replaced by the Sankt Olai Church ( Sankt Olai kyrka ). When Queen Sofia gave her salmon fishing rights to St. Martin's monastery in Skänninge in 1283 , Norrköping was mentioned as Norkøponge in the deed.
For centuries salmon fishing in the Motala stream was important, but the king had already secured the best fishing spots. These were located on the former islands of Laxholmen and Kvarnholmen . Several monasteries in the area also had fishing rights. In addition to those already mentioned, these were u. a. nor the monasteries of Vadstena , Varnhem and Vreta . It is believed that Norrköping received city rights for the first time at the beginning of the 14th century. However, it is unclear who granted city rights. In contrast, there is a document dated April 7, 1384 in which Albrecht von Mecklenburg affirmed these rights.
In 1404 Queen Margrete I traveled to Norrköping to divide up the inheritance from Sweden's largest landowner at the time, Bo Jonsson Grip . One of the castles she wanted in Jonsson's possession was Ringstaholm on an island in Motala, west of the city. Margrete was able to prevail and the castle fell to the crown. During the Engelbrekt uprising , the castle was besieged by farmers in 1434. The bailiff Henrik Styke, who was hated by the rebels, was in the castle and was forced to give up the castle. After the castle was recaptured, insurgent farmers besieged it again in November 1469. This time, too, the commander Bård Munk surrendered and that same year Ringstaholm was burned down.
As with the castle, nothing of medieval Norrköping exists above ground, since everything fell victim to fires.
King Gustav I. Wasa often traveled through Norrköping in connection with visits to Stegeborg Castle near Slätbaken Bay . He had a royal storage room built in the city, where Hedvig's Church is today. In addition, he withdrew all ecclesiastical fishing rights in the Motala stream. The role of the place as an export port grew during this time with the importance of the mining areas in Östergötland.
In 1567 the Three Crowns War raged around Norrköping and the city became the scene of a battle between Swedes and Danes. The Danes, led by Daniel Rantzau , pushed further and further north from Scania and Småland . After their invasion of Östergötland, the Swedish army was able to set up a camp south of Norrköping and decided to stop the Danes at the Gamlabro bridge. On December 3rd the Danish army reached Norrköping. The Swedish army had already burned the houses south of the Strömmen and was waiting for the Danish army. A house had been built on the other side of the bank, defended by riflemen and cannons. After a few small skirmishes and a surprise attack by the Swedish army, which was discovered and repulsed, the Danish army withdrew.
Some time later the brothers Johann and Karl instigated a revolt against King Erik XIV and declared the king deposed. Johann was named Johann III. the successor of Erik XIV. He offered all residents of Norrköping who build a new stone house twelve years without taxes. His goal was a city map with straight streets and rectangular quarters. In 1581, Johann III. a castle in the city, Norrköpingshus , of which there are no pictures. According to tradition, it is said to have been a clumsy building with around 300 windows, two towers with a portal and a moat. The castle was where Tyska torget (the "German market") is today ; the associated garden (Trädgården) extended along what is now Trädgårdsgatan .
From 1594 the castle was inhabited by Elisabet Wasa , one of Gustav Wasa's daughters. She was the widow of Christoph von Mecklenburg and moved into the city with an entourage of about 1000 people. As a result of the influx, the population grew suddenly. Life at court was glamorous and lively, not least because the royal relatives lived in the vicinity. Duke Karl lived in Nyköping , Johann's wife Gunilla Bielke on Bråborg and other relatives in Vadstena and Stegeborg. The castle in Stockholm was empty at the time, because King Johan III. had died and his successor Sigismund III. Wasa preferred to reside in Poland.
In the autumn of 1598 Sigismund went ashore with a Polish army near Stegeborg and it wasn't long before he came across Duke Karl's troops. The Duke's troops ended up in a bind and several hundred injured were treated in Norrköpingshus , which was now used as a hospital. The decisive battle at Stångebro took place just outside Linköping and was won by the army of Duke Charles, who later became King Charles IX. has been.
Duke Johann and Johannisborg
In 1604 a diet was to be held in Norrköping, where the question of inheritance was resolved. This meant that Duke Karl became king and Sigismund was deposed. Karl's nephew Johann was made Duke of Östergötland, but he was only 14 years old. In addition, Norrköpingshus, where the Reichstag was to be held, burned down a few days before the meeting.
Five years later, in 1609, Johann was grown enough and took on the role of an independent prince. He had big plans for the city, wanted to expand it and create a completely new district north of the river. When he was twelve years old, Johann tried to lure people to his city for tax exemption and other advantages. He called German craftsmen to Norrköping to build an arms factory on Kvarnholmen, thereby laying the foundation for what would later become the Holmens Bruk , the city's first industry.
