|Department||Marne ( prefecture )|
|Canton||Chief lieu of 3 cantons|
|surface||26.05 km 2|
|Residents||44,753 (January 1, 2017)|
|Population density||1,718 inhabitants / km 2|
Notre-Dame-en-Vaux in Châlons-en-Champagne
Châlons-en-Champagne ( [ˌʃaˈlɔ̃ː.ɑ̃ .ˌʃɑ̃ːˈpaɲə] ; until 1997 Châlons-sur-Marne [ ˌʃaˈlɔ̃ː.syʁ.maʀn ]) is a city with 44,753 inhabitants (as of January 1, 2017) in northeast France in the historic Champagne region . It is the capital of the department Marne and was the capital (chef-lieu) of the existing 2015 Region Champagne-Ardenne , now the region Grand Est belongs.
In Roman times, Châlons-en-Champagne was called Catalaunum or Durocatalaunum and was the capital of the Gallic tribe of the Catalauni and an important city of the Gallia Belgica . In the vicinity of Châlons, Emperor Aurelian defeated the Gallic counter-emperor Tetricus in a battle in AD 274 . Saint Memmie preached Christianity here in the second half of the 3rd century and became the first bishop of Châlons . In the year 451 the battle of the Catalaunian fields possibly took place near Châlons , in which the army of Attila suffered a defeat against the Visigoths under Theodoric I , who fell, and the Romans under Aëtius . In 931 the city was conquered and devastated by Rudolf of Burgundy and in 963 by Robert von Vermandois .
In the Middle Ages, the city was administered by the Bishops of Châlons from the 10th century, which gave it numerous sacred buildings , including a. the cathedral of Saint-Etienne , Notre-Dame-en-Vaux and Saint-Jean . The clergy, however, restricted the bourgeoisie and with it the economic development of the city. This led to the fact that the agricultural industry is still the most important branch of the economy today.
In the 12th and 13th centuries, Châlons developed into an important French trading center. In 1147 Bernhard von Clairvaux preached the crusade here in the presence of King Louis VII and Pope Eugene III. who had come to the city for the inauguration of the cathedral. In 1214 the Châlons militia took part in the Battle of Bouvines . In 1360 King John II united the county of Châlons with the crown domain. During the Hundred Years War, the inhabitants of Châlons fought back about 8,000 advancing English in 1430 and 1434.
At the end of the 16th century, the city sided with the French King Henry IV , who therefore moved the parliament from Paris to Châlons in 1589 . On June 15, 1591, the excommunication bull of Pope Gregory XIV directed against Henry IV and the bull of Clement VIII in 1592 were publicly burned by the executioner here.
During the 17th and 18th centuries, Châlons was the scene of several weddings of the high nobility. Philippe d'Orléans and Liselotte of the Palatinate married here on November 16, 1671 , the Great Dauphin and Maria Anna Victoria of Bavaria on March 7, 1680 , Louis d'Orléans and Auguste of Baden-Baden on July 13, 1724 and on July 24, 1728 Louis IV. Henri de Bourbon, prince de Condé and Caroline Charlotte of Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg . (The latter two marriages took place in Sarry, very close to Châlons.)
The Constituent Assembly established Châlons in 1790 as the place of the central administration of the Marne department. On June 20, 1791, the Louis XVI family passed on their flight to Varennes the post office of Châlons. On February 4, 1814, the Prussians under York captured the suburb of St. Memmie, which MacDonald was defending, and after MacDonald's withdrawal occupied the city itself the following day. On July 3, 1815, it was conquered by Chernyshev . The diocese of Châlons, which was abolished in 1790, was re-established in 1822.
Napoleon III built the Châlons camp 24 km northeast of the city in 1856 , which was initially intended for training purposes for the French army, but later played an important role in the Franco-Prussian War . In August 1870, the French army under Mac-Mahon assembled in a strength of 130,000 men after their retreat from Alsace in Châlons, where Napoleon III. Joined her on August 16. The so-called army of Châlons was supposed to relieve Marshal Bazaine in Metz from here , but had to evade northwards from the Prussians - first to Reims , later to Beaumont and finally in the defeat of the Battle of Sedan .
During the First World War , German troops arriving from the north reached the city on September 4, 1914 and were able to enter without major resistance. The French garrison hurriedly withdrew, leaving equipment behind.
Until 1997 the city was called Châlons-sur-Marne .
|Sources: Cassini and INSEE|
coat of arms
- Bobo-Dioulasso , Burkina Faso
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- Mirabel , suburb of Montreal , Canada
- Neuss , Germany
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The A4 / Autoroute de l'Est (Strasbourg-Paris) runs north of the city, and to the west of Châlons is the A26 / Autoroute des Anglais , which connects Calais ( Eurotunnel ) with Troyes and is part of the Grand contournement de Paris . Furthermore, Châlons was a junction for long national roads until 1973: in east-west direction the N3 (today D3), which connects Paris with Germany near Saarbrücken, in north-east-south-west direction the N77 (today D977), the Nevers with Belgium at Bouillon connects, as well as the N44 north towards Saint-Quentin. By 1949 the N4 to Germany began near Strasbourg; which was extended from Vitry to Paris in 1949 and replaced by an extended N44. The N33 branched off to the west and served as a southern alternative to the N3. Today there is only the N44, which leads east around the city.
