George I (Great Britain)
Georg I - born as Duke Georg Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg - (* 28 May July / 7 June 1660 greg. In the Leineschloss , Hanover , Principality of Calenberg ; † 11 June July / 22 June 1727 greg. In Schloss Osnabrück , Bishopric of Osnabruck ) was a monarch of the dynasty of Guelph .
From 1698 he ruled as Elector Georg Ludwig , the Electorate of Brunswick-Lüneburg (also electorate of Hanover or electoral Hanover ) and held the position of Erzbannerträgers , later the Erzschatzmeisters of the Holy Roman Empire . Due to the provisions of the Act of Settlement , which laid the basis for the Protestant line of succession , he became King George I of Great Britain in 1714 . With this he founded the House of Hanover , which ruled Great Britain until 1901, and the personal union between Great Britain and Hanover, which existed until 1837 .
Ragnhild Hatton's research, which is still largely valid, has led to the insight that George’s policy was definitely beneficial for England: he reconciled the kingdom with the United Netherlands and the Habsburgs after England had previously concluded a separate peace with France . He also made a significant contribution to stabilizing the political situation in the kingdom. At the same time, during the reign of George I, the political balance of power in Great Britain finally shifted from the crown in favor of the government and parliament .
Georg Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg was born on May 28, 1660 in the Leineschloss in Hanover and was the eldest son from the marriage of the Guelph Prince Ernst August von Braunschweig-Calenberg with Sophie von der Pfalz . His father was the youngest of four brothers and initially had no prospect of becoming a ruler or ducal title. His mother, daughter of Count Palatine Friedrich and Elisabeth Stuart , was a granddaughter of King James I of the House of Stuart . To combine the Guelph and Palatinate tradition, the newborn was given the double name Georg Ludwig (George Louis) .
In 1661 Ernst August was transferred to the office of Prince-Bishop of Osnabrück and the family initially resided in Iburg Castle and from 1673 in the newly built Osnabrück Castle . In the next few years, six more siblings were added in quick succession. Contrary to the zeitgeist, Sophie von der Pfalz insisted on participating in the upbringing and development of her first-born. The highly educated mother showed keen interest in the education of her children and described "Louischen" or "Görgen" , as Georg Ludwig was called in close family circles, in letters as responsible and conscientious , who served his siblings as an example, although he was mentally clumsy and phlegmatic . In addition to the mother, the nanny Anna Katharina von Offen played an important role in the prince's early years. Through his prince tutor Franz Ernst von Platen and the court master Johann von dem Bussche , Georg Ludwig received a modern prince education and showed great eagerness to learn. In addition to Evangelical Lutheran religious instruction - religious questions were of secondary importance within the family - he received history and geography lessons, and was instructed in horse riding and hunting . The prince showed a tendency towards the soldier at an early age , whereupon his father had selected officers teach him military virtues and introduced him to the military trade. The acquisition of foreign languages ( Latin , French and some Dutch ) completed the training program.
Due to the alliance of his politically ambitious father with Emperor Leopold I , Georg Ludwig gained his first war experience at the age of fourteen during the Dutch War against France by fighting on the Moselle in the battle of the Konzer Bridge (August 11, 1675) . At the side of his younger brother Friedrich August he fought in the Battle of the Kahlenberg (September 12, 1683) and during the Great Turkish War he took part in the subsequent campaign in Hungary (1684/85). Georg Ludwig gained a reputation as a responsible, level-headed officer who refused daring missions and spared the lives of his soldiers whenever possible. When his troops had not done well in the Battle of Neerwinden , for example, he refused to have every tenth man shot as a collective punishment. During the War of the Palatinate Succession , Georg Ludwig went to the Dutch theater of war against France again (1690–1693) and during this time made the acquaintance of the English military leader John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough .
The main goal of his father, who had also been ruler of the Principality of Calenberg since 1679 , was to acquire the title of elector for his house in Calenberg and to end the splintering of the Guelph possessions. Therefore, in 1683, against the resistance of his younger sons, he proclaimed the right of primogeniture for his hereditary lands , which was a prerequisite for acquiring the electoral dignity. According to this regulation, Georg Ludwig became the sole heir to the Guelph Principalities of Calenberg and Grubenhagen , and an inheritance contract with his brother Georg Wilhelm ensured that after his death the Principality of Lüneburg would also fall to the Guelphs who lived in Hanover. The negotiations between Ernst August and the emperor since 1689 finally culminated in 1692 in the creation of a new, ninth electoral dignity of the Holy Roman Empire , with which Ernst August was enfeoffed .