On May 3, 1613, construction began on a new castle north of the river. It was named Johannisborg Castle and at times over 700 servants were busy with the construction. The architect was Hans Fleming and in 1618 the building was finished enough for the court administration to move in. A short time later, Duke Johann died in March 1618 and six months later his wife Maria Elisabeth too. Thus the time of Östergötland as a duchy had expired. It soon became clear that the duke had lived beyond his means and had amassed large debts with merchants and at court.
The Duke's death had a negative impact on Norrköping. The farm administration with all employees was settled and the suppliers and craftsmen had no more orders. Norrköping now had 2,000 inhabitants. Work on the castle continued despite the death, and in 1639 the roof was finished. However, the work was never properly completed because the foundation proved to be insufficiently stable and constant repairs were necessary.
Louis De Geer and the first industries
In contrast, the importance of the manufacturing industry grew. More and more carts headed for the city to load the various products from the mine in Finspång and the surrounding area. King Gustav II Adolf also recognized the importance of having his own arms production and came to Finspång in 1618 to sign a contract for the production of cannons at Wellam de Besche .
Wellam De Besche was in charge of the work in the Finspång mine, but in reality the king signed the contract with his partner Louis De Geer . The manufacture of weapons began on Kvarnholmen. In addition, a hammer forge , a rifle factory and a brass works were built . The brewery , which was also newly built , had the exclusive right to supply the Swedish fleet with beer .
De Geer had come to Norrköping in 1627, although the king's next man, Axel Oxenstierna , tried to persuade De Geer to move to Stockholm. De Geer, however, had already chosen Norrköping. He was very busy and always new businesses, so u. a. a shipyard , a rope factory , a paper mill and a clothing factory were added. The brass factory became the largest in Sweden. De Geer also recruited workers abroad. So came z. B. Walloons from the Ardennes in today's Belgium to Norrköping. The international orientation of the city shaped the character of Norrköping in the 1630s. Around 1650, after Norrköping, it was the second largest city in Sweden after Stockholm with around 6000 inhabitants.
In 1627 Petter Speet bought the Drags mill, Drags kvarn and set up a clothing factory on the site. Right from the start, the company had received large orders for fabrics for uniforms for the Swedish fleet. For over 300 years the factory would play an important role as the city's largest industry.
On July 29, 1655, the city burned and almost everything south of the river was destroyed. The city's development stagnated, but the largest industries were able to recover from the fire. The textile industry was now the one that grew the most. The largest company at the time was Drags , even if Petter Speet had withdrawn. His successor, Abel Becker, was a German from Lübeck who already owned 16 mills in the city.
When Queen Christina renounced the throne in 1654, Norrköping was given her as land to support. During a visit to Sweden in connection with the death of Charles X Gustav in 1660, she arrived in the city with a large retinue in 1661 and asked for more money and support from the government in Stockholm. She settled in the former house of Louis De Geers, but moved back to Rome a year and a half later . According to her, the two roads were Drottninggatan and Kristin Agatan and the space Kristinaplatsen named.
After De Geer's death in 1652, his workshops had different owners until they were finally in 1666 by the Dutch businessman Jakob Reenstierna the Elder. Ä. was acquired. Reenstierna expanded the business to include a clothing factory and a scissors grinding shop. The products were sold in Europe's largest trading cities by sales representatives, mainly by the trading house Jean & David in Amsterdam . However, the export of brass was slowed by the outbreak of the Franco-Dutch War in 1672 and a flood in the spring of 1677 destroyed dams, water wheels and buildings on Kvarnholmen. Reenstierna's death in 1678 marked the temporary end of the city's great times.
Jakob Reenstierna left behind a large mountain of debt. His son Abel was only able to take over the facilities in 1689 with the help of a larger loan from the Reichsbank. With the help of further loans he wanted to achieve a monopoly position in European brass production, but this company failed and so the bank continued to operate the workshops from 1704. Reenstierna's departure marked the beginning of a 36-year period of trouble for Holmens Bruk .
In 1719 Sweden was at war with Russia . The Tsar's fleet prepared to attack Stockholm, where the main part of the Swedish army was located, but then the Russian units split up and the southern units set fire to Södertälje , Trosa and Nyköping . On July 30, 394 Russian ships entered the Motala stream. The few Swedish soldiers stationed in Norrköping could not prevent Russian troops from burning the city down until August 3rd. In addition, the attackers took 100 pounds of ship (about 17 tons) of brass and 282 pounds of copper from the metal workshops .
