|Residents||13,187 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density||126 inhabitants / km²|
|Popular name||Montefiasconesi or Falisci|
|Patron saint||Santa Margherita d'Antiochia|
The name Montefiascone is probably derived from the Latin Mons Faliscorum , mountain of the Falisker . Aspects of the origin of the name can be found in the two variants of the city arms: The shape from 1953/1954 shows a Roman bundle of rods on the Sechsberg, the fasces , as a derivative interpretation of the second part of the name, the newer version, on the other hand, shows a wine barrel above, which is an allusion the wine production and the Italian term fiasco for barrel is to be interpreted. The discussion about the correct view is still ongoing.
Montefiascone is 94 km northwest of Rome , 127 km southeast of Siena and 17 km north of Viterbo . The community is located in the volcanic Monti Volsini on the south-eastern shore of Lake Bolsena . The old town occupies one of the highest elevations. The municipality extends over a height of 220 to 633 m slm
The municipality includes the districts of Carpine, Cipollone, Commenda, Coste-Pelucche, Fiordini, Le Mosse, Poggetto, Poggio Frusta, Stefanoni and Zepponami.
Montefiascone is located in a former volcanically active area, the so-called Apparato Vulsinio . The city itself lies on the caldera of one of the four main volcanoes. Lake Bolsena itself was created by the collapse of underground magma chambers. Numerous thermal springs in the area still remind of the volcanic past .
The community is located in earthquake zone 3 (little risk).
Montefiascone is on the strada stadale SS 2 Via Cassia , which leads from Rome via Siena to Florence . The closest motorway junction to the A1 Autostrada del Sole is 33 km from Orvieto . The city has a train station on the Attigliano-Viterbo railway in the Zepponami district.
Montefiascone was created as a retreat for the surrounding population during the migration period , probably in the 9th century to protect against the invasions of Arabs and Hungarians . A document from Pope Leo IV from 853 offers the first mention of Mons Flasconis . Located in the area of the Patrimony of Petri , which Charlemagne had given to the Popes in 774, the settlement remained in their possession for most of the time, although there was no shortage of attempts, for example by the city of Orvieto , to acquire them permanently. Pope Innocent III (1198–1216) ordered the expansion of the settlement and its fortification in 1207. Martin IV. (1281–1285) stayed for some time in the castle which he had noticeably enlarged; According to Dante , Divine Comedy XXIV 330 f., he is said to have particularly enjoyed the eels of Lake Bolsena as a dish. One of the main representatives of the power of the Popes during their absence in Avignon was Cardinal Egidio Albornoz , who restored their rule in central Italy between 1353 and 1367 and had a headquarters in Montefiascone. On August 31, 1369, Pope Urban V (1362-1370) raised Montefiascone to the city, and his successor Gregory XI. (1371-1378) gave her a sizable piece of land in gratitude. In 1657 and 1695, epidemics and earthquakes impaired life, but the city remained in the Papal States until September 1870 , when it was incorporated into the Kingdom of Italy .
Montefiascone was made a diocese in 1369, along with the former Corneto, who is now Tarquinia . On September 30, 1986 the diocese of Montefiascone was abolished, which in 1980 still had 34,178 Catholics in 20 parishes, which were looked after by 45 diocesan priests and 9 religious priests. The diocese area was incorporated into the diocese of Viterbo with three other dioceses (including the titular diocese of Aquipendium ), but Montefiascone has been included in the list of Roman Catholic titular dioceses since 1992 and used to equip papal curia officials. The former great importance of the diocese of Montefiascone and Corneto is evident from its role in the promotion of religious dignitaries. From 1369 until the separation from Corneto on June 14, 1854, a total of 15 cardinals officiated here as bishops; Special mention should be made of Domenico della Rovere (1478–1501), relative of Pope Sixtus IV , Alessandro Farnese (1501–1519), later Pope Paul III. , Guido Ascanio Sforza (1528–1548), Paluzzo Paluzzi Altieri degli Albertoni (1666–1670), cardinal depository of Pope Clement X , Marcantonio Barbarigo (1687–1706), Pompeo Aldrovandi (1734–1752), Giuseppe Garampi (1776–1792 ) and Jean-Siffrein Maury (1792–1816), from 1810 to 1814 also Archbishop of Paris and Primate of France under Napoleon I.
- Dom S. Margherita with a large dome and two-tower facade and furnishings between 1850 and 1890, but started in the early 16th century and consecrated on December 19, 1674. The highlight is a colored terracotta relief from 1496 with scenes from the life of Mary; in the crypt, which was designed from 1958 to 1962, is the tomb of St. Lucia Filippini.
- Church of S. Flaviano on the old Via Cassia , the most important church in Montefiascone with a late Gothic main facade of three high arches as a vestibule and a balcony above it; Two-storey interior with chapels on the left and exuberant frescoes from late Gothic and early Renaissance in the lower church and papal throne in the upper church. The tomb slab of an alleged bishop from 1111, which was added in a modern way in the third chapel on the left, was the reason for the invention of an early advertising legend for the local white wine from the late 16th century, but it is actually a 14th century scholar the Dutch name Defuk, who is said to have died here because of excessive wine consumption - a relationship still claimed to the Fugger family from Augsburg is absurd.
- Church of S. Andrea on Largo Plebiscito from the transition period from Romanesque to Gothic with the original interior design.
- Church of S. Maria Assunta or Divino Amore with baroque furnishings and a large high altar.
- Church of S. Bartolomeo from 1697 with baroque furnishings and the associated building of the episcopal seminary with chapel of S. Maria Assunta and salon.
- Church of S. Francesco with furnishings from the Baroque and Classicism periods, including some altar paintings.
