Fischbach / Rhön
Fischbach / Rhön
City of Kaltennordheim
|Height :||410 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||7.02 km²|
|Residents :||555 (December 31, 2012)|
|Population density :||79 inhabitants / km²|
|Incorporation :||December 31 2013|
|Postal code :||36452|
|Area code :||036966|
Location of Fischbach / Rhön in Thuringia
Districts of the city of Kaltennordheim
The highest elevation is the Umpfen ( ), a landmark visible from afar on the south-eastern boundary of the district.
In the district, several source streams form the Fischbach, a right tributary of the Felda .
Prehistory and early history
Fischbach is located in a landscape that was already densely populated in prehistoric times. The neighboring mountain Höhn was already settled in the Urnfield period. The ramparts at the summit of Umpfen, along with the neighboring systems of Hessenkuppe ( Dermbach ), Diesburg ( Aschenhausen ), Arzberg ( Geisa ), Baier ( Weilar ), Horn ( Urnshausen ), Alte Mark ( Erbenhausen ) and others, form part of an extensive Celtic fortification system . To the south of the ramparts are several round and elongated stone mounds, presumably tombs; Even arable terraces are still clearly visible on the northern slope.
In 1544 Fischbach was the first place in the Fischberg district where the Reformation was introduced. Until 1899 it was the seat of the large parish.
In 1879, based on the census of 1875, statistical information on the town of Fischbach was published for the first time. Fischbach had 76 houses with 364 inhabitants this year. The size of the fields was 388.9 ha, of which courtyards and gardens 5.8 ha, meadows 53.6 ha, arable land 197.1 ha, forest 35.3 ha, ponds, streams and rivers 1.9 ha. Trifte, wasteland and orchards accounted for 94.9 hectares. The livestock was also remarkable: Fischbach had 14 horses, 132 cattle, 87 sheep, 19 pigs and 61 goats.
The Feldabahn , known by the locals as Felleboh , was a railway line that was passable in its entire length from July 1, 1880. Operations began in the Diedorf-Fischbach section in two steps: after the railway facilities to Dermbach had already been completed, the Dermbach-Kaltennordheim section was opened for freight traffic on June 22, 1880 and for passenger traffic from July 1, 1880. The railway gave the Feldatal an important economic impetus. Initially, wood and the basalt mined in the quarries were the most important transport goods. With the construction of the potash shafts, passenger transport came to the fore. Freight traffic to Kaltennordheim officially ended on December 31, 1994, passenger traffic a little later on May 31, 1997.
A total of 54 women and men - mostly “ Eastern workers ” - had to do forced labor in the aluminum goods factory Karl Zitzmann and with farmers during the Second World War . Wilhelm Spelge, who belonged to the Confessing Church during the National Socialist era , was taken into " protective custody " in 1937 and expelled from his office in 1938, worked in the Fischbach parish .
In 2013, Fischbach was incorporated into Kaltennordheim, and the Upper Feldatal administrative community was dissolved at the same time.
As part of the Thuringia regional reform in 2018 and 2019 , the city of Kaltennordheim sought to incorporate the neighboring communities to the south of Aschenhausen , Kaltensundheim , Kaltenwestheim , Melpers , Oberkatz and Unterweid on January 1, 2019 and accepted a move from the Wartburg district to the Schmalkalden-Meiningen district , which was implemented with the entry into force of the Second Act on the Voluntary Reorganization of Municipalities belonging to the District on January 1, 2019.
There was considerable resistance to the district change in the districts of Fischbach and Andenhausen.In the context of the local elections in Thuringia in 2019 , a public survey was carried out on May 26, 2019 on the question of whether Fischbach should be separated from Kaltennordheim and incorporated into Dermbach , combined with a return to the Wartburg district. There were 266 eligible voters in favor of returning to the Wartburg district and 117 in favor of remaining in the Schmalkalden-Meiningen district.
Development of the population:
- Data source: from 1994 Thuringian State Office for Statistics, values from December 31
coat of arms
The coat of arms was designed by the heraldist Uwe Reipert.
Culture and sights
The Protestant church in the center of the village: Fischbach already had its own parish in 1453, the first Fischbach church was probably built in the 14th or 15th century. A baptismal font that is said to come from Fischbach can be viewed in the Dermbach Local History Museum. In 1544 the Reformation was introduced in the Fischberg district.
- “Nicolaus Dieterich is said to have been the last papist and also the first Protestant pastor in Fischbach who allowed himself to be copulated with his cook, whereby his two children created with her he put one on each side that they were blessed with under his coat. "
The current church building was erected in 1707 using masonry from the previous church. The tower is described as a "roof turret made of timber framework, square with a tail dome". In 1891 it was increased by around one and a half meters. In 1972 the church tower had to be re-covered due to damage to the slate. Old German slate was used. In the course of the work, the star on the top as well as the tower button and weathercock were gilded. Inside: two-story galleries stand on round columns on the sides of the main room. The sanctuary is delimited by a semicircular triumphal arch. A chronicler describes the organ as an "extremely valuable, small instrument" from 1705. It is unknown who built the queen of musical instruments. In 1917 the organ builder Otto Markert provided the instrument with new keyboards and stops. In 1938, the Ostheim organ building company, Markert, cleaned the keyboard, replaced it and repaired the bellows. In 1922, the chronicle records another repair that cost around 8,400 marks. The organ is placed on the altar wall. This year the "Queen" was restored again. "To cover the costs for this, the parish asks for donations", says Fischbach's pastor Sylvia Graf. On July 5, 1917, the Fischbachers had to sacrifice their largest and smallest bronze bells to the First World War. Together with the pewter pipes from the organ, they were melted down to make ammunition. Three new bells were installed in the Fischbacher church tower on March 19, 1921. The largest of them received the inscription: "Glory to God, teach your descendants", alluding to the First World War. The church building was completely renovated both outside and inside in 1989/90. In 1995 a new bell system was installed, and a year later the nave received a bench heater. On the west side of the church are the memorial to the fallen and some graves from the Second World War . The place has a number of listed and worth seeing half-timbered houses and a mill. In the direction of Diedorf you come across the building of the former Diedorf-Fischbach stop of the Feldabahn. Behind the train station, on the "Höhn" which is already in the Klings and Diedorf district, stands the Fischberg castle ruins , of which only small remains have been preserved.