In 1720, the Swedish government granted the city a twenty-year tax exemption, and rebuilding began slowly, so that it soon had 2,600 residents. The driving industries were now tobacco and sugar processing . The production of snus in particular experienced a significant boom from the 1750s. In 1751 Petter Swartz (from Svartsången , Kroppa, Värmland province) came to the city and had a huge snus factory built on what is now Gamla Rådstugugatan . The tobacco was mainly grown directly in Norrköping, for example in the fields around St. John's Church, where there were three tobacco barns. The snus was sold all over Sweden and there were seven different types.
In 1739 the Reichsbank sold the brass workshops to the merchants Georg Spalding and Johan Forsberg. After the systems were in the meantime owned by Johan Henrik Lefebure from Stockholm, who introduced the production of thimbles , they went to the 27-year-old Elias Pasch at the beginning of 1778. Initially all owners were able to achieve economic success, but with the French Revolution it became difficult to import the necessary smithsonite . When the export rate of brass also fell, the company went bankrupt in 1793. The bankruptcy trustees found it difficult to sell the workshops during these troubled times and only got rid of them in 1802.
The Reichstag from 1769
In April 1769 it was time again for a Diet in Norrköping, although King Adolf Friedrich had expressed his displeasure about it. He probably feared that the city would become cramped and uncomfortable for him and his family, as 3,000 guests were to be accommodated among 7,500 residents. The king was quartered on Drottninggatan opposite the town hall and 179 rooms were reserved for the court alone.
The priests' guild was domiciled in the Sankt-Olai-Kirche, the peasant class in the city lecture hall and the civil class in the town hall. The Hedvigskirche served as the plenary hall. Many foreign envoys were present and the Russian, English and Danish officials distributed large sums of money in bribes to enable the Hats Party to win the election. But it didn't help, the hat party won the election.
The Jewish community
In 1782, the state authority for foreign trade (Kommerskollegium) permitted the settlement of Jews in three Swedish cities in a law on Jews (Judereglementet) , namely in Stockholm, Gothenburg and Norrköping. Just a few days after the rules came into force, the dealer Jacob Marcus applied for a letter of protection from the city's magistrate and established a wholesale company. From 1790 he dealt with the printing of cotton fabrics. Another early immigrant was Philip Jeremias, who tried to press oil from canola and hemp seeds . His descendants were among Norrköping's well-known economic giants under the name Philipsson. The third important Jewish person of this time was Jacob Wahren, who founded a clothing factory around 1810.
Compared to the other two cities, Norrköping's Jewish population was always small in number. The first synagogue was a simple building erected in 1796. The present synagogue was built in 1858 on Bråddgatan. A Jewish cemetery was laid out around 1780. After the Second World War, the number of Jewish citizens in Norrköping decreased and by the end of the 1970s there were fewer than ten Jewish men over the age of 13 for a minyan , as is necessary for a Jewish worship service.
The Reichstag from 1800
On March 10, 1800, a diet began in Norrköping, to which Gustav IV Adolf had called. The difficult financial situation of the country should be discussed and the new king crowned. The negotiations were complicated because the nobility disagreed with the king on many points. Regardless of this, the coronation ceremony took place on April 3, 1800. The weather conditions during the procession through the city were not exactly inviting, with gusty wind and rain that later turned into snow. The actual coronation took place in the Sankt Olai Church.
The textile industry is growing
At the beginning of the 19th century, the industrialists Lars Johan Söderberg and Janne Arosenius started the Gryt clothing factory, which developed into the largest plant of its kind in Sweden. Both entrepreneurs were interested in technology and equipped their systems with spinning machines as early as 1809, which increased production enormously. In 1810 Norrköping covered half of the Swedish clothing industry with 15 larger textile companies. This development continued, so that in 1840 2,800 people worked in 153 factories, 75 of which were in the textile industry. Norrköping's economic importance for Sweden at that time is also shown by the fact that in 1870, with 15 percent of national industrial production, the city was ahead of Gothenburg (10%).
In 1802 Holmens Bruk started making paper from rags. After initially moderate success, paper production increased tenfold between 1835 and 1840. In the meantime, a cotton mill had been built on the same site and in order to further increase production in both industries, the Holmen joint stock company was formed in 1854 . To demonstrate its dominance, the corporation had the architect Carl Theodor Malm build a five-story factory building with gas lighting and elevators in 1856 , which was new at the time. Today the house is used by the Philosophical Faculty of Linköping University.
In 1822 there was a major fire in Norrköping, in which the southern and eastern parts of the city burned down. 358 houses or homesteads disappeared and around 3,500 people became homeless. The situation deteriorated further when the next fire broke out in 1826, in which 17 quarters in the area around today's Kungsgatan fell victim to the flames and around 2,000 people were left homeless. As a result, wooden houses in the city were banned.
