When Ernestine duchies and Saxon duchies refers to a variable number of small duchies in today's Thuringia , Saxony-Anhalt , Saxony and Upper and Lower Franconia , by inheritance among the descendants of the Duke and Elector Ernst of Saxony-Wittenberg emerged.
The House of Wettin was divided in 1485 into two lines ( Treaty of Leipzig ), the younger Albertine , founded by Albert the Courageous , the later Electorate of Saxony (Residenz Dresden ) and later the Polish-Lithuanian ruled, and the older Ernestinische that initially the Electorate received (Residenz Wittenberg ).
While the Albertiner exclude the primogeniture introduced and thus ensured the cohesion of their country part that remained Ernestiner in the inheritance , which resulted ongoing for centuries fragmentation (including the following additions and rearrangement) of ernestischen duchies that ultimately only after the First World War ended was: The respective changes (and the resulting respective duchies) recorded, seen in the historical course, in the end only areas that by today's standards do not even correspond in size to a district .
In 1547, due to the Wittenberg surrender , the Ernestines finally lost their electoral dignity with the Duchy of Saxony (-Wittenberg) and most of their hereditary lands to the Albertines and were initially only able to maintain part of their Thuringian possessions, namely the offices, towns and castles of Gerstungen , Eisenach , Wartburg , Kreuzburg , Tenneberg , Waltershausen , Leuchtenburg , Roda , Orlamünde , Gotha , Jena , Kapellendorf , Roßla , Weimar , Wachsenburg , Dornburg , Camburg , Buttstädt , Arnshaugk , Weida , Mildenfurth and Ziegenrück .
After the death of Duke Johann Ernst I von Coburg in 1553, the offices of Coburg , Sonneberg , Hildburghausen , Königsberg , Veilsdorf and Schalkau were added to the Ernestine property . The Ernestines received further territories in 1554 through the Naumburg Treaty of Elector August from the Albertine line, d. H. the offices of Altenburg , Eisenberg , Sachsenburg and Herbesleben (excluding Tennstedt ), the cities of Auma , Neustadt , Pößneck and Triptis as well as the ownership of the dissolved monasteries Volkenroda and Oldisleben . In 1555 they exchanged the rule of Römhild from the Counts of Mansfeld . The Ernestine House finally acquired a share of 7/12 from the Henneberg inheritance (1583), but definitely not until 1660, namely the offices of Meiningen , Themar , Maßfeld , Behrungen , Henneberg , Milz , Ilmenau , Kaltennordheim , Frauenbreitungen , Sand and Wasungen .
The Ernestine areas had been severely fragmented from 1573 at the latest, barely a century after the division of Leipzig, due to the ongoing division of the inheritance (see timetable below). The resulting partial duchies are called Ernestine or Saxon duchies . At times, up to ten individual duchies existed at the same time. The fragmentation of the Ernestine duchies and the neighboring Russian and Schwarzburg principalities, which led to political insignificance, made Thuringia a prime example of small states ("duodec principals", " operetta states ") within the German Confederation .
In 1826, it came after the extinction of the House of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg , with the award King Frederick Augustus I of Saxony to the last reorganization of the duchies of Saxe-Gotha , Sachsen-Altenburg , Saxe-Meiningen , Saxony-Hildburghausen and Saxony- Coburg-Saalfeld .
The Duke of Saxony-Hildburghausen exchanged his duchy with Saxony-Altenburg. The Sachsen-Meiningen line got Sachsen-Hildburghausen and from Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld the Saalfeld region as well as the Themar office and the places Mupperg , Mogger , Liebau and Oerlsdorf . The Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld received the duchy of Saxe-Gotha, of Saxe-Hildburghausen the offices of Königsberg and Sonnefeld and of Saxe-Meiningen the goods of Callenberg and Gauerstadt and became the new double duchy of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha . Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach , which had meanwhile been elevated to a Grand Duchy at the Congress of Vienna and was considerably enlarged in terms of territory , was left out.
Only in this context was the principle of primogeniture among the Ernestinians, i.e. H. finally introduced around three and a half centuries after the division of Leipzig in 1485.
In 1867 the four remaining Ernestine states joined the North German Confederation , before they, together with other principalities, became the state of Thuringia between 1919 and 1920 and Coburg became part of Bavaria after a referendum.
Duration of the individual duchies
|Saxony-Altenburg||from 1603 to 1672 and from 1826 to 1918|
|Saxe-Coburg||from 1596 to 1633 and from 1681 to 1699|
|Saxe-Coburg-Eisenach||from 1572 to 1596|
|Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld||from 1735 to 1826|
|Saxe-Coburg and Gotha||from 1826 to 1918|
|Saxony-Eisenach||from 1596 to 1638, from 1640 to 1644 and from 1662 to 1741|
|Saxony-Eisenberg||from 1680 to 1707|
|Saxe-Gotha||from 1640 to 1680|
|Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg||from 1681 to 1826|
|Saxony-Hildburghausen||from 1680 to 1826|
|Saxony-Jena||from 1672 to 1690|
|Saxony-Meiningen||from 1680 to 1918|
|Saxony-Römhild||from 1680 to 1710|
|Saxony-Saalfeld||from 1680 to 1735|
|Saxe-Weimar||from 1572 to 1741|
|Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach||from 1741 to 1918 (from 1903: Grand Duchy of Saxony)|
coat of arms
- 1546/1547: As a result of the Schmalkaldic War, the Ernestines lose their electoral dignity and the Electoral Saxon possessions and henceforth are limited to their Thuringian possessions (offices in Weimar , Jena , Saalfeld , Weida , Gotha , Eisenach and Coburg ), but can still do so in the same year Acquire the offices of Dornburg , Camburg and Roßla .
