Calendar overview 1718
Robert Maynard kills
the infamous pirate Blackbeard in battle .
becomes Queen of Sweden .
|Peace of Passarowitz ends the Venetian-Austrian Turkish War .|
|1718 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1166/67 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1710/11 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1123/1124 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2261/62 (southern Buddhism); 2260/61 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1080/81 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4051/52 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1130/31 (turn of the year 23/24 November)|
|Jewish calendar||5478/79 (September 25-26)|
|Coptic calendar||1434/35 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2028/29 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2029/30 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1774/75 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- July 21 : The Peace of Passarowitz brokered by Great Britain and the Netherlands between Venice , Austria and the Ottoman Empire is concluded. He ends the Venetian-Austrian Turkish War . Sultan Ahmed III. the Temescher Banat and the Little Wallachia as well as northern Serbia with Belgrade and a border strip in northern Bosnia ceded to Austria. However, Venice finally loses the Morea to the Ottomans, but keeps the fortresses Butrinto , Parga , Prevesa , Vonitza on the Greek and Albanian mainland, as well as the Ionian Islands . As a result of the peace treaty, trade agreements are also concluded, according to which Turkish subjects enjoy freedom of trade in the territory of the Habsburg monarchy .
Quadruple Alliance War
- July 3 : After conquering Sardinia last year , the Spaniards land in Sicily , which at that time belonged to the House of Savoy , conquer Palermo and then occupy the entire island except for Messina , which has been resisting for a long time. Then Minister Giulio Alberoni began negotiations with the Savoyard Duke Viktor Amadeus II and proposed an anti-Habsburg alliance to him.
- August 2nd : Emperor Karl VI. enters the closed last year triple alliance of Britain , France and the Netherlands against Spain at. In it, he agrees, among other things, to swap Sicily for Sardinia. The Quadruple Alliance war is only a matter of time.
- August 11 : In the sea battle off Cape Passero , a British fleet under the command of Admiral George Byng attacks a Spanish one without prior declaration of war and rubs it apart.
- September 30th : After months of siege, Messina surrenders to the Spanish as the last city in Sicily .
- Autumn: A small Austrian army crosses from Naples to Sicily, but can only hold a bridgehead around Milazzo .
- December 17 : Britain declares war on Spain following the Spanish rejection of terms of the Quadruple Alliance . The war thus spreads to the Spanish colonies in South America.
- At the turn of the year, France officially entered the war after the Cellamare conspiracy against the French regent Philippe II de Bourbon, duc d'Orléans , planned by Giulio Alberoni and Louise Bénédicte de Bourbon , became known.
Great Northern War
- May: The first Russian-Swedish peace conference begins on the Aland Islands . Georg Heinrich von Görtz and Carl Gyllenborg on the Swedish side are negotiating with Heinrich Johann Friedrich Ostermann and Jacob Daniel Bruce . The Swedish proposal stipulates that Russia should keep all of its possessions except Finland , but that Norway and Hanover should go to the Swedes . A landing in Scotland is also intended to prepare a return of the Jacobites to the throne there.
- October: Sweden attacks Norway , which is a personal union with Denmark, again in the Great Northern War . The main corps of the Swedes under King Charles XII. marches towards Fredrikshald . Part of the Swedish army under the command of Lieutenant General Carl Gustaf Armfelt is marching to Trondheim . The campaign is intended to show the opponents of the war the seemingly unbroken strength of Sweden, but meets with general disapproval in their own country, as the country is in fact at the end of its tether.
- November 20 : The siege of Frederikshald by Charles XII. begins.
- December 11th : The Swedish King Karl XII. is at the siege of the fortress Fredriksten in the Norwegian Fredrikshald killed by a shot, whether by a bullet from the enemy or the ranks is unclear. His sister Ulrika Eleonore takes over the government, her husband General Friedrich von Hessen-Kassel lifts the siege on December 14th and leads the army back to Sweden. The return march is hasty and uncoordinated, many Swedes are dying of hunger and cold.