There were only very few industrial companies in the city that were not connected to the textile industry. One of the few exceptions was the printing industry . Of the two lithographic companies in Sweden at that time, the one in Norrköping had 160 employees and the one in Malmö only two. In 1841 the construction of the shipyard began on the south side of the Motala stöm. Sweden's first propeller-driven steamboat was manufactured here and delivered to the Russian tsar. The ship reached a speed of ten knots, which the local press called a world record. From 1850, the shipyard had 600 employees, making it Sweden's largest shipbuilding industry.
In the 1860s, demand for clothing fell, with a third of the factories disappearing. Ten years later things started to pick up again, mainly due to increased mechanization and rationalization . Since many hand looms were replaced by mechanical looms, the number of employees rose by only 25 percent, while industrial production rose by 50 percent. Compared to other Swedish cities, however , the boom in Norrköping was less pronounced. The nationwide expansion of the railway network shifted the export of products to other ports and the demand for textiles did not increase as much as the demand for other products.
The industrial boom led to the appearance of previously unknown social problems such as B. the housing problem. The waves of strong immigration only lasted a few years and these fluctuations made the construction business risky. A construction that was started during the boom could be finished under poor conditions when the economy was low, so that the client could not find any buyers. There were four boom periods between 1870 and 1904. The housing problem resulted in an overcrowding of many houses, so that some parts of the city took on the character of slums . At that time, 95 percent of Norrköping's apartments consisted of one room, with or without a kitchen.
The border to the suburbs Östra Eneby and Borg was soon so indistinct that one could speak of a coherent urban area. Nevertheless, Norrköping's officials did not feel responsible for these areas and it was also alleged that those responsible did nothing about the social injustices in the center, as they hoped that people would feel compelled to move to the city limits. The school inspector Norrköpings compared the houses in the working-class districts of Östra Eneby with “miserable bunks”. Four fifths of Östra Eneby's population worked in Norrköping.
The tough working conditions were evident, for example, in the fact that working hours at the Wiechel jersey factory ran from 6 a.m. to 7 p.m. (on Saturdays until 6 p.m.). Child labor was common; the percentage of employees under 18 in the Norrköping textile industry was 15 to 20 percent until 1912. The work in the textile industry was considered to be downright women's work and so the wages were low. The female employees of the jersey factory earned around 3 kroner and 50 ore a week. It is estimated that the annual wages for cotton weaving mills were between 275 and 320 kroner. At the Holmens company in 1889, a woman weaver earned around 5 crowns and a male worker around nine crowns a week.
20th century until today
From 1904 Norrköping received its own tram network, the first line being 4 km long. The boom at the turn of the century was less noticeable in Norrköping. The city's share of the nation's wool production fell from 40 percent in 1896 to 30 percent in 1912. The decline was mainly due to increasing competition from Borås , Malmö and Kristianstad . In 1913, four Norrköpings wool factories merged to form AB Förenade Yllefabrikerna (YFA) with a total of 1,500 employees. The local cotton mills were able to defend their position. In 1908 there were two dominant companies, each with around 1,000 employees.
In the period between the world wars, the Swedish textile industry expanded rapidly, from which Norrköping benefited. During the Second World War, sales of civilian clothing fell again, but the Swedish army had a ten-fold increase in consumption. After the war, a few smaller textile companies with only a few looms established themselves again.
The crisis in the textile industry
In the 1950s, people's buying habits changed. In place of products made of wool such as coats, costumes and overskirts, lighter items of clothing such as trousers, jackets and dresses appeared. These products were produced more cheaply abroad. The switch to synthetic materials also reduced the production of cotton shirts.
The wages of the textile workers were among the lowest in the country, but the wages of Italian workers were only 40% and those of Japanese employees only 10% of Swedish wages. At first the crisis only affected smaller companies, but from 1954 large companies began to close their doors. Due to the decline, the municipal administration began to advertise the location intensively from the 1960s. Some companies from other branches of the economy moved into the vacant factory halls.
There were also attempts to save cotton processing by moving production to the suburbs of the city, but these facilities were ultimately only used as storage facilities. Most noticeable was the closure of the YFA company, where 862 employees suddenly became unemployed in 1970. In spite of government support, the company's management regarded the continuation of production as ineffective. This closure marked the end of 350 years of textile production in central Norrköping.
Since the city was a separate administrative unit before 1971, it received no taxes from workers who lived outside the city limits. The Swedish Reichstag therefore decided to amalgamate the municipalities of Skarblacka, Kvillinge and Kolmården with Norrköping as part of the general municipal reform. In 1974 the municipality of Vikbolandet was also included.
To compensate for the loss of textile production, the Swedish government decided in 1971 to move several state authorities from Stockholm to Norrköping.
