The Amt Sand , which emerged from the Friedelshausen court , was a territorial administrative unit of the county of Henneberg . After the Count von Henneberg -Schleusingen died out in 1583, the office came under the joint administration of the Albertine and Ernestine Wettins . By splitting up the county of Henneberg in 1660, the office was assigned to the Duchy of Saxony-Gotha . Afterwards it belonged to the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg from 1672 and from 1680 to the Duchy of Saxe-Meiningen through the division of inheritance . The administration of the Sand Office was linked to the Wasungen Office from 1583 to 1825.
Until the administrative and territorial reform of the duchy of Saxe-Meiningen in 1827 and the related resolution made it as official spatial reference point for claiming nationalistic taxes and labor services , for police , judiciary and military service .
The area of the Sand Office lay on the ridge of the Vorderrhön . The rivers Katza, Schwarzbach and Rosabach , which originate in the territory, all drain to the east into the Werra, which runs parallel to the Vorderrhön . Only a small part of the office drained into Felda to the west . The highest elevations in the office were the Rhönberge Stopfelskuppe (620 m above sea level) and Roßberg.
During his membership in the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen, the office was in the Meininger Unterland . The official area is now in the southwest of the Free State of Thuringia and belongs to the district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen . Only Bernshausen and Kaltenlengsfeld are today in the southeast of the Wartburg district . The “ Verwaltungsgemeinschaft Wasungen-Amt Sand ” (district of Schmalkalden-Meiningen), to which some places of the former offices of Sand and Wasungen belong, takes up the name of the historic Sand Authority.
Adjacent administrative units
|Amt Fischberg (Fulda fiefdom of the county of Henneberg, after 1583 temporarily part of Saxony-Eisenach)||Office Salzungen (partly to the county of Henneberg, after 1680 to Saxony-Meiningen)||Office Frauenbreitungen (County of Henneberg, after 1680 to Saxony-Meiningen)|
|Amt Fischberg (Fulda fiefdom of the county of Henneberg, after 1583 temporarily part of Saxony-Eisenach)||Wasungen (County of Henneberg, after 1680 part of Saxony-Meiningen)|
|Amt Kaltennordheim (County of Henneberg, after 1672 part of Saxony-Eisenach)||Amt Lichtenberg (back court) (County of Henneberg, after 1555 temporarily part of Saxony-Eisenach)||Amt Maßfeld (County of Henneberg, after 1680 part of Saxony-Meiningen)|
The Würzburg court (Zent) Friedelshausen
The early medieval "Mark Katz", which is called 852 and extended with the parish village of Unterkatz as the center over the area of the Katzabach in the Vorderrhön , formed the core and starting point of the Friedelshausen Central Court . The " Zent Friedelshausen" was first mentioned in 1297 when it was pledged by the Bishop of Würzburg to the county of Henneberg -Schleusingen. At that time, the Friedelshausen court included the places Friedelshausen, Oberkatz, Unterkatz, Oepfershausen, Hümpfershausen with the Sinnershausen monastery, Wahns, Schwarzbach and a large number of deserted areas, including Seifendorf, Dörrensolz and Hahnberg.
County of Henneberg
With the advance of the Henneberger to the north, the area of the central court expanded in this direction. After the line of the Lords of Frankenberg , a noble family related to the Hennebergs, the Counts of Henneberg-Schleusingen acquired their possessions in the Rosagrund and around Frauenbreitungen and formed the Frankenberg office from them in 1301 . After 1317 the court of Mark " Roßdorf " in the upper Rosatal with Roßdorf, Rosa, Eckardts and Witzigendorf (renamed Georgenzell in 1322) was added to the Friedelshausen court.
1320/23 went to the monastery Neuenberg associated with Fulda places Seeba and Bettenhausen , which south of the centering were in the possession of the Counts of Henneberg -Schleusingen over and the administration of the court were annexed Friedelshausen, but the court they were part of centering Kaltennordheim. In addition to these places, free float in the Feldatal ( Oberalba , Unteralba and Wiesenthal ) and Kaltenlengsfeld belonged to the Zent, which was lost in the further course of the 14th century.
