The Fischberg Office , later also called Dermbach Office , was a territorial administrative unit that originally belonged to the clerical principality of Fulda . It was temporarily lent to the county of Henneberg .
After the Counts of Henneberg died out in 1583, the office came under the joint administration of the Albertine and Ernestine Wettins . Due to the ownership claims of the Fulda monastery, the office had been under monastic administration since 1707 and was divided between Fulda and the Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach in 1764 . From 1815 it belonged entirely to the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach.
Until the administrative and territorial reform of the Grand Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach in 1850 and the related resolution made it as official spatial reference point for claiming nationalistic taxes and labor services , for police , judiciary and military service .
The area of the Fischberg district lay in the middle Felda valley . It belongs to the Thuringian Rhön (Vordere Rhön). The most important mountain in the official area is the Höhn at 510 m above sea level. NHN. During his affiliation to the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach, the office was in the Eisenacher Oberland . The official area is now in the southwest of the Free State of Thuringia and belongs to the Wartburg district .
Adjacent administrative units
|Exclave Oechsen (to Amt Vacha , Landgraviate Hessen-Kassel)||Lordship of Lengsfeld|
|Geisa Office (clerical principality of Fulda)||Amt Sand (County of Henneberg, after 1680 to the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen)|
|Reign of Tann||Amt Kaltennordheim (County of Henneberg, after 1672 to the Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach)|
Administration by the Counts of Neidhartshausen
The starting point of the Fischberg district was the castle of the Counts of Neidhartshausen (Nithardishusen) in the town of the same name Neidhartshausen in the Rhön. These were first mentioned in 744. The first verifiable mention of their home town is dated to the year 956. From 1116 to 1268 the dynasts of Neidhartshausen are attested, who were subordinate to the Henneberg counts of the Tullifeld and carried the title " noble gentlemen ". They probably built up a small lordship in the upper and middle field area on the basis of a fron farm estate that was alienated from the Fulda monastery .
Around 1130 Erpho von Nithardishusen is documented as the heir of Cent Dermbach. Already at that time almost all localities of the later district belonged to this, u. a. Neidhartshausen, Fischbach and Dermbach . The founding of the nearby Zella Monastery in Zella / Rhön also fell during this period . The increasingly developing monasteries of Fulda , Hünfeld , Rasdorf and Hersfeld involved the nobles of Nithardishusen in territorial disputes that brought them into financial difficulties. As a result, the central district of Dermbach had to be sold to the Lords of Frankenstein in 1214 .
Administration by the Frankensteiners, the Fulda Abbey and the Hennebergers
The Lords of Frankenstein took over this area for about 100 years. It was initially enfeoffed to the Fulda monastery . Armed conflict with King Adolf of Nassau weakened the Frankensteiners enormously in 1295 and ran into financial difficulties. In 1317 they had to sell the district court and in 1326 the town of Dermbach to the Fulda monastery.
With the takeover of these lands, the Fulda Monastery expanded Fischberg Castle on the Höhn and founded the “Fischberg Office” from the associated judicial district of Dermbach. The Nithardishusen Castle lost its importance and fell into disrepair.
Due to frequent feuds, the Fulda Monastery was forced to pledge the castle and the Fischberg office several times from 1365 onwards. In 1455, the Counts of Henneberg on the Schleusingen and Römhild lines were each a quarter, the Lords of Tann half of the pledge holders. By purchase, the Counts of Henneberg-Schleusingen were the sole pledge holders of the Fischberg district from 1485, which was sealed by a contract in 1511.
The Zella monastery was destroyed during the Peasants' War and dissolved after 1550 in the course of the introduction of the Reformation in the Fischberg district. However, the provost's office and the associated settlement remained in Fulda ownership. The small community of Zella and a few farms in the area formed a Catholic enclave in the Fischbach district.
Joint administration between the Ernestine and Albertine Wettins
With the death of Count Georg Ernst von Henneberg-Schleusingen in 1583, the once mighty Henneberg Count's House went out. The Kahla Treaty concluded with the Ernestine Wettins in 1554 regulated the succession of the individual parts of the country. The Fulda monastery pushed for its pledge to be redeemed at the Fischberg office, but the Saxon heirs delayed this. This led to a centuries-long dispute with the Fulda prince abbots. In 1594 a settlement was made that the Fischberg office would remain under joint Saxon-Ernestine and Albertine administration. Only the jurisdiction over the monastery and the village of Zella, which were never included in the pledge, was excluded from this. The Fischberg office was now administered from the Kaltennordheim office in Saxony to the south .