While the population grew slowly after the city was founded, it increased strongly due to the settlement of industrial companies and industrialization in the 18th and 19th centuries. In 1850, Norrköping, with around 17,000 inhabitants, was one of the five cities with more than 10,000 inhabitants, alongside Stockholm (93,000), Gothenburg (26,000), Karlskrona (14,000) and Malmö (13,000). After the closures, especially in the industrial sector, many residents moved away from the 1970s. Between 1995 and 2000, Norrköping had the highest number of people moving out of Sweden with 1,659 people, which was around two percent of the population. In the 2000s, the population increased again.
The center of the city is at Gamla Torget . Today it is surrounded by houses from the 18th and 19th centuries. In the square is a statue of Carl Milles depicting Louis De Geer. The Drottninggatan is Norrköpings Main Street and extends from the 1866-built station to the art museum. Behind the station are the Järnvägsparken and Karl Johans-parken parks . There is also an internationally significant cactus discount , which was created in the 1920s. On the west side of Karl Johan Park are the “Old Town House” from 1801, the former “Great Hotel” from 1854 and the stable from 1857. A little further away is the “Great Theater” (Stora teatern) , which was opened in 1908 Architect Axel Anderberg was built in Art Nouveau style.
On the other side of the river Motala ström is the "German Square" (Tyska torget) with the town hall from 1910, the Hedvigs kyrka , the Grand Hotel and the former bank palace. At the southern end of Drottninggatan is the commercial center of Norrköping with several department stores. As in many other cities, Norrköping experienced a wave of demolitions in the 1960s, with many older buildings being replaced by modern-style houses.
The so-called “industrial landscape”, which mainly consists of old factory buildings from the period between 1850 and 1917, lies along the Motala stream. In the 1970s, most of the buildings were derelict, but today the original industrial buildings are used for other purposes. The Norrköping Symphony Orchestra moved into a building that used to be a paper mill. The “Museum of Work” (architect Folke Bensow) is now located in the heptagonal Strykjärnet building , which was built in 1917 as a weaving mill. A branch of Linköping University also uses a former wool factory.
The city center is surrounded by the north, east and south promenade and the Volkspark. When the promenades were laid out in the second half of the 19th century, there was a great need for schools, so there is an accumulation of these facilities here. The 26-year-old garden architect Knut Forsberg was responsible for the promenades , who also delivered an award-winning design for the Bois de Boulogne Park in Paris and designed the Berzeliipark in Stockholm. From 1858 the 3.5 kilometer long northern promenade with linden trees in four rows and a roadway in the middle was built. In 1896 the east and south promenade were also finished and a total of 2,025 trees had been planted. Of the areas with single-family houses, the so-called “red city” is interesting, where between 1917 and 1918 wooden houses were built for workers, which are painted uniformly in the typical Swedish Falun red .
The Kneippen district emerged around 1900 as a villa town for the upper middle class. Between 1898 and 1918, the center of the district was a much-visited spa complex with a spa hotel, guest house and restaurants, which was built on the model of the Bad Wörishofen Kneipp spa in Bavaria. Many of the older buildings were demolished after World War II, but the turn of the century flair can still be seen.
On the southern outskirts, in the Vrinneviskogen forest , the Vrinnevisjukhus is the second largest hospital in Östergötland County after the university hospital in Linköping . The third hospital operated by Landsting is Lasarettet in Motala. Vrinnevisjukhuset has around 410 treatment places and around 2,200 employees. 170,000 people live in the catchment area in eastern Östergötland. The hospital is also used as an exhibition space for modern art .
The coat of arms of Norrköping shows Olav the saint of Norway, who acts as the patron saint of Norrköping, with his attributes battle ax and orb on a red throne. In the early 20th century, another coat of arms was used for a time, showing a crowned "N" as well as an ax and a scepter . The city coat of arms is also the coat of arms of the municipality.
Main article: Norrköping Municipality # Politics
The political executive for Norrköping is the municipality administration (Kommunstyrelse) of the municipality of Norrköping. In addition to the urban area of the central location, this is also responsible for other localities ( tatorter ) and rural areas in the municipality.
The textile industry was the dominant economic activity that led to the city's prosperity for over 400 years, but in the 1960s most factories closed due to strong foreign competition. Today there is only one textile factory in Norrköping, operated by a subsidiary of Borås Wäfveri AB. Ericsson produced circuit boards here for a long time , but this plant has now also been closed.
Most companies are currently in the paper and packaging industry, logistics / transport, electronics, IT / media and trade. Several large companies (e.g. Philips , Bosch , Goodyear Tire & Rubber Company ) have their central warehouse in Norrköping and control the delivery to their locations in Sweden from here.
A branch of Linköping University is conducting intensive research in Norrköping, which has led to the establishment of several small businesses in the vicinity of the campus.