After the death of Count Heinrich VIII in 1347, the estate in the Henneberg-Schleusingen house was divided between the count's widow and brother. The center Friedelshausen came to the share of the new regent of the county of Henneberg-Schleusingen, Count Johann I von Henneberg-Schleusingen († 1359). For the area of the Friedelshausen court, the name "Amt Sand" appeared for the first time in 1350, without a reliable explanation of the name can be given. The Sand Office has since been identical to the Friedelshausen District Court.
In 1350, Count Johann I von Henneberg-Schleusingen pledged the towns of Roßdorf, Seeba and Bettenhausen in the Sand office together with the Barchfeld and Kaltennordheim offices to the Fulda monastery . The redemption only happened by Count Wilhelm II of Henneberg-Schleusingen († 1444) in 1419, when Seeba and Bettenhausen came to the office of Maßfeld . Although Roßdorf came back to the office of Sand, although it was a knightly fief, it has since been a shared property of the Counts of Henneberg and the Wettins . In the 15th century, Kaltenlengsfeld was reacquired and the Bailiwick of Aschenhausen , located between the Zenten Kaltennordheim and Friedelshausen, was incorporated into the office. At the same time there was an essential consolidation of the official organization.
In the north, new estates were acquired in the 16th century. In 1509 the town of Bernshausen, which had fallen desolate at times, and in 1537 the retired monastery of Georgenzell took office. This essentially concluded the development of the office in the times of the Henzeberg. At that time and also later it was interspersed with numerous aristocratic districts of the lower courts. The Sinnershausen Monastery , which was converted into a manor in 1537 , has since formed a lower court district, which although part of it fell to Duchess Charlotte Amalie in 1786, was only combined with the Office of Sand in the 19th century. In Oepfershausen, the Lords of Auerochs had held the lower court over their rear seat since 1536, which after their extinction in 1731 fell to the state rulership. The rulership of the office in Aschenhausen and Roßdorf was particularly weak. In Roßdorf the lordly village court, which was still in the 14th century, came into the hands of noble heirs, who were able to significantly expand the jurisdiction in 1592. Aschenhausen, where the Friedelshausen district court did not have the highest jurisdiction, was completely lost and became an imperial knighthood. In 1543/44 the Counts of Henneberg-Schleusingen introduced the Reformation into office.
The office under the joint administration of the Ernestine and Albertine Wettins
In the times of the Henzeberg, the office of Sand, which acted as an administrative and lower court authority, was headed by a bailiff, and the high court of the Friedelshausen district was headed by a rural district count. After the Counts of Henneberg died out in 1583, the Sand Office came under the joint administration of the Ernestine and Albertine Wettins in accordance with the Kahla Treaty of 1554 . From 1583 the Sand Office was administratively united with the neighboring Wasungen Office until 1825 . The Zentgrafenamt Friedelshausen existed until the county of Henneberg was dissolved in 1660.
After the Henneberg population died out, the Würzburg bishop Julius raised a claim to the redemption of the pledge via the Friedelshausen district. However, the matter was settled in the main settlement ( Schleusinger contract ) established with Saxony in 1586 , so that the Würzburg side renounced the redemption right to Friedelshausen and left the area to the House of Saxony.
Duchies of Saxony-Gotha (-Altenburg) and Saxony-Meiningen
When the county of Henneberg was divided in 1660, the Sand Office came under the joint administration of the duchies of Saxe-Weimar (1640–1672) and Saxe-Gotha (1640–1680). As early as 1661, both duchies shared their property and the office of Sand thus came to the duchy of Saxe-Gotha, which from 1672 was called Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg . When this was again divided in 1680, the Sand Office came to the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen .
In Meiningischen times it consisted of the villages Friedelshausen, Ober- and Unterkatz, Wahns, Kaltenlengsfeld, Schwarzbach, Hümpfershausen, Oepfershausen with Sinnershausen, Georgenzell, Rosa, Eckardts, Bernshausen and Roßdorf. In Roßdorf, however, the position of the office was already very weak when Bernhard I took office. The rulership of the village was owned by noble heirs who, despite the protests of the dukes, counted themselves to the imperial knighthood. In 1710 they were even granted the highest jurisdiction over the place, whereas the Meiningian dukes expressly reserved the sovereignty. Parts of the possessions of the Sinnershausen manor, which was already in the possession of members of the ducal family as a casket from 1692 to 1731 , came into the possession of the Duchess Charlotte Amalie as casket in 1786. After the noble family Auerochs died out in 1731, the courts in Oepfershausen also fell to the sovereign, who also had them administered separately until 1827 and then incorporated them into the Wasungen judicial office.