- S. Pietro church on Via Bixio with Baroque furnishings, including a painting by Sebastiano Conca , and frescoes in the medieval choir.
- Church of S. Maria Annunziata, former church of the Augustinian convent, in which Martin Luther is said to have been housed in 1511 , with fragmentary frescoes from 1506.
- Church of S. Maria delle Grazie near S. Flaviano, completed in its original state in 1333, but completely renovated from 1492 to 1530; From this time the facade and the interior design with additional frescoes in classical form and a large baroque high altar with Madonna fresco of the late Gothic in a Renaissance frame.
- Church of S. Maria della Vittoria or S. Felicita, consecrated on September 1, 1591, with the main altar of the Madonna della Vittoria from 1773.
- Papal castle with preserved main building from 1516, Renaissance arcade in the courtyard and Museo dell'Architettura di Antonio da Sangallo .
- Porta di Borgo from 1744 as the main entrance to the city expansion during the Baroque period .
- Porta di Borgheriglia as a south-western entrance to the city from the early Baroque period.
- Palazzo Comunale on the Piazza Vittorio Emanuele with gate passage and clock tower.
- Palazzo Federici on Corso Cavour, three-storey baroque palace, today a hotel.
- Palazzo Antonelli with unfinished rear facade facing Via Verentana with a loggia in the form of a Serliana and semicircular balconies.
- Palazzo Cernitori-Pieri-Buti on Via Nazionale, four-storey building with a Mannerist-Early Baroque facade.
- Church of S. Maria di Montedoro in the district of Le Mosse, small, magnificent octagonal building with attached round apse, built after 1523 according to plans by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, typical example of a central building of the High Renaissance with extensive frescoes from this epoch in the chapels.
- In the area around Montefiascone there are considerable remains of the Roman Via Cassia with its original paving.
Personalities associated with the city
- Saint Lucia Filippini , founder of the Congregation of Maestre Pie Filippine for the Teaching of Girls' Schools, died March 25, 1732, proclaimed a saint in 1930.
- Cardinal Marcantonio Barbarigo (1640–1706), bishop from 1687 to 1706, 1686 cardinal priest of Santa Susanna and later San Marco , died in Montefiascone on May 26, 1706.
- Cardinal Pompeo Aldrovandi (1668–1752), bishop from 1734 to 1752, cardinal priest of Sant'Eusebio in 1734 , candidate for the tiara in the conclave of 1740 , died in Montefiascone on January 5, 1752.
- Cardinal Bonaventura Gazzola (1744–1832), administrator and bishop from 1814 to 1832, 1824 cardinal priest of San Bartolomeo all'Isola , died in Montefiascone on January 19, 1832.
- Cardinal Mario Mocenni (1823–1904), born on January 22, 1823 in Montefiascone, most recently Cardinal Bishop of the Sabina.
- Sante Ranucci (* 1933), racing cyclist
Andrea Danti ( PdL ) was elected mayor in June 2009. His center-right list made up the majority in the local council with 13 out of 20 seats. He replaced Fernando Fumagalli, who was no longer running. Until now, the city had been ruled by the center-left alliance. Luciano Cimarello (Lista Civica. La nuova Città) has been mayor since May 17, 2011, while Fernando Fumagalli is deputy mayor.
Montefiascone is known for its wine Est! Est !! Est !!! . The Fiera del Vino festival has been held every year in August since 1958 .
- Hans Ost: Santa Margherita in Montefiascone. In: The Art Bulletin 52, 1970, pp. 373-389.
- Helmut Hager: The dome of the cathedral in Montefiascone. In: Römisches Jahrbuch für Kunstgeschichte 15, 1975, pp. 143–168.
- Giancarlo Breccola, Marcello Mari: Montefiascone. Montefiascone 1979.
- Claus Rießner: Viaggiatori tedeschi a Montefiascone e l'origine della leggenda dell'Est, Est, Est. Viterbo 1982.
- Vitaliano Tiberia: La Basilica di San Flaviano a Montefiascone. restauri di affreschi: ipotesi, conferme. Todi 1987.
- Mafaldina Rocca: Il cardinale Marcantonio Barbarigo, vescovo di Montefiascone e Corneto (1687–1706): tra riforma e pastorale di impegno. Rome 1990.
- Gottfried Kerscher: Architecture as Representation. Late medieval palace architecture between splendor and ceremonial requirements: Avignon - Mallorca - Papal States. Tübingen 2000, ISBN 3-8030-0192-7 .
- Fabio Fabene: Una divina storia d'amore: il cardinale Marco Antonio Barbarigo, vescovo di Montefiascone e Corneto (Tarquinia). Vatican City 2007, ISBN 978-88-2097-903-4 .
- Gabriele Bartolozzi Casti (ed.): La Rocca di Montefiascone e il Museo dell'architettura Antonio da Sangallo il giovane. Rome 2010, ISBN 978-88-7140-449-3 .
- Jochen Bode: Via Francigena. A pilgrimage through central Italy. Dülmen 2012, ISBN 978-3-89960-377-4 .
- Renato Stopani, Fabrizio Vanni (eds.): Montefiascone, punto d'incontro e saldatura fra via Francigena e via Teutonica. Florence 2014.
- Francesca Ceci: Via Cassia, Volume 2: Da Monterosi alle pendici di Montefiascone. Rome 2015, ISBN 978-88-240-1430-4 .
- Giancarlo Breccola, Luca Pesante: Nella Tuscia dei pellegrini. Montefiascone: dossier. In: Medioevo 10, 2015, 69–91.
- Montefiascone on www.comuni-italiani.it (Italian)
- Montefiascone in the Middle Ages ( Memento from July 22, 2011 in the Internet Archive ) (Italian)