In Norrköping, the state institutions of the Immigration Office (Migrationsverket) , Integrationsverket , the Central Aviation Office ( Luftfartsstyrelsen ) , Coordination for Prisoner Care (Kriminalvårdsstyrelsen) , the Maritime Authority (Sjöfartsverket) and the Swedish Meteorological Institute ( Sveriges meteorologiska och hydrologiska institute ) have their headquarters.
Some of the city's major companies are listed in the table below.
|Fiskeby AB||Paper industry||Founded in 1637. Provides u. a. Packaging material.|
|Holmen Paper AB||Paper industry||Newsprint production a.|
|Smurfit Packaging||Paper industry||Provides u. a. Cardboard and corrugated cardboard.|
|Noss AB||Metal processing||Production of machines for cellulose and paper production.|
|Whirlpool Sweden AB||Electrical industry||Production of microwave ovens .|
|Å & R Carton||Graphic industry||Printing on packaging.|
|Hernia||Chemical industry||Manufacture of glue and starch products .|
|Vileda / Freudenberg Household Products||Chemical industry||Provides u. a. Wipes.|
|Danisco Cultor||food industry||Production of flavors, lemonades, etc. Ä.|
|Robert Bosch AB||Distribution of goods||Warehouse for all of Sweden.|
|Eklof||retail trade||Operates sports shops (stadium) across Sweden.|
|Otto Bock||Prosthetics, orthotics, wheelchairs||Headquarters for Scandinavia|
|Transcom||service||Market research by phone.|
|Enista||service||Water, sewage, park maintenance, infrastructure, etc. a.|
|Telia Company Sverige AB||service||telecommunications|
|E.ON||Energy sector||Electricity production and delivery.|
|Vitamex AB||food industry||Production of throat tablets, food substitutes, wine vinegar, etc. a.|
Norrköping provides a school lowered , the nursery (Förskolor) , primary (grundskolor) and four local as well as an under standing the Länsting grammar (gymnasieskolor) comprises. There are also eight independent grammar schools (friskolor) . There are also special schools for children with behavioral disorders at primary school level ( särskolor , träningsskolor ) and, after compulsory schooling, also at grammar school level (gymnasiesärskola) . Some complete special school classes (särskoleklasser) are integrated into other schools if the children cannot be integrated into primary school classes through individual care .
In a former Ericsson production building and other old buildings in the Industrilandskapet along the Motala Ström, the Norrköping campus is a branch of the Linköping University . About 6,000 students study here in the fields of social sciences , humanities or teacher .
With Norrköpings Tidningar and Folkbladet, two predominantly regionally oriented daily newspapers appear in Norrköping . Norrköpings Tidningar (NT) is the oldest newspaper in Sweden that is still published today and one of the ten oldest newspapers in the world. It was founded in 1758 by Johan Edman as Norrköpings weko-tidningar . In 1787 the newspaper was renamed to its current name, but only appeared twice a week. The publishing house that published the newspaper has been a stock corporation since 1875 and the newspaper is now published daily. Over time, the publishing house has developed into a media company that now owns other newspapers. The shares have been owned by the Erik & Asta Sundin Foundation since 1947.
Folkbladet was founded in 1905 as Östergötlands Folkblad by workers as a counterweight to the more middle-class Norrköpings Tidningar . In the 1960s it was merged with the Östgöten from Linköping and appeared as Folkbladet Östgöten . The newspaper has had its old name since 1998 and has belonged to the media company Norrköpings Tidningar via the publishing house Nya Folkbladet i Östergötland AB since 2000 . Together with the publishing house of Östgöta Correspondenten , Norrköpings Tidningar also distributes the free newspaper Extra in Östergötland. Another free newspaper is the regional edition (riks) of the metro .
In addition to print media , Norrköping also has regional studios and editorial offices for the public television service Sveriges Television and Radios Sveriges Radio . Produced Östnytt or P4 Östergötland . In addition, one of 16 regional stations of the private television broadcaster TV 4 , TV 4 Öst, is based in Norrköping and produces a regional news program.
The first theater in town was Egges teater , which was located in the garden of the innkeeper Johan Ulric Egge. On August 5, 1776 here saw Romeo and Juliet from Shakespeare 's Swedish premiere. The residents of Norrkoping were so infatuated with the performances that the theater management was forced to play on Sundays as well, which resulted in the director being sued for failure to observe the Sabbath. But he was acquitted and later Gustav III. a decree which allowed theaters in Stockholm, Gothenburg, Åbo and Norrköping to perform on Sundays. In 1791 the Dahlbergs theater was built in a former tobacco warehouse. In 1798 the Saltängsteater facility was added, which existed until 1850. During this time romantic pieces were popular and works by Schiller , Oehlenschläger and Grillparzer were performed here for the first time in Sweden.