Marriage and offspring
At the instigation of his mother, Georg Ludwig stayed a few months in 1680/81 to visit relatives at the English royal court. Sophie von der Pfalz wanted to arrange a marriage between her son and Princess Anne Stuart , daughter of Jacob II and Anne Hyde (see main article marriage policy ), but the two marriage candidates could not warm to each other. At that time Georg Ludwig had a relationship with his mistress Maria Katherine von Meysenburg , who later became the wife of a Hanoverian court official .
To secure the contractually agreed inheritance claim of the Calenberg line on the Principality of Lüneburg , Georg Ludwig was married to his cousin Sophie Dorothea on November 18, 1682 at Celle Castle . She was the only daughter of his uncle Georg Wilhelm von Braunschweig-Lüneburg and his wife Eleonore d'Olbreuse .
The connection resulted in two descendants:
- Georg August (1683–1760), as Georg II. King of Great Britain ⚭ Caroline von Brandenburg-Ansbach
- Sophie Dorothea (1687–1757) ⚭ Friedrich Wilhelm I of Prussia
The marriage, which was concluded from a purely dynastic point of view, was considered broken due to the incompatible character of the partners, the birth of the children led to final alienation. Sophie von der Pfalz wrote: "The marriage does not interest him, but ten thousand thalers convinced him, as they would have convinced anyone else." From 1691 Georg Ludwig turned to his mistress Melusine von der Schulenburg , Sophie Dorothea went one in 1692 an extramarital relationship with the officer Philipp Christoph von Königsmarck , who grew up as a page at her father's court . By the maid Clara Elisabeth von Platen the affair between Sophie Dorothea and Count Königsmarck the Hanoverian court became public. Out of concern for the raison d'être and the dynasty's reputation, the secret relationship turned into a state affair. Königsmarck disappeared on July 1, 1694 and the assumption is that he was murdered at the instigation of the Elector Ernst August or Georg Ludwig. Officially, he is still missing today, the real facts have not been finally clarified. To restore his personal honor, Georg Ludwig demanded a divorce from his wife, which was officially carried out on December 28, 1694. Sophie Dorothea was declared the sole guilty party for maliciously leaving her husband and exiled to Ahlden Castle on his orders . She was forbidden to marry again and was not allowed to see her children again. She received regular appanage and a small court , but was only allowed to leave the castle for supervised rides. The conditions were probably not too harsh, especially since they were based on political considerations, not on Georg Ludwig's vengeance. Sophie Dorothea died on November 13, 1726 at her place of exile. When Georg Ludwig received her death notification, he expressly forbade any expression of mourning in Hanover.
Although legitimized to do so through the divorce, Georg Ludwig did not seek another marriage and instead lived with his mistress Melusine von der Schulenburg, who officially belonged to his mother's entourage. The couple had three illegitimate daughters who were referred to at court as Melusine's “nieces” . By order of the Elector, the daughters received the same material equipment and appreciation as his legitimate offspring.
The connection between Georg Ludwig and Melusine von der Schulenburg resulted in three illegitimate descendants:
- Anna Luise (1692–1773), Countess von Delitz ⚭ Ernst August von dem Bussche-Ippenburg
- Melusina (1693–1778), Countess of Walsingham ⚭ Philip Stanhope, 4th Earl of Chesterfield
- Margarethe Gertrud (1701–1728), Countess of Oeynhausen ⚭ Albrecht Wolfgang zu Schaumburg-Lippe
Elector in Hanover
By the Primogeniture Act of 1683, Georg Ludwig was appointed the sole successor by his father, against the resistance of his younger brothers. With his death on January 23, 1698 he inherited the electoral dignity of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg (also called "Electorate of Hanover" or "Kurhannover" ), with the exception of the bishopric of Osnabrück .
As the reigning elector, Georg Ludwig was characterized by a cautious lifestyle and, contrary to the baroque zeitgeist, deliberately avoided pomp and luxury travel. He had the opera house in Hanover closed for financial reasons and instead made do with a court orchestra . The elector, who was considered to be thrifty, ensured a balanced budget and began his rule with drastic austerity measures, which laid the foundation for the financial consolidation of the Hanoverian state. An attitude that was sometimes interpreted as avarice. Georg Ludwig ensured an orderly and tight administration, which released significant funds for political goals, such as the recognition of the controversial electoral dignity of Hanover in 1710 by the Reichstag . The elector was regarded as a statesman of the pragmatic kind, who was characterized by a level-headed, sober realpolitik . Under his government, Georg Ludwig achieved the territorial rounding of his dominion through the succession of the Principality of Lüneburg-Celle (1705), the takeover of the County of Delmenhorst (1711) and the acquisition of the Duchies of Bremen and Verden (1715).
