Calendar overview 1665
Battle of Lowestoft is the first battle of
the Second Anglo-Dutch War .
Great Plague begins in London .
Journal des sçavans , the first scientific journal, is published in Paris .
|1665 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1113/14 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1657/58 (September 10-11)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1070/71 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2208/09 (southern Buddhism); 2207/08 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||72nd (73rd) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1027/28 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3998/99 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1075/76 (July 13-14)|
|Jewish calendar||5425/26 (9/10 September)|
|Coptic calendar||1381/82 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1975/76 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1976/77 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1721/22 (April)|
Politics and world events
Second Anglo-Dutch War
- March 4 : Charles II declares war on the Republic of the Seven United Provinces , which goes down in the annals as the Second Anglo-Dutch Naval War .
- June 13 : In the Battle of Lowestoft to defeat England , the Netherlands , however, can not take significant advantage of this victory, despite the apparent destruction of the Dutch fleet.
- August 12 : In the battle in the Bay of Bergen , an attack by an English squadron on a Dutch trade convoy fails.
- December 10 : Council pensioner Johan de Witt and Admiral Michiel de Ruyter found the Regiment de Marine during the Second Anglo-Dutch War , which today is part of the Dutch Royal Navy as Korps Mariniers .
Other events in Europe
- September 17th : King Philip IV of Spain dies. He is followed by his disabled son, Charles II , who becomes King of Naples , Sicily and Sardinia , as well as Duke of Milan and Luxembourg .
- November 14th : In Denmark-Norway the royal law of Frederick III. signed, according to which the king must be of a Lutheran denomination , not divide the kingdom, not violate the royal law and otherwise only owe God an account. The line of succession can come from both the male and female lines. The Reichsrat is abolished.
- The Polish magnate and general Jerzy Sebastian Lubomirski starts a rebellion with the Lubomirski Confederation against the Polish King John II Casimir and his reform plans.
- Cash court case in Lübeck
- October 29th : In the Battle of Ambuila , the Portuguese defeat the troops of the Kingdom of the Congo , sealing its destruction and colonization .
- The Danish King Friedrich III. appoints Erik Niels Smit as governor of the Caribbean island of Saint Thomas . On July 1st, it leaves Copenhagen with the Eendracht for the future colony of Danish West Indies .
- July 5 : A postal rate is set up between Bremen and Hamburg .
- November 7th : The first issue of The London Gazette appears. The English Law Gazette now describes itself as the oldest surviving newspaper in England and the oldest continuously published newspaper in Great Britain.
science and technology
- March 6 : The first issue of Philosophical Transactions , the journal published by the Royal Society , London, is published.
- August 26th : The Leipzig amateur astronomer Johann Abraham Ihle was the first to observe a globular cluster through his telescope , the M22 located in the constellation Sagittarius .
- October 5th : Duke Christian Albrecht of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf founds the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel in Kiel Palace . Classes begin in the former Kiel monastery with 17 professors, including Christian Kortholt , Daniel Georg Morhof and Johann Daniel Major , and 162 students.
- November 6th : Construction of the Kronan warship begins in Stockholm . It was designed for use in the Skåne War and is one of the largest sailing ships of the 17th century.
- Robert Hooke publishes his ideas about the wave nature of light . In his micrographia he describes the explanation of the blurring of objects in hot air as refraction in layers of air of different densities. He also coined the biological concept of the cell .
Music and theater
- September 14 : The Palace of Versailles is before King Louis XIV. The premiere of the comedy L'Amour médecin instead. In this ballet comedy there is for the first time an extensive collaboration between the author Molière and the composer Jean-Baptiste Lully . The public premiere takes place on September 22nd of the same year in the Palais Royal in Paris.
- Rembrandt van Rijn : Self-Portrait
- The monastery Satho Ganden Trashi Choekhorling , a monastery of the Nyingma -School of Tibetan Buddhism , is founded.
- May 31 : The Jewish religious scholar Shabbtai Zvi declares himself the Messiah during a stay in Gaza , after being encouraged to do so by the Kabbalist Nathan of Gaza . His followers are called Sabbatians in the following . A messianic enthusiasm grips Gaza and, from there, Hebron, Safed and Cairo. Shabbtai Zvi goes to Jerusalem, where he comes into conflict with the local rabbinate. He then went via Safed, Damascus and Aleppo to Smyrna, where he occupied the Sephardic synagogue. On December 30th he left for Constantinople.