- 1553: The offices of Coburg , Sonneberg , Hildburghausen , Königsberg in Franconia , Veilsdorf and Schalkau fall back after the death of Duke Johann Ernst.
- 1554: The Ernestines acquire the offices of Sachsenburg , Altenburg , Herbsleben and Eisenberg .
- 1555: The Ernestines acquire the office of Römhild .
- 1567: As compensation for the costs of the Reich execution against Johann Friedrich II, the four "underwritten offices" Arnshaugk , Weida with Mildenfurth , Sachsenburg and Ziegenrück are lost to Electoral Saxony.
- 1572: The possessions are divided into the duchies of Saxony-Coburg-Eisenach and Saxony-Weimar .
- 1583: The Ernestines acquire the offices of Meiningen , Themar , Maßfeld , Behrungen , Henneberg , Milz , Ilmenau , Kaltennordheim , Frauenbreitungen , Sand and Wasungen for the whole hand (1660/1661 divided between Sachsen-Weimar and Sachsen-Altenburg).
- 1596: Saxony-Coburg-Eisenach is divided into the duchies of Saxony-Coburg and Saxony-Eisenach .
- 1603: The Duchy of Saxony-Altenburg is separated from Saxony-Weimar .
- 1633: After the Sachsen-Coburg line was extinguished, the title and the land were transferred to Sachsen-Eisenach: again Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach.
- 1638: After the Sachsen-Coburg-Eisenach line was extinguished, the land was divided between Sachsen-Weimar and Sachsen-Altenburg.
- 1640: The duchies of Saxony-Eisenach and Saxony-Gotha are separated from Saxony-Weimar .
- 1644: After the Sachsen-Eisenach line was extinguished, the state was divided between Sachsen-Weimar and Sachsen-Gotha.
- 1656 (excursus): As a result of the Peace of Westphalia, the Albertine duchies of Saxony-Zeitz , Saxony-Merseburg and Saxony-Weißenfels are established as electoral secondary school principalities, which in the years 1718 , 1738 and 1746, however, are back on Electoral Saxony due to the expiry of the respective branch line fall behind .
- 1662: The Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach is separated from Saxony-Weimar.
- 1672: After the Sachsen-Altenburg line was extinguished, title and three quarters of the land fell to Sachsen-Gotha: Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg ; the duchy of Saxony-Jena is separated from Saxony-Weimar .
- 1680: from Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg are divided:
- 1690: After the Sachsen-Jena line was extinguished, the country was divided between Sachsen-Weimar and Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg.
- 1699: After the Sachsen-Coburg line was extinguished, titles and large parts of the state of Sachsen-Coburg fell to Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld .
- 1707: After the Sachsen-Eisenberg line was extinguished, the state fell to Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg.
- 1710: After the Sachsen-Römhild line was extinguished, the land was divided between Sachsen-Gotha-Altenburg, Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld, Sachsen-Meiningen and Sachsen-Hildburghausen.
- 1741: Due to the attack of Eisenach, Saxony-Weimar becomes the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach
- 1747: Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld introduces the Primogenitur.
- 1804: Carl Friedrich von Sachsen-Weimar-Eisenach marries Maria Pavlovna and thus brings his duchy under the protection of Tsar Alexander I .
- 1815: Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach is in the Congress of Vienna to the Grand Duchy levied. It receives parts of the Erfurt Land and the Blankenhain area ceded by Prussia as well as the Electoral Saxon offices of Weida and Neustadt an der Orla / Arnshaugk (Neustädter Kreis) and further area consolidations (including the offices of Geisa and Fischberg from the former ecclesiastical principality of Fulda, and the offices of Kurhessen Vacha and Frauensee , the rule of Lengsfeld , the court of Völkershausen and parts of the Friedewald office and the bailiwick of Kreuzberg ).
- 1826: After the line Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg expires, Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld Saalfeld cedes to Saxe-Meiningen and receives the title and land of Saxe-Gotha: Saxe-Coburg and Gotha ; Sachsen-Hildburghausen cedes Hildburghausen to Sachsen-Meiningen and receives the title and state of Sachsen-Altenburg.
- 1867: Federal states of the North German Confederation ultimately become:
- Saxe-Coburg and Gotha
- 1903: Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach is officially referred to as the Grand Duchy of Saxony.
- 1919/1920: The Ernestine duchies go up as free states in the newly formed state of Thuringia , the free state of Coburg , which had been formed in the meantime, united with Bavaria after a referendum .
Wettin lines and principalities 1485–1918 (graphic)
Overview of the individual lines and principalities of the Wettins that have arisen through inheritance divisions since the formation of the Ernestine and Albertine lines in the Leipzig division in 1485, as well as their inheritance when they became extinct. (To enlarge please click on the picture!)
- Thomas Nicklas: The House of Saxony-Coburg - Europe's late dynasty . Stuttgart, Verlag W. Kohlhammer 2003, ISBN 3-17-017243-3 .
- Jürgen Helfricht : The Wettins. Saxony's kings, dukes, electors a. Margraves . Sachsenbuch 2002, ISBN 978-3-89664-044-4 .
- Hans Hoffmeister: The Wettins in Thuringia . Rhino Ilmenau 1999, ISBN 978-3-932081-33-0 .
- Jörg Rogge: The Wettins. Rise of a dynasty in the Middle Ages . 2005, ISBN 978-3-7995-0151-4 .
- Steffen Raßloff : Central German history. Saxony - Saxony-Anhalt - Thuringia . Edition Leipzig, Leipzig 2016, ISBN 978-3-361-00717-8 .