- July 7 : Tsarevich Alexei of Russia dies in custody. On his return from exile in Moscow on February 14th, he was arrested, forced to renounce the throne and sentenced to death for conspiracy against his father Peter the Great . The execution was waived, but Alexei presumably dies a short time later as a result of the torture suffered.
Holy Roman Empire
- November 15 : Duke Moritz Wilhelm von Sachsen-Zeitz dies without an heir. As a result, the Albertine secondary school falls back to course axes .
- Sultan ibn Saif II , imam of the Yaruba dynasty in Oman , dies. The succession is controversial because his son Saif ibn Sultan II is still a minor. Nevertheless, the people enforced its establishment against the concerns of the clergy.
Piracy in the Caribbean and off North America
- April 11th : Former privateer Woodes Rogers , newly appointed Governor of the Bahamas , sets out from Bristol for New Providence , known at the time as the pirate capital. In his luggage he has a royal pardon for all pirates who surrender before September 5th . He reached New Providence on July 26th . Most pirates, among them Benjamin Hornigold , accept the offer, only Charles Vane opposes ignited a freshly hijacked ship in the port and leaves it as Brander run on the anchored ships of the governor. He then fled with his team, which included Jack Rackham and Anne Bonny .
- After hijacking several ships in the Caribbean in March and April , Edward Thatch, known as Blackbeard , appears with his pirate fleet in front of Charleston in the Province of South Carolina and besieges the city. At least nine ships attempting to break through the blockade are arrested. After handing over medicines and medical supplies, the pirates break off the siege and sail on to Beaufort , North Carolina . There, however, Blackbeard's flagship , the Queen Anne's Revenge , runs aground and is lost. Meanwhile, Alexander Spotswood , the governor of Virginia , in excess of his local competence, dispatches two warships of the Royal Navy disguised as merchant ships under the command of Lieutenant Robert Maynard to arrest or kill Blackbeard.
- November 21 : After Blackbeard and his crew boarded the two supposed merchant ships, he is killed in battle by Robert Maynard . Blackbeard is beheaded and his head is hung on the bowsprit of Maynard's sloop until the pirate hunters return to Virginia.
North American colonies
- June: With a contract between the settlers and the remaining Tuscarora , the Tuscarora War ends for good . This also closes Fort Christanna .
- Jean-Baptiste Le Moyne de Bienville founds the city of La Nouvelle-Orléans in the French colony of Louisiana .
- May 15 : London attorney James Puckle receives a patent on the machine gun he invented . There is little interest in it.
- The Austrian Court War Council agent Claudius Innocentius du Paquier succeeds in discovering the well-kept production secret of the Royal Polish and Electoral Saxon Porcelain Manufactory . With the help of the imperial envoy to the Polish-Saxon court, Damian Hugo von Virmont , he was able to lure some of the craftsmen from Meissen to Vienna and set up his own porcelain factory. The Vienna Porcelain Manufactory , for which he received an imperial privilege to manufacture porcelain in the Habsburg lands on May 27th , is the second in Europe.
- The French West India Company , which was dissolved in 1674 , is re-established, takes over the tobacco monopoly and merges with the Senegal Company .
science and technology
- November: The German natural scientist Daniel Gottlieb Messerschmidt receives the imperial commission of Peter the Great through Laurentius Blumentrost for a multi-year research and collecting trip through Siberia .
- September 9th : In preparation for the planned wedding celebrations of Prince Elector Friedrich August with Maria Josepha of Austria , the foundation stone for the Zwinger Opera House is laid in Dresden .
- The Wallgrabenbrücke connects the western Dresden suburbs outside the Dresden fortifications with the Zwinger .
Music and theater
- February: The melodrama Telemaco by Alessandro Scarlatti based on the libretto by Carlo Sigismondo Capece has its world premiere at the Teatro Capranica in Rome .
- Early summer: Georg Friedrich Händel composes the Masque Acis and Galatea and the first version of the oratorio Esther .
- October 1st : World premiere of the opera Temistocle by Nicola Porpora in Vienna
- November 4th : World premiere of the opera Ifigenia in Aulide by Alessandro Scarlatti in Vienna
- November 26th : World premiere of the opera Il trionfo dell'onore by Alessandro Scarlatti at the Teatro dei Fiorentini in Naples
- Sweden has the first legal traffic regulation.
