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The term Sabbatians (also sabbatists or Sabbathers ) denotes various Christian faith and special communities that kept or keep the Sabbath .

Historical special groups

Moravian Sabbathers

Around 1528 founded Oswald Glaidt , student of Baptist leader Hans Hut , in Moravia and Silesia , the group of Sabbatarians that the Sabbath as a sign of the promise of the "World Sabbath" - the last expected eon einhielt ritual -. Glait taught with reference to HebLUT and Ex 31.16 f. LUT , the Sabbath commandment remains valid, since the believers only came to God's rest after Jesus' second coming . By observing it, one is " sealed " and preserved in order to survive in the final judgment . So the group wanted to anticipate and continually update their future election. The Baptist Andreas Fischer replaced Glait as group leader after 1532. Several subgroups existed in Moravia until 1573. In 1538 , Martin Luther wrote Against the Sabbaths against them , in which he traced Glait's teaching back to Jewish propaganda. However, this cannot be proven.

Transylvanian Sabbatharians

A group founded in 1588 around the former Unitarian Andreas Eössi in Transylvania belonged to the Jewish-Christian type . He demanded observance of the Sabbath, the other Jewish feasts and diets for Christians, but not circumcision . For Christ did not want to abolish the Torah , but wanted to lead the Gentiles to it. Until his return, the conditions mentioned in the Torah for the fulfillment of the prophetic promises will continue to apply. Eössi's pupil Simon Péchi continued this teaching from 1621 and spread it to the higher nobility. Prince Gabriel Bethlen allowed the group to proselytize. In 1638 the Unitarians of this area separated from the Sabbatharians; the latter were thereupon often condemned or converted to the Reformed in appearance .

Some of these Sabbatharians kept themselves, although persecuted, until the 19th century and were also called soul Jews . One of their centers was the place Székelykeresztúr . The last remainder of the community, which at that time still comprised about 30 families, converted to Judaism in 1868 . One of the last Sabbatharian communities in Transylvania was in Bözödújfalu ( German  Neudorf , Romanian Bezidu Nou ). The community persecuted under National Socialism finally lost its center when Bözödújfalu had to give way to a reservoir in the last years of the communist Ceaușescu regime. The last surviving successors of the Transylvanian Sabbatharians were murdered in the Holocaust .

Russian subbotniki

The Subbotniki or Sabbatniki appeared in Russia around 1640 . They took over influences from Jewish humanism and Kabbalah , denied Jesus' divinity and resurrection , rejected the worship of icons , celebrated Passover and obeyed the Torah commandments, initially without circumcision. Like the Jews, they awaited the coming of the Messiah when all people would keep the Torah completely. From 1760 onwards, some became part of the Molokans who rejected the Russian Orthodox Church and continued to keep the Sabbath in it.

Seven-day dunker

In the 18th century the group of the Siebentägner-Tunker was founded in North America, which had previously separated from the Anabaptist-Pietist movement of the Tunkers (also Schwarzenau Brethren ) under the leadership of Johann Conrad Beissel . The Siebentägner-Tunker founded the Ephrata Cloister in 1732 . Remnants of the group joined the Seventh-day Baptists in the 19th century.

Followers of Messiah candidates

The followers of the self-proclaimed Messiah Shabbetaj Zvi are also called Sabbatians or Dönme . In Turkey, actual or supposed members of these Sabbatians are often the subject of conspiracy theories . The followers of Joanna Southcott also bear the same name .

Today's Sabbath groups

The Sabbath out of an end-of-time expectation is kept by the Seventh-day Baptists, founded in England around 1650, and the Seventh-day Adventists founded in 1863 - two Protestant free churches - the community of the Free Bible Students and the Jewish Messianic communities (a community of Jews and Gentiles who believe in the Messiah Yeshua (Jesus) and continue to adhere to Jewish customs).

Individual evidence

  1. WA 50,309 ff.
  2. Anat-Katharina Kalman: Behind the woods a thousand stories. (PDF; 153 kB) A Transylvanian Literature Country Part. (No longer available online.) In: SWR2, February 10, 2009, p. 27 , archived from the original on December 11, 2013 ; accessed on February 11, 2019 .
  3. To this Gerhard Möckel: The Sabbatarier von Bözödujfalu: A chapter Transylvanian tolerance and intolerance history. In: Church and Israel . 12, 1997, ISSN  0179-7239 , pp. 65-71, as well as in brief Dietmar Päschel: Christian Sabbath songs - a hymnological and ecclesiological problem display . In: Spes Christiana . 15–16, 2004–2005, ISSN  0935-7467 , pp. 72–88, here: pp. 82–83 ( (PDF; 99 kB) (No longer available online.) Formerly in the original ; Retrieved on February 11, 2019 (no mementos ).  ( Page no longer available , search in web archives )@1@ 2Template: Toter Link / ).