Contrary to the resolutions of the Peace of Rijswijk , the elector upgraded his standing army to almost 13,000 soldiers (1705). When the Hanoverian troops were expanded to include the regiments of the Principality of Lüneburg-Celle, it grew to a strength of 22,000 men and was one of the largest armies in the empire. Behind Brandenburg-Prussia , Kurhannover achieved a regional supremacy in north-west Germany at the beginning of the 18th century and was able to emerge as a regional power in foreign policy. In 1703 Georg Ludwig joined the anti-French Hague Grand Alliance , an alliance between Emperor Leopold I, the Republic of the United Netherlands and England , and took an active part in the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714). At the same time, Hanover supported the Swedish Empire against Russia during the Great Northern War .
During the Spanish War of Succession, his experience and skills as a military strategist brought Georg Ludwig in September 1707 supreme command of the Imperial Army on the Upper Rhine . At first he succeeded in pushing the French troops back completely behind the Rhine , but subsequently behaved in a purely defensive manner before retiring from active service in 1709.
By the French architect Louis Remy de la Fosse , Georg Ludwig had the large garden of his main Hanover residence in Herrenhausen extended for representative purposes and a hunting lodge built in Göhrde , his preferred hunting ground . In the summer of 1710, the elector brought the composer Georg Friedrich Handel to Hanover and appointed him court conductor . Georg Ludwig, who is described as sober, maintained a distant relationship with the universal scholar Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz , a close confidante of his mother and a regular guest at the court.
King in Great Britain
Act of Settlement
With the Act of Settlement , the English Parliament passed on June 22, 1701 the basis for the Protestant succession to the throne in the Kingdom of England . By bypassing the line of succession valid up to then, the law excluded a total of 56 Catholics from the line of succession and recognized Sophies of the Palatinate's claim to inheritance and her descendants to the English crown. Sophie was a daughter of Elisabeth Stuart and the closest living Protestant relative of the English royal family. On August 15, 1701, a delegation from the English Parliament, headed by the Earl of Macclesfield , traveled to Hanover and solemnly presented Sophie with the certificate of succession. In the name of Wilhelm III. Georg Ludwig was introduced to the Order of the Garter by Macclesfield . After the death of the childless Wilhelm III. followed Queen Anne in 1702 to the throne that was even without surviving descendants, so Sophie as designated throne contender ( Heiress Presumptive ) was her cousin.
Georg Ludwig, due to the advanced age of his 71-year-old mother with good prospects of the English royal dignity, was cautious about the question of the succession to the throne. He turned down the title of Duke of York that was offered to him , nor did he take an active role in English domestic politics or support the Whigs' party, which was friendly to Guelphs . In England there was a climate of skepticism towards the Guelphs. After her accession to the throne, Queen Anne viewed the Hanoverian relatives with suspicion and denied them entry, an allowance or the right to be allowed to take a country residence. Anne would have preferred that the succession to the throne had been given to her Catholic father Jacob and his descendants. Understanding the need for a Protestant succession, she accepted the provisions of the Act of Settlement.
At that time the Kingdom of Scotland was de facto independent, but linked to England through a personal union. The English parliament had changed the succession to the throne without the consent of the Estates of Scotland, whereupon the latter passed the Act of Security in 1704 : Should Anne die without a descendant, the Scottish parliament would choose a Protestant successor from the descendants of the Scottish kings. Only if certain economic, political and religious conditions were met would it also accept the English successor. After the Governor General rejected the proposal, the Scots threatened to stop collecting taxes and withdraw the Scottish army from the War of the Spanish Succession. The English Parliament responded in 1705 with the Alien Act , which imposed numerous restrictions on the Scottish economy. Finally, in 1707, the Scottish Parliament approved the Act of Union , which united England and Scotland to form the Kingdom of Great Britain .
Accession to the throne
With the death of his 83-year-old mother on June 8, 1714 and the death of the British Queen Anne without living descendants on August 1, 1714, the royal dignity fell to Georg Ludwig, the closest Protestant relative of the late monarch, in accordance with the provisions of the Act of Settlement . This ended the rule of the House of Stuart and passed to the newly established House of Hanover (House of Hanover or The Hanoverians) .