- February: Large parts of Bucharest are destroyed by fire. In the same year there was a famine due to a drought.
- The Picardsche sweat fever occurs for the first time in northern France.
First half of the year
- January 7 : Israel Putnam , British officer and American general († 1790 )
- January 20 : Ambrosio de Benavides , Spanish colonial administrator, governor of Puerto Rico, Charcas and Chile († 1787 )
- January 20 : Élie Catherine Fréron , French writer and publicist († 1776 )
- January 29 : Paul Rabaut , French Protestant preacher and pastor († 1794 )
- February 2 : Christoph Bauer , German Lutheran theologian († 1778 )
- February 18 : Søren Abildgaard , Danish biologist, author and illustrator († 1791 )
- February 18 : Robert Henry , Scottish historian († 1790 )
- Hilaire-Marin Rouelle , French chemist and pharmacist († 1779 ) February:
- Mary Wortley-Montagu, 1st Baroness Mount Stuart , British noblewoman († 1794 ) February:
- March 21 : Johann Friedrich Hiller , German educator, rhetorician and philosopher († 1790 )
- March 27 : Andreas Weber , German philosopher and Lutheran theologian († 1781 )
- March 31 : Maria Anna Viktoria of Spain , Queen and Regent of Portugal († 1781 )
- Wilhelmine Dorothee von der Marwitz , Viennese Salonnière and lover of Margrave Friedrich von Brandenburg-Bayreuth († 1787 ) April:
- May 10 : Angelius Johann Daniel Aepinus , German philosopher and university lecturer († 1784 )
- May 13 : Christian Friedrich Exner , German builder († 1798 )
- May 16 : Maria Gaetana Agnesi , Italian mathematician and philanthropist († 1799 )
- May 17 : Matthew Maty , Dutch physician, biographer and librarian († 1776 )
- May 25 : Johann Christian Blasche , German Lutheran theologian († 1792 )
- June 16 (baptized): Thomas Chippendale , English furniture designer († 1779 )
Second half of the year
- July 15 : Alexander Roslin , Swedish painter († 1793 )
- July 31 : John Canton , English physicist († 1772 )
- August 11 : Jobst Anton von Hinüber , German lawyer, postmaster and monastery leaseholder († 1784 )
- August 25 : Christianus Carolus Henricus van der Aa , Dutch Lutheran theologian († 1793 )
- September 8 : François-Thomas-Marie de Baculard d'Arnaud , French poet and playwright († 1805 )
- September 14 : Maria Anna of Austria , Duchess of Lorraine († 1744 )
- September 24 : Christian Georg Schütz the Elder , German painter and engraver († 1791 )
- September 25 : Martin Johann Schmidt , Austrian Baroque painter († 1801 )
- September 26 : Johann Friedrich Stahl , German forest scientist († 1790 )
- September 29 : Nikita Ivanovich Panin , Russian Foreign Minister († 1783 )
- October 2 : Louisa Catharina Harkort , German entrepreneur († 1795 )
- October 2 : Elizabeth Montagu , English salon lady, writer and patron, co-founder of the Blue Stocking Movement († 1800 )
- October 14 : Vito D'Anna , Sicilian painter († 1769 )
- October 19 : Victor-François de Broglie , French military leader and statesman, Marshal of France († 1804 )
- October 25 : Reinhold Rücker Angerstein , Swedish metallurgist, civil servant and entrepreneur († 1760 )
- November 3 : John Montagu, 4th Earl of Sandwich , British diplomat and statesman († 1792 )
- November 10 : Anton Laube , Bohemian composer and church musician († 1784 )
- November 21 : Friedrich Wilhelm Marpurg , German music theorist and critic († 1795 )
- November 28 : Hedvig Charlotta Nordenflycht , Swedish poet († 1763 )
- December 4 : Carl August von Veltheim , German Lieutenant General and Inspector General of the Hanoverian Cavalry († 1781 )