In 1629 the Fulda Abbey demanded the surrender of the office again, but this was not done due to the events of the Thirty Years War (1618–1648). In 1660/61 the county of Henneberg was divided . The Electoral Saxon secondary school - Principality of Saxony-Zeitz 5/12, Saxony-Altenburg 3.5 / 12 of the area and Saxony-Weimar together with Saxony-Gotha received the remaining portion. The Fischberg office remained in common ownership. However, since the administration took place from the Kaltennordheim office , the directorate was handed over to Sachsen-Weimar via the office. The income from the office was suspended for the maintenance of the grammar school in Schleusingen. Even after the division of Saxony-Weimar in 1672, when the Kaltennordheim office passed to Saxony-Eisenach , Fischberg remained jointly owned.
Transfer to the ownership of the Fulda monastery
From 1702, the Fulda monastery began to redeem the pledge at the Fischbach office. In 1705, Sachsen-Zeitz resigned his 5/12 office, whereupon the Ernestine duchies protested violently. After a resolution by the Imperial Court Council in 1706, the duchies were urged to cede their shares in the office within two months under threat of a penalty. First of all, Sachsen-Meiningen , which had inherited about 5/12 from Sachsen-Altenburg and Sachsen-Gotha. Last of all, Sachsen-Eisenach gave the share inherited from Sachsen-Weimar and the directorate office to the monastery. Sachsen-Weimar and Sachsen-Gotha protested against the takeover because the assignment would have taken place without their consent.
On May 25, 1707, the Fulda abbot Adalbert von Schleifras came to Dermbach for a tribute ceremony. The new, old territorial lords of Fulda Abbey began building the Dermbach Castle , which they needed as an official building. The office was re-Catholicized.
After the Saxon-Eisenach family died out in 1741, the Duchy fell back to Saxe-Weimar, creating the Duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach . The new sovereigns resurrected disputes over the takeover of the Fischberg an Fulda office in 1707 by u. a. occupied the office of Fischberg. This could only be resolved through the "Fischberger Rezess " of 1764. As a result, the office was divided, as a result of which the towns of Fischbach , Mebritz , Wiesenthal and Urnshausen to the east of the Felda came to Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach and were united with the Kaltennordheim office . The other places remained as an office Fischberg near Fulda.
Territorial affiliation after the dissolution of the clerical principality of Fulda
After the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1803, the 1802 secularized Hochstift Fulda was dissolved and handed over to Friedrich Wilhelm von Oranien-Nassau , until Napoleon I annexed the area in 1806 . In 1810, Fulda and his offices became part of the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt . From the “Amt Fischberg” the “District Dermbach” was formed, which in 1813 was placed under Austrian and 1815 under Prussian administration.
The former Fulda offices of Geisa and Fischberg / Dermbach came to the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach in 1815 through a contract concluded at the Congress of Vienna between Prussia and Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach. The four places Fischbach, Mebritz, Wiesenthal and Urnshausen were re-attached to the Fischberg / Dermbach office.
In 1849/50, jurisdiction was separated from administration in the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach . The Fischberg / Dermbach office was merged with other Rhön offices to form the Dermbach administrative district , which was also known as the IV administrative district , with its seat in Dermbach . This comprised the southern part of the former Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach , which was also known as the Eisenacher Oberland in the 19th century . The Dermbach judicial office was dissolved with the introduction of the German judicial system and the localities belonging to the same were assigned to the district court districts of Lengsfeld and Kaltennordheim.
- Villages of the Fischbach District, which belonged to the Kaltennordheim District between 1764 and 1815
- Castles and monasteries
The Dermbach Justice Office
The Dermbach judicial office was dissolved with the introduction of the German judicial system and the localities belonging to the same were assigned to the district court districts of Lengsfeld and Kaltennordheim. The locations of the Fischberg district were divided as follows:
- To Lengsfeld are struck: Dermbach, Glattbach, Lindenau, Mebritz, Ober- and Unteralba, Urnshausen and Wiesenthal.
- At Kaltennordheim the following are struck: Andenhausen, Brunnhardtshausen, Diedorf, Empfertshausen, Fischbach, Föhlritz, Klings, Neidhartshausen, Steinberg, Zella.
- The nobles of Nithardishausen in the Rhönlexikon
- Article in the Rhönlexikon
- History of the Dermbach Office
- Kronfeld, Constantin: Thuringian-Saxon-Weimar history. - Weimar: Böhlau, 1878. - (Regional studies of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach; T. 1) / [reviewed by:] Ulrich Stechele
- Bruno Kühn: The history of the Dermbach district . In: Journal of the Association for Thuringian History and Archeology . tape I . Friedrich Frommann, Jena 1854, p. 249-296 .