In 1850 the businessman Gustav Adolf Eklund had the Eklunds theater built on a piece of land behind the Grand Hotel. Works by playwrights such as Ibsen , Bjørnson and Strindberg were shown here. In 1866 the city's workers' union began with their amateur theater performances. Some of the country's famous film actors received their training here.
In 1908 the Eklunds theater was replaced by the Great Theater (Stora teatern) in the same place. Initially, various theater companies came as guests and in the 1920s and 1930s Ernst Rolf and Karl Gerhard presented their reviews. Today the theater is the home of the Östgötateater Society .
Museums and sculptures
The prime minister and snus manufacturer Carl Swartz donated his home, Villa Swartz, to the city in 1903. Together with an earlier art donation, this resulted in the Norrköping Art Museum. It turned out, however, that the rooms are too small, as the city library and the local history museum were also wanted in the same place. The new building was started in 1941 but due to the Second World War only a single-storey building was built, so that the library could not be accommodated. This moved into its own building in 1973.
In 1961, the sculptor Arne Jones created the sculpture Spiral åtbörd , which was installed in front of the art museum and initially provoked mixed reactions. Later, the sculpture developed into a kind of symbol for the city, which was shown, among other things, in the appearance of the municipal newspaper “Norrköping Spiralen” and the naming of a department store after it.
In the park in front of the parish hall stands the sculpture Prisma , which when it was built in 1967 was the largest work of art in glass in the world.
In 1912, the Norrköping Orchestra Association came into being as a union of amateur and military musicians. A year later she moved into her new home in a concert and lecture hall that was built in a former church. Since the association received state funding, performances could be given twice a week. After the orchestra had grown to 87 members and changed its name to Norrköpings Symphony Orchestra, the old venue became too small. The new concert hall was inaugurated in 1994 and bears the name Louis De Geer .
The first railway line from Norrköping to Katrineholm was inaugurated on July 3, 1866. On October 16, 1872 a connection to Linköping was added. It became popular with the citizens of the city to take the train, which reached an “unbelievable” speed of 50 km / h, to go on Sunday excursions in the vicinity of Norrköping. From the 1870s onwards there was a huge expansion in freight transport. For example, the transport of hard coal rose from around 400 tons in 1870 to around 37,000 tons around 1900. Norrköping was also connected to its surroundings by narrow-gauge railways . The network of these railways was widely ramified here and connected to the institutions of other provinces. At the beginning of the 20th century, Norrköping still had three train stations: Central stations , Västra station and Östra station . In the following years the city developed into a railway junction.
Today a trip to Stockholm with the InterCity takes about two hours and with the express train X2000 about 78 minutes. After Malmo journey time is with the X2000 a little less than three hours. A planned four-lane expansion of the line to Stockholm (Ostlänken) should shorten the travel time to 45 minutes.
The airport Kungsängens flygplats east of Norrköping, which was run by the Luftfartsverket until July 1, 2006 , has not had a positive balance after a decline in passenger numbers in recent years. To prevent closure, it was taken over by the Norrköping municipality. Since then, the number of passengers has increased again. The airfield was inaugurated in 1934 and regular passenger flights began two years later. It is Sweden’s oldest operating airfield. There is daily air traffic (2013) to Copenhagen and Helsinki. In addition, there are some charter connections to destinations on the Mediterranean, especially in summer. The airfield is also used for freight transport. Icelandair operates a fixed freight line from Norrköping to New York via Reykjavík. The airline bmi Regional operated the route to and from Munich (MUC) with an Embraer ERJ145 until the beginning of 2019.
Some major road connections cross in Norrköping. The E 4 motorway runs west along the city, while the E 22 starts here and leads to Malmö via Kalmar . The main roads ( riksväg ) 51, 55 and 56 connect the city with Örebro , Uppsala and Gävle .
Main article: Norrkoping tram
Besides Gothenburg and Stockholm, Norrköping is the only city in Sweden that has retained the tram as a local means of local transport. Some tram cars were bought that previously ran in Duisburg and still bear the names of German cities (such as Braunschweig ).
The construction of the tram lines began in 1902 with a contract between the city administration and AEG . Two years later, the cars were able to start moving on the single-track lines and between 1913 and 1914 they were upgraded to double-track. Right from the start, the wagons were colored between yellow and orange, which was given the name Norrköpingsgult . When the Östergötland transport authority wanted to standardize its cars in the 1990s, which would have meant a red color for the rear part of the car, there was a loud public protest and therefore no changes.
Norrköping has several port facilities. In the inner harbor close to the city , ships with a draft of up to nine meters can dock, while the mean water depth in the Pampushamnen deep harbor on the Handelö peninsula is up to 12.4 meters and is therefore also designed for large cargo ships . The port is operated by Norrköpings Hamn och Stuveri AB and around 1,300 ships land here every year. In 2005, 4,100,000 tons of goods were handled in the port, and according to a survey carried out in 2005, the port is the tenth largest in Sweden.