- December 9 : Wilhelm Christian Justus Chrysander , German Lutheran theologian, mathematician and orientalist († 1788 )
- December 12 : Elisabeth Dorothea von Wiser , countess from the Palatinate, landlady and benefactress of the village of Friedelsheim († 1771 )
- December 16 : Johann Tobias Krebs , German philologist and educator († 1782 )
- December 18 : Anna Leopoldowna , Grand Duchess and Regent of Russia († 1746 )
- December 18 : Ernst Friedrich Wernsdorf , German Lutheran theologian and church historian († 1782 )
- December 31 : Nicolas-Sylvestre Bergier , French theologian and famous apologist († 1790 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Karai Senryū , Japanese poet († 1790 )
- David Klaus , German philosopher († 1793 )
- Nano Nagle , Irish nun and founder († 1784 )
- Tsuga Teishō , Japanese writer († 1794 )
- Veli Pasha of Delvina , Ottoman Pasha († 1763 )
- José Joaquín de Viana , Spanish politician and military of Basque origin († 1773 )
- Lawrence Washington , soldier and landowner in Virginia, half-brother of George Washington († 1752 )
Born around 1718
January to April
- January 6 : Giovanni Vincenzo Gravina , Italian writer and lawyer and co-founder of the Accademia dell'Arcadia (* 1664 )
- January 14th : Andreas Dietrich Apel , German merchant and silk manufacturer (* 1662 )
- January 16 : Johann Hugo von Lente , German lawyer and diplomat in the Danish service (* 1640 )
- Nikolaes Heinsius the Younger , Dutch doctor and writer (* 1656 ) January:
- February 1 : Charles Talbot, 1st Duke of Shrewsbury , British politician (* 1660 )
- February 5th : Elisabeth Johanna von Pfalz-Veldenz , Countess of the Wild and Rhine of Salm-Kyrburg (* 1653 )
- February 5 : Adrianus Reland , Dutch orientalist (* 1676 )
- February 14 : Viktor I. Amadeus , Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg (* 1634 )
- February 14 : Wilhelm Heinrich , Prince of Nassau-Usingen (* 1684 )
- February 27 : Václav Karel Holan Rovenský , Czech composer (* 1644 )
- March 1 : Jacobus le Mort , Dutch chemist and medic (* 1650 )
- March 3 : Jean d'Estrées , French politician and Archbishop of Cambrai (* 1666 )
- March 11 : Guy-Crescent Fagon , French physician and botanist (* 1638 )
- March 13 : Friedrich Nicolaus Bruhns , North German composer (* 1637 )
- March 15 : Ferdinand von Fürstenberg , Colonel stable master of the Prince Diocese of Paderborn and Erbdrost from various offices in the Duchy of Westphalia (* 1661 )
- April 1 : Johann Jacob Stolterfoht , German physician and city physician from Lübeck (* 1665 )
- April 3 : Franziska Barbara , Countess von Hohenlohe, mistress of Wilhermsdorf (* 1666 )
- April 10 : Georg Friedrich Meinhart , German Protestant theologian (* 1651 )
- April 15 : Antonio Grano , Sicilian painter (* around 1660 )
- April 18 : Michael Wening , Bavarian copperplate engraver (* 1645 )
- April 21 : Philippe de La Hire , French mathematician (* 1640 )
- April 26th : Maria Eleonore von Dernbach , Countess of the Wiesentheid lordship (* 1680 )
May to August
- May 3rd : Zwi Hirsch Aschkenasi , Bohemian rabbi and Talmud scholar (* 1656 )
- May 3 : Gottfried Suevus the Younger , German jurist (* 1652 )
- May 6 : Johann Paul Hebenstreit , German moral philosopher and Lutheran theologian (* 1664 )
- May 7th : Maria Beatrice d'Este , Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland (* 1658 )
- May 15 : Stephan Anton Mdzewski , Polish clergyman, titular bishop of Calama and auxiliary bishop in Lutsk and Gniezno (* around 1653 )
- May 18 : Arvid Karlsteen , Swedish medalist, coin maker and miniature painter (* 1647 )