With the dissolution of the imperial knighthood in 1803, the knightly places Aschenhausen and Roßdorf came under the joint ownership of the duchies of Saxony-Meiningen and Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach , until finally Aschenhausen became the sole property of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach and Roßdorf in the Saxony-Meiningen region in 1808 fell. The high jurisdiction of the Roßdorfer Ganerbe did not end until 1846.
In 1825 the administrative personal union with the Wasungen office was abolished and the Sand office was given its own bailiff based in Oepfershausen. The new administration only lasted two years. As part of the reorganization of the Meininger Unterland , the Sand Office was dissolved in 1827 and the judiciary and administration were separated. The official business in administrative matters was now transferred to the Frauenbreitungen district office and the judicial tasks to the Wasungen judicial office .
As early as 1829, the district office Frauenbreitungen was dissolved again and divided into the two administrative offices Wasungen and Salzungen, with the offices of Wasungen and Sand being merged into the former. The jurisdiction was subordinated to the district court Meiningen.
During a structural reorganization of the Duchy of Saxony-Meiningen in 1868, the administrative office Wasungen was dissolved and incorporated into the newly founded district of Meiningen with other administrative offices of the "Meininger Unterland" .
- Individual goods (courtyards and farms)
The forests of the Zillbacher, Schwallunger and Wasunger Forst in the Saxon-Meiningian authorities Sand and Wasungen (three parcels) belonged to the exclave Zillbach of the Duchy of Saxony-Eisenach ( Amt Lichtenberg ).
Officials and other administrators
From 1583 to 1825 the offices of Wasungen and Sand were administered in personal union. From 1825 to 1827 the Sand Office had its own administrators.
- Senior officials (together with Amt Wasungen)
- Johann Ludwig von Miltitz (1707–1720)
- Hans Erich von Rabiel (1720–1723)
- Friedrich Christian Schenk (1723–1746)
- Officials (until 1827 joint official with Wasungen)
- Konrad Johann Mess (1680–1685)
- Johann Adam Henning (1685-1696)
- Caspar Heinrich Rosa (1696–1702)
- Johann Ernst Reinwald (1702–1733)
- Ludwig Friedrich Reinwald (1733–1751)
- Philipp Adam Christian Reinwald (1752–1761)
- Karl Ludwig Heim (1765–1788)
- Franz Josias von Hendrich (1788–1791)
- Karl Friedrich Ludwig (1791–1793)
- Ernst Christian Deahna (1793–1796)
- Philipp Jakob Heusinger (1797-1816)
- Christoph Anton Gottlieb Ilgen (1816–1826)
- Ernst Friedrich Weber (1825–1827) (bailiff of the Sand Office)
- Office commissioners (together with Amt Wasungen)
- Christoph Anton Gottlieb Ilgen (1804–1816)
- Office adjuncts (together with Amt Wasungen)
- Ludwig Friedrich Reinwald (1732–1733)
- District judge (together with Amt Wasungen)
- Caspar Tobias Gassert (1680–1684)
- Johann Siegmund Ehrhardt (1684–1696)
- Johann Simon Ehrhardt (1701–1728)
- Public actuaries
- (together with Amt Wasungen)
- Johann Georg Born (1722–1764)
- Christoph Anton Gottlieb Born (1764–1776)
- Paul Philipp Hugo (1776–1777)
- Official Secretaries of the Sand Office
- Karl Friedrich Bez (1825–1827)
- Land servants of the Sand Office
- Hans Heß (1710–1740)
- Stork (1740–1746)
- Description of the Henneberg district sand
- Description of the Saxony-Meiningischen Amt Sand , S. 182f.
- The locations of the Sand Office in the Rhön Lexicon
- Unterkatz in Rhon lexicon
- deposit acquisition of the court Friedelshausen by the county Henneberg Schleusingen , p 104
- Diplomatic relations between the Würzburg monastery and the House of Saxony