The first recorded plague death from the Great Plague of London is that of Margaret Porteous on April 12th . In the English capital , over 70,000 people die in the epidemic , which will last more than a year.
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- January 11th : Hermann Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Hechingen , Imperial Field Marshal General († 1733 )
- February 6 : Anne Stuart , Queen of Great Britain and Ireland († 1714 )
- February 12 : Rudolf Jacob Camerarius (also Camerer), German botanist and doctor († 1721 )
- March 14 : Philipp Christoph von Königsmarck , Hanoverian officer and court cavalier († 1694 )
- March 16 : Giuseppe Maria Crespi , Italian painter and etcher († 1747 )
- March 27 : Benjamin Neukirch , German poet of the gallant style († 1729 )
- March 30th : Hans Heinrich Schulthess , Swiss businessman, politician and Pietist († 1739 )
- April 2 : Christoph I. zu Dohna-Schlodien , Brandenburg-Prussian general († 1733 )
- April 29 : James Butler, 2nd Duke of Ormonde , Anglo-Irish statesman and general († 1745 )
- May 1 : John Woodward , English natural historian, geologist and doctor († 1728 )
- May 15 : Gundacker von Althan , Austrian general, diplomat and court building director († 1747 )
- May 15 : Georg Sandrart , German merchant and tobacco dealer in Magdeburg († 1727 )
- June 24th : Johann Amsel , German legal scholar († 1732 )
Second half of the year
- July 2 : Claude François Bidal , Marquis d'Asfeld, Marshal of France († 1743 )
- July 31 : Johann Reinhard III. von Hanau , Count of Hanau-Lichtenberg and Hanau-Münzenberg († 1736 )
- September 10 : Georg Beyer , German lawyer and law teacher († 1714 )
- September 14 : Jean-Baptiste Colbert de Torcy , French diplomat and foreign minister († 1746 )
- September 24 : Gottfried Vockerodt , German educator († 1727 )
- October 1 : Christian Eberhard , Prince of East Friesland († 1708 )
- October 4 : Francesco Acquaviva , Italian cardinal († 1725 )
- October 15 : Franz Joachim Beich , German painter († 1748 )
- October 18 : Otto Magnus von Dönhoff , Brandenburg-Prussian lieutenant general and envoy († 1717 )
- November 5 : Christoph Ludwig Agricola , German landscape painter († 1724 )
- November 6th : Johann Heinrich Ulrich , Swiss Reformed theologian († 1730 )
- November 17 : Carlo Colonna , Cardinal of the Roman Church († 1739 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Claude Aubriet , French nature painter and botanist († 1742 )
- Pietro Giacomo Rogeri , Italian violin maker († 1724 )
- Kagami Shikō , Japanese poet († 1731 )
- Joseph Winkler , Austrian stonemason and sculptor († 1748 )
First half of the year
- January 2nd : Friedrich von Ahlefeldt , lord of Gut Seestermühe, Schinkel, Gut Steinhorst, Gut Tremsbüttel, High Princely Gottorfischer governor and monastery provost of Uetersen (* 1618 )
- January 12 : Pierre de Fermat , French mathematician and lawyer (* 1607 )
- January 31 : Johannes Clauberg , German theologian and philosopher (* 1622 )
- February 12 : Wolfgang Ebner , German organist, conductor and composer (* 1612 )
- February 16 : Stefan Czarniecki , Polish general and hetman (* 1599 )
- February 16 : Heinrich Saffe , Lübeck councilor (* 1599 )
- February 28 : Ludwig von Nassau-Beverweerd , Dutch politician (* 1602 )
- March 15 : Christian Ludwig , Duke of the Principality of Lüneburg (* 1622 )
- March 26 : Johannes Ardüser , Swiss mathematician and fortress engineer (* 1585 )
- March 31 : Susanna Edelhäuser , victim of the witch hunt in Friedberg (* 1634 )
- June 17th : Marie Elisabeth of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Countess of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1634 )
- June 21 : Giovanni Maria Galli da Bibiena , Italian painter (* 1618 )
- June 25 : Sigmund Franz , Prince of Tyrol from 1662 to 1665 (* 1630 )
Second half of the year
- August 14th : Carlo III. Gonzaga , Duke of Mantua, Nevers and Rethel (* 1629 )
- August 28 : Elisabetta Sirani , Italian painter and engraver (* 1638 )
- September 17th : Philip IV , King of Spain, Naples and Sicily and as Philip III. last king of Portugal from the House of Habsburg (* 1605 )