- May 19 : Juan Andrés de Ustariz de Vertizberea , Spanish merchant and governor of Chile (* 1656 )
- May 22nd : Gaspard Abeille , French clergyman, writer and playwright (* 1648 )
- May 23 : Jacobus Sackmann , Protestant theologian (* 1643 )
- May 30 : Bernard Nieuwentijt , Dutch philosopher and mathematician (* 1654 )
- June 24th : Ludwig Friedrich I , Prince of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Count von Hohnstein, Lord of Rudolstadt, Blankenburg and Sondershausen (* 1667 )
- June 24th : Mathias Prininger , Austrian bell founder (* 1652 )
- Sudfeld Vick , German builder June:
- July 7 : Alexei of Russia , Tsarevich (Crown Prince) of Russia (* 1690 )
- July 11th : Caspar Löscher , German Lutheran theologian (* 1636 )
- July 18 : Friedrich Adolf , Count of Lippe-Detmold (* 1667 )
- July 21 : Sabbatai Ben Josef , Jewish writer, scholar, bibliographer and publisher (* 1641 )
- July 27th : Johann Schorn , Salzburg lute and violin maker (* 1658 )
- July 28 : Étienne Baluze , French historian (* 1630 )
- July 30 : William Penn , Quaker and founder of Pennsylvania (* 1644 )
September to December
- September 9 : Diego Ladrón de Guevara , Bishop of Quito and Viceroy of Peru (* 1641 )
- September 21 : Count Johann Philipp von Isenburg-Offenbach , regent of the county of Isenburg (* 1655 )
- October 19 : Henri d'Harcourt, Marquis de Beuvron et de Thary-Harcourt , Marshal and Peer of France, envoy plenipotentiary to Spain (* 1654 )
- October 23 : Johann Caspar Posner , German physicist and rhetorician (* 1670 )
- October 31 : Johanna Ursula von Geusau , German hymn poet (* 1659 )
- November 3 : Karl Wilhelm , Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst (* 1652 )
- November 15 : Moritz Wilhelm , Duke of Saxony-Zeitz (* 1664 )
- November 17 : Philipp Ludwig Probst , princely prime minister of Brunswick-Lüneburg, chancellor and state syndic as well as hereditary lord of Wendhausen, Schöningen and Riddagshausen (* 1633 )
- November 22nd : Edward Thatch, incorrectly Edward Teach, alias " Blackbeard ", English pirate in the Caribbean Sea (* around 1680 )
- December 5 : Johann Friedrich Willading , Swiss statesman (* 1641 )
- December 6th : Georg Christoph Petri von Hartenfels , German doctor, scientist and university lecturer (* 1633 )
- December 6 : Nicholas Rowe , English poet and playwright (* 1673 )
- December 7th : Rudolf Emanuel Passavant , Frankfurt merchant (* 1641 )
- December 9 : Vincenzo Maria Coronelli , Italian cartographer, cosmographer and globe maker (* 1650 )
- December 10 : Stede Bonnet , Anglo-Barbadian landowner and pirate (* 1688 )
- December 11th : Charles XII. , King of Sweden and Duke of Pfalz-Zweibrücken (* 1682 )
- December 13 : Johann Arnoldi , Stolberg Hofrat (* 1648 )
- December 21 : Cai Burchard Graf von Ahlefeldt , lord of the noble estates of Bystorp, Gut Eschelsmark, Ornum and Stubbe (* 1671 )
- December 25th : Franz Arnold von Wolff-Metternich zur Gracht , Prince-Bishop of Paderborn and Münster (* 1658 )
- December 25 : Franz Joseph Feuchtmayer , German sculptor and plasterer (* 1660 )
- December 26th : Rudolph Wilhelm Krause the Younger , German medic (* 1642 )
- December 28 : Johann Brokoff , Bohemian sculptor (* 1652 )
- December 28 : Benoîte Rencurel , French shepherdess and mystic (* 1647 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Giulio Broggio , Italian or Swiss architect and builder (* 1628 )
- Giovanni Antonio Matera , Sicilian sculptor (* 1653 )
- Sultan ibn Saif II , Imam of Oman
- Giulio Taglietti , Italian violinist and composer (* around 1660 )
- Nikolaus Wurmstich , German master mason and architect