The Chalons Vatry airport is located about 20 kilometers south of the city.
- The first still existing campus of Arts et Métiers ParisTech, an elite university for engineering , has existed here since 1806 .
- College St. Étienne, episcopal school, partner school of the Johannes-Gymnasium Lahnstein and the Wilhelm-Hofmann-Gymnasium in St. Goarshausen.
- National Center for Circus Arts ( Center national des arts du cirque , CNAC for short), founded in 1986
- Saint-Etienne cathedral
- Church Notre-Dame-de-Vaux
- Museum Schiller and Goethe ( Musée Schiller et Goethe )
- Museum of Fine Arts and Archeology ( Musée des Beaux-Arts et d'Archéologie )
- Garinet Museum ( Musée Garinet )
The city is associated with the Montagne de Reims Regional Natural Park as an access point.
sons and daughters of the town
- Pierre Richer de Belleval (around 1564–1632), botanist and physician
- Fédéric Morel (1552–1630), translator
- Claude Chastillon (1560–1616), architect, topographer and engraver
- Louis Lallemant (1578-1635), theologian, Jesuit
- David Blondel (1590-1655), theologian
- Nicolas Perrot d'Ablancourt (1606–1664), member of the Académie française
- Jean Talon (1625–1694), first director of New France (1665–1672)
- Claude Aubriet (1665–1742), nature painter
- Jean-François-Paul Le Fèvre de Caumartin (1668–1733), Bishop of Blois, member of the Académie française
- Antoine de Chézy (1718–1798), hydraulic engineer
- Nicolas Appert (1749–1841), confectioner and inventor
- Claude Antoine Compère (1774-1812), General
- Adelbert von Chamisso (1781–1838), German naturalist and poet
- Émile Herbillon (1794–1866), General
- Auguste Nicolas Eugène Millon (1812–1867), chemist
- Adolphe Willette (1857–1926), illustrator, caricaturist and painter
- Maurice Renard (1875-1939), writer
- Étienne Œhmichen (1884–1955), engineer
- Pierre Dac (1893–1975), humorist and comedian
- Robert Antral (1895–1939), painter and graphic artist
- René-Joseph Piérard (1899–1994), bishop
- Henri Lauvaux (1900–1970), long-distance runner
- Pierre Hourcade (1908–1983), Romance studies and literary scholar
- Jacques Massu (1908-2002), General
- Paul-Louis Carrière (1908–2008), Bishop of Laval
- Edmond-Marie-Henri Abelé (1925–2017), bishop
- Jack Ralite (1928–2017), politician (PCF)
- Jean Cabut (1938–2015), cartoonist, comic artist and caricaturist
- Serge Saulnier (* 1952), car racing driver, racing team owner and motorsport official
- Mano Solo (1963-2010), singer
- Xavier Bertrand (* 1965), politician (Les Républicains)
- Xavier Charles (* 1979), improvisation musician
- Caroline Anglade (* 1982), actress
- Aïssa Mandi (* 1991), soccer player
- In Châlons, the French bishop Wilhelm von Champeaux (around 1070-1121), the Crown Princess Margaret of Scotland (1424-1445), the French general Alfred Chanzy (1823-1883), the Luxembourg entrepreneur Emil Mayrisch (1862-1928) and the died Italian clown and artist Francesco Caroli (1922–2004).
- The composer Pierre Menault (1642–1694) worked as bandmaster, the French politician Pierre Louis Prieur (1756–1827) as a lawyer in the city.
- Jean-Paul Barbier: Des Châlonnais célèbres, illustres et mémorables. Biography châlonnaise (= Petit Catalaunien Illustré. 33). Éditions du "Petit Catalaunien", Châlons-en-Champagne 2000, ISBN 2-9509546-1-8 .
- Sonja Benner: Châlons-en-Champagne. The city, the monastery of Toussaint and the surrounding area up to the middle of the 14th century (= Trier historical research. Vol. 55). Kliomedia, Trier 2006, ISBN 3-89890-101-7 (also: Trier, University, dissertation, 2003).
- Saul David : The greatest failures in military history. From the battle in the Teutoburg Forest to Operation Desert Storm. Heyne, Munich 2001, ISBN 3-453-19073-4 .
- French language portal of the city
- Office de tourisme de Châlons-en-Champagne
- Illustration by Daniel Meisner from 1624: Chaalon in Champanien; Virtutis Præmia Cultor Habet ( digitized version )
- Johannes Trimborn, War Diary of Dr. Johannes Trimborn , number 4, Magdeburg City Archives
- Our exchange of France, official website of the Wilhelm-Hofmann-Gymnasium , accessed on December 20, 2009.