The most famous sight is the Umpfen , an exposed mountain on the southern edge of the municipality and a symbol of the Feldatal. The mountain is considered a testimony to volcanism in the Rhön . The terraced basalt quarry in the summit area can be clearly seen from the valley floor. The summer valley to the east of the village has been designated as a nature reserve because of its botanical features. The lime sinter terraces in the Fischbachtal are remarkable ; they form a series of small waterfalls known as "Spring" . A hiking and nature trail provides information about sights along the way and the development of the cultural landscape in the Feldatal.
The “Hexenpfad” has been signposted as a themed hiking trail to promote tourism. It conveys knowledge of migrant sheep farming and the dry grass zones typical of this region. Picturesque and often ghostly hat trees line the path.
Economy and Infrastructure
From the High Middle Ages there was a weaving mill here, a carving mill from 1900 and an aluminum factory from 1926. The basalt mining at Umpfen from 1914 to 1978 was an important employer, especially in its early days, with its own loading platform on the Feldabahn.
The “Unter dem Umpfen” industrial park is located on the southern outskirts of Fischbach. It has a total area of 4.7 hectares. BAF Industrie- und Surfaceentechnik GmbH produces Teflon-coated household goods here . The BAF operated under the name alfi (abbreviation for ALuminiumwarenfabrik FIschbach) until the fall of the Berlin Wall . The former owners of alfi, Carl and Sophie Zitzmann, moved to Wertheim / Baden-Württemberg after the war, re-established alfi there and secured the naming rights. Therefore, after the fall of the Wall, ALFI Fischbach had to adopt a new name (BAF = Frying Pans from Fischbach).
Operation of the Feldabahn was stopped in 2003 and the dismantling of the track system began in 2008. The nearest train stations are now in the district town of Bad Salzungen and to the east in Wasungen , both in the route network of the Süd-Thüringen-Bahn .
Sons and daughters of the place
- August Creutzburg (born March 6, 1892 - † September 11, 1941) politician (KPD), member of the Reichstag
- Adalbert Schröter: Country by the road. The history of the Catholic parishes in the Thuringian Rhön . St. Benno Verlag, Leipzig 1989, ISBN 3-7462-0430-5 , p. 77-80 .
- Bruno Kühn: The history of the Dermbach district . In: Journal of the association for Thuringian history and antiquity . tape 1 , 1854, ISSN 0943-9846 , p. 249-296 .
- Thuringian State Surveying Office TK25 - sheet 5326 Tann , Erfurt 1999, ISBN 3-86140-090-1
- Robert Riemann Keltenburgen north and south of the Thuringian Forest Hagenberg-Verlag Homburg 1986 p. 26
- Ernst Friedrich Johann Dronke Codex Diplomaticus Fuldensis Kassel 1850 (first printing)
- Constantin Kronfeld: Topography of the country . In: Regional studies of the Grand Duchy of Saxony-Weimar-Eisenach . Second part. Hermann Böhlau, Weimar 1879, p. 77 .
- Thuringian Association of the Persecuted of the Nazi Regime - Association of Antifascists and Study Group of German Resistance 1933-1945 (ed.): Heimatgeschichtlicher Wegweiser to places of resistance and persecution 1933-1945, series: Heimatgeschichtliche Wegweiser Volume 8 Thüringen, Erfurt 2003, p. 321 , ISBN 3-88864-343-0
- Thuringian Law and Ordinance Gazette No. 14/2018 p. 795 ff. , Accessed on January 2, 2019
- Hope for action by district administrator , accessed December 20, 2018.
- Andenhausen, Fischbach & Klings want to go back to the Wartburgkreis , Rhön Canal, accessed on June 3, 2019
- Chronicle of the Fischbach parish
- Geyer, Jahne, Storch: Geological sights of the Wartburg district and the independent city of Eisenach . In: District Office Wartburgkreis, Lower Nature Conservation Authority (Hrsg.): Nature conservation in the Wartburgkreis . Booklet 8. Printing and publishing house Frisch, Eisenach and Bad Salzungen 1999, ISBN 3-9806811-1-4 , p. 168-170 .
- Leaflet on the Hexenpfad near Fischbach / Rhön (PDF; 2.1 MB)
- District Office Wartburgkreis (Ed.) The business location Wartburgkreis - City of Eisenach. Info folder Bad Salzungen / Eisenach 1998. p. 20.
- Data source: Federal Register