It used to be difficult for ships to get into the port of Norrköping, as the Motala stream made a powerful swing around Händelö shortly before its mouth in the Bråviken. With the inauguration of the Lindö Canal on June 18, 1962 in the presence of King Gustav VI. Adolf had solved this problem. At the same time, an oil port with three piers was built on Händelö . By autumn 2008, the most important fairway is to be widened from 60 to 100 meters and deepened to more than 13.5 meters.
While mainly products for wood processing and production as well as coal and coke are handled in the inner harbor, the outer quay facilities are designed for container handling and petroleum products.
The football club IFK Norrköping is one of the most successful teams in the country with 13 national championships and six wins in the Swedish cup competition. Most of these successes were achieved around 1960. Today the club plays in the first division, the Allsvenskan , and plays its home games in Norrköpings Idrottspark , which also served as a venue for three preliminary round matches during the 1992 European Football Championship . In addition to IFK Norrköping, the clubs IF Sylvia and IK Sleipner are well-known football clubs.
sons and daughters of the town
- Nils Åberg (1888–1957), archaeologist
- Hannes Alfvén (1908–1995), physicist and Nobel Prize winner
- Linnéa Claeson (* 1992), Swedish handball player and network activist
- Amy Diamond (born 1992), singer
- Ivar Hellman (1891–1994), composer and conductor
- Emil Henriques (1983-1957), regatta sailor
- Jonas Jacobsson (* 1965), marksman
- Ivar Johansson (1903-1979), wrestler
- Tore Bertil Gottfrid Keller (1905–1988), football player
- Ove Kindvall (* 1943), football player
- Magnus Krepper (* 1967), actor
- Iver Lawson (1879-1937), cyclist
- Lennart Arvid Lundberg (1863–1931), pianist, composer and music teacher
- Ture Nerman (1886–1969), politician and communist
- Christoffer Nyman (* 1992), soccer player
- Pierre Schori (* 1938), politician, diplomat and ambassador
- Tom Söderberg (* 1987), football player
- Ivar Svensson (1893-1934), football player
- Jeffery Taylor (born 1989), basketball player
- Pernilla Wiberg (* 1970), ski racer
The cooperation with the two Norwegian villages has existed since the 1940s. All of the Nordic locations mentioned here are increasingly working together on the basis of a "Nordic platform".
- Sten Andersson et al. a., Textilen som försvann. A study of the structure of the company, the work done and the nya Norrköpings framväxt . Norrköping Municipality, Norrköping 1986.
- Björn Helmfrid, Holmens bruk i Norrköping . Stockholm 1955.
- Martin Ivarsson, Svensk-judiska pionjärer och stamfäder. En person-, släkt- and cultural history krönika med Norrköping som Blickcentrum . Seelig, Stockholm 1956.
- Jörn Svensson, Sven Godlund and Kerstin Godlund, Norrköpings historia. Avsnitt 10: Norrköpings ekonomiska och sociala historia 1870–1914 . Norrköping City Archives, Norrköping 1972.
- Official website of the municipality (English, Swedish)
- Photo of the sculpture "Spiral åtbörd"
- Photo of the sculpture "Prisma"
- Statistiska centralbyrån : Land area per crime scene, folkmängd and invånare per square kilometer. Vart femte år 1960 - 2015 (database query)
- Helmfrid (1955), pp. 6-8
- Helmfrid (1955), pp. 11-14
- Ivarsson (1956)
- Helmfrid (1955), pp. 15-18
- Svensson (1972), pp. 110, 154
- Svensson (1972), pp. 260-274
- Andersson (1986), p. 13
- Svensson (1972), pp. 280-296
- Svensson (1972), p. 184
- Svensson (1972), 197-202
- Andersson (1986), p. 15
- Andersson (1986), pp. 58-61
- Statistics based on the figures from Stads- och kommunhistoriska institutet at Stockholm University ( memento of the original from October 1, 2006 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Information from the Landsting zum Vrinnevisjukhus ( Memento of the original from September 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Om NT.se - History of the Norrköpings Tidningar (accessed on April 25, 2007)
- Folkbladet - About the newspaper ( Memento of the original from June 28, 2013 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. (Swedish), from Folkbladet.se, accessed June 20, 2013
- Svensson (1972), pp. 53-64
- 81 Hamnen i siffror
- Sveriges Radio: Norrköpings hamn på tionde plats ( Memento of the original from September 30, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.
- Norrköpingspaketet investment program ( Memento of the original dated May 6, 2007 in the Internet Archive ) Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice.