|coat of arms||Map of Spain|
|Autonomous Community :||Galicia|
|Province :||A Coruña|
|Area :||37.83 km²|
|Residents :||245,711 (Jan 1, 2019)|
|Population density :||6,495.14 inhabitants / km²|
|Postal code :||15001-15011|
|Municipality number ( INE ):||15030|
|Nearest airport :||A Coruña Airport (Aeroporto de Alvedro)|
|Mayoress :||Inés Rey (PSdeG-PSOE)|
A Coruña [ a koˈɾuɲa ] (officially and in Galician language ; unofficially Spanish and formerly officially La Coruña ) is a city in the far north-west of Spain . It is the capital of the autonomous community of Galicia belonging province of A Coruña . The city covers a total area of 37.83 km² and has 245,711 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2019), including the suburbs, 407,150 inhabitants (as of January 2009).
The naturally protected port of A Coruña was used by the Phoenicians , Celts and later the Romans . Around 110 AD, they erected the Tower of Hercules in what was then Ardobicum Corunium , a lighthouse in the north of the city that still reminds us of that time and has been on the UNESCO World Heritage List since June 2009 .
During the rule of the Suebi in the 5th century, Corunium was temporarily the capital of the kingdom.
The city was first mentioned in the 13th century under the Spanish name La Coruña. The heyday of the city was in the 14th and 15th centuries, when they become the target port English pilgrims on their way to Santiago de Compostela developed. Today the Route des Camino Inglés is again marked with the scallop shell . In 1588, the city of Ferrol ( A Coruña province ) was the station of the Spanish Armada on their way to England. As a result, A Coruña was attacked in 1589 by an English naval formation under the leadership of Sir Francis Drake , but was not captured. According to tradition, the successful defense of the city is associated with the citizen María Pita, after whom the city's main square is still named today. María Pita, a butcher's wife, stood out for her tenacity in the fight against the English privateers around the pirate Sir Francis Drake in 1589. She is still seen today as a heroine and a symbol of freedom.
During the Spanish War of Independence (1808-1814), the battle of A Coruña took place on January 16, 1809 . A French army under Marshal Soult and a British expeditionary army under Sir John Moore fought there . The battle ended in a draw.
Immediately at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War , the military coup d'état succeeded in gaining control of A Coruña. Republicans tried desperately to bring down the coup in bloody fighting. During these fighting, countless republicans without weapons tried in vain to storm the barracks of the Guardia Civil . Army officers, assault guards ( municipal police ) and 200 civil guards who opposed the military coup were killed by the military coup, as were the region's commander-in-chief , General Enrique Salcedo , the local commander of A Coruña, General Rogelio Caridad Pita and the civil governor Pérez Carballo with his pregnant wife Juanita Capdevilla. A Coruña became the center of the military coup and a bastion of nationalists in Galicia .
The city of A Coruña is located directly on the Atlantic Ocean and is characterized by a correspondingly mild climate. Temperatures below 10 ° C are rare, but A Coruña is located in the wettest area of Spain.
|A Coruña (58 m)|
Average monthly temperatures and rainfall for A Coruña (58 m)
In recent years, the city has been further developed through various infrastructure and urban development projects, particularly in the areas of transport, culture, sports and leisure. In particular, increased efforts have been made to restore the coastal area (beach and promenade) of the city. These efforts are aimed at transferring the traditional character of the city, which has been shaped for decades by the local administration , trade, port and tourism , into the 21st century. In the field of science, the institution “House of Science”, founded by the city council in 1983, has achieved supra-regional importance. At this institution, the include Planetarium , the popular science "House of the People" (Domus) and the Aquarium "Aquarium Finisterrae" (Casa de los Peces) of the city.
Monument and Tower of Hercules (2005)
The city beaches (Riazor, Orzan) and the harbor surrounded by gallery houses are worth seeing. The Hercules Tower is the oldest operating lighthouse in the world. In 2009 it was named a World Heritage Site .
The province of A Coruña is currently the richest region in Galicia and generated around a third of the Galician GDP . The service sector, and in particular the financial sector, is of greatest importance, followed by port activities such as trade and fishing. The industrial sector is less important.
A Coruña has the largest port in Galicia with a water front of six kilometers and an annual trade volume of around 13 million tons . The largest volumes handled are liquid bulk goods such as crude oil and bioethanol , followed by solid bulk goods such as coal , wood , cement and ores . Other goods and container traffic play only a minor role. The amount of fish landed is the second largest in Galicia and the fish market is one of the most important in Spain. The port is also a stopover for cruise ships. In 2007, the city had around 40,000 visitors from 62 ships. At Av. Porto da Coruña is a city harbor for pleasure boats right in the center of the city.
Another port has been under construction west of the city center in Langosteira since 2018 and is scheduled to go into operation in 2020. Its main purpose is to handle oil and other liquids. At the same time, the neighboring polymer chemistry facilities are being expanded.
The city has two industrial areas with more than 600 companies. Including an oil refinery from Repsol YPF and an operation from aluminum producer Alcoa . A Coruña is also the headquarters of Fadesa Inmobiliaria , a leading (and formerly listed on IBEX 35 ) real estate company . The Inditex group , which with its brands such as Zara is one of the largest textile groups in the world, is also based in A Coruña, although the group headquarters are now in the neighboring municipality of Arteixo .
The tourism in the city in recent years, not least due to the visit of cruise ships , grew strongly. In 2006, for the first time, A Coruña welcomed as many visitors as it has inhabitants. One of the main attractions is the beach promenade , which will measure 13 km after its final completion. Further sights are the Castillo de San Anton from the 16th century, which is located on the pier, which is now the archaeological museum, the Tower of Hercules and the Museo de Belas Artes , in which works by Goya can be seen. The oldest church in the city is Ingesa de Santiago from the 12th / 13th centuries , consecrated to St. James . Century. The city's two main beaches are Orzán and Riazor , which are located below the seafront promenade. The most important tourist event is the night of San Juan , which is celebrated annually on June 23 , which is celebrated with a witch's procession, fireworks and Midsummer bonfires on the city beaches.
Although the hilly terrain in the area is hostile to traffic, a dense network of motorways has emerged in the last 20 years that connect A Coruña with other cities in Galicia as well as with Madrid and Portugal. The motorway to / from Madrid is largely free of charge to compensate for the extreme peripheral location of the region.
Local public transport in the city center is handled entirely by buses, predominantly regional and national passenger transport as well. The station is of little importance, but offers daily connections to Madrid. The small airport currently only offers domestic connections.
From 1903 to 1962 there was a tram that was powered by horses for the first ten years and then electrically. A new route built in 1997 as a tourist train with nostalgic vehicles, which was to become the nucleus of a modern low-floor network, failed due to changed political majorities. The operation was stopped again in 2011.
From 1948 to 1979 the city had an extensive network of trolleybus routes .
Population development municipality
sons and daughters of the town
- José Millán Astray (1879–1954), military officer and founder of the Foreign Legion
- Emilia Pardo Bazán (1851–1921), writer and feminist
- Nadia Calviño (* 1968), politician
- Maria Casarès (1922–1996), actress
- Antonio Casas (1911–1982), actor
- Eduardo Dato (1856–1921), lawyer and Prime Minister
- Beny Deus (1919–1989), actor
- Andrés Manuel Díaz (* 1969), track and field athlete, Olympic participant
- Antonio Rodríguez Dovale (* 1990), football player
- Gérard Analect Vincent Encausse (1865–1916), French occultist and esotericist
- Andrés Gaos (1874–1959), composer, violinist and music teacher
- María do Mar Castro Varela (* 1964), political scientist
- Salvador de Madariaga (1886–1978), diplomat and writer
- Rubén Martínez (* 1984), football goalkeeper
- Rosalía Mera (1944–2013), textile entrepreneur, co-founder of the Zara fashion chain and the Inditex group
- José María Merino (* 1941), writer, member of the Real Academia Española
- Amando de Ossorio (1918–2001), film director
- Antón M. Pazos (* 1951), historian
- Fernando Romay Pereiro (born 1959), basketball player
- Lucas Pérez (* 1988), football player
- Ramón Menéndez Pidal (1869–1968), philologist and longstanding President of the Real Academia Española
- Miguelanxo Prado (* 1958), comic artist
- Fernando Rey (1917–1994), actor
- Rubén Rivera (born 1985), football player
- Luis Suárez (born 1935), football player
- Sofía Toro (* 1990), sailor
- Emilio Pérez Touriño (* 1948), economist and politician, President of the regional government
- Amancio Amaro Varela (* 1939), football player and coach
- Cifras oficiales de población resultantes de la revisión del Padrón municipal a 1 de enero . Population statistics from the Instituto Nacional de Estadística (population update).
- Law 2/1998, of March 3rd, changing the names of the La Coruña and Orense provinces. (PDF, 43KB) In: BOE núm. 54, p. 7392. March 4, 1998, accessed February 17, 2013 (Spanish).
- UNESCO press release, June 27, 2009
- Heleno Saña : The libertarian revolution: the anarchists in the Spanish civil war. Nautilus, Hamburg 2001, ISBN 3-89401-378-8 , p. 55.
- Repsol invertirá 69 millones en la refinería coruñesa. August 9, 2019, accessed August 10, 2019 (Spanish).
- Nuestras instalaciones en el CI de A Coruña - repsol.energy. Retrieved August 10, 2019 (Spanish).
- Tram at the Torre de Hércules in: Tram Magazin 12/2009, p. 60 ff.