Contrary to the requests of the government and parliament, the new king did not immediately travel to Great Britain, but initially arranged the handover of the official business of the electorate. For the expected time of his absence, Georg Ludwig transferred decision-making power to secret councils and secured a veto on all matters. Georg Ludwig left Hanover on September 16, 1714 with a large entourage , which included his son and almost the entire court as well as his mistress Melusine von der Schulenburg and his illegitimate half-sister Sophia Charlotte von Platen-Hallermund . The entourage reached The Hague on September 20th, and on September 27th it crossed over to Great Britain on board the state yacht Peregrine , which was escorted by six escort ships and 19 warships. On October 1st the new King was solemnly received in the harbor of Greenwich by numerous dignitaries and escorted to London , where George moved into residence in St James's Palace . The Archbishop of Canterbury crowned him with the Edwardian Crown of George I on October 20 in Westminster Abbey . The coronation meal with the highest representatives of the empire in Westminster Hall concluded .
As king, the Lutheran George was automatically the secular head of the Anglican State Church ( Church of England ), a practice that was maintained until the last Hanoverian on the British throne, William IV .
Georg moved with his entire Hanoverian court, including his companions such as his mistress Melusine , who was very soon made Duchess of Kendal . Also Countess Kielmannsegg , the daughter of Countess Platen, who was probably the daughter of Elector Ernst August and who was offered by her mother to Count Königsmarck as wife. His German entourage, and especially his relationships with women, made the king on the island the target of a whole series of mock songs such as Cam Ye O'er Frae France .
The new king lived mainly in Great Britain but returned to Hanover on repeated visits. During his absence, the royal power was transferred either to his son George August , the Prince of Wales , or to a " Committee of Guardians and Justices of the Kingdom" . Even when he was in Great Britain, the king never lost sight of the fact that he was still elector of Hanover.
Although it has been proven that Georg I spoke four foreign languages in addition to German (Latin, French, Italian and also a fair amount of English), the claim that he only spoke German and understood hardly a word of English has persisted to this day. Indeed, Georg used English sparingly, which is explained, among other things, by a certain shyness. Most of his correspondence, including those with his electoral officials, was in French.
In 1715, less than a year after the accession to the throne, the first Jacobite revolt broke out. The aim of the rebels was to overthrow Georg and instead use Anne's Catholic half-brother James Francis Edward Stuart as King "Jacob III." The "Old Pretender " (Old Pretender) , as he was called by the English, instigated in Scotland an uprising, where support for the Jacobites was far greater than in England. John Erskine , a Scottish nobleman who once supported the Glorious Revolution , led the rebels. After several lost battles, Erskine and Stuart fled to France in February 1716. The British government cracked down on the rebels; the prisoners were executed or brought to the colonies as slaves. Numerous Scottish aristocratic families lost their lands.
Many members of the Tory Party had sympathized with the Jacobites. Georg distrusted the Tories and made sure the Whigs grew in influence. The Whigs' dominance in Parliament thereafter was so great that it would take over half a century for the Tories to regain power.
War and insurrection
After the accession to the throne, the relationship between the king and his son Georg August deteriorated. The Prince of Wales was always anxious to support the opposition to his father. Leicester House, the Prince's residence in London, became a meeting place for the king's political opponents, including Robert Walpole and Viscount Townshend . After daughter-in-law Caroline von Ansbach gave birth to grandson Georg Wilhelm in 1717, a family dispute broke out at the baptism. The Prince of Wales insisted on the godfather of his choice, but the king chose another. After the king had been insulted in public by his son, he placed him under arrest for a short time, banished him from St James's Palace , the royal residence and excluded him from all public ceremonies. Robert Walpole managed to reconcile father and son in 1720, but the relationship to one another was never friendly again.
During his first years in power, George I played an active role in British foreign policy. In 1717 he was instrumental in the formation of the Dreierallianz , an anti-Spanish alliance consisting of Great Britain, France and the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands. In 1718 the Holy Roman Empire also joined the alliance that became the Quadruple Alliance. The subsequent war of the Quadruple Alliance began when Philip of Anjou again laid claim to the French throne after the death of Louis XIV , thereby disregarding the Peace of Utrecht . But when even the French fought against the Spanish king's troops, the war came to a quick end and the two royal families remained separate.
In 1719 George I was faced with a second Jacobite revolt. James Francis Edward Stuart wanted to regain the British throne with Spanish support. But only three hundred Spanish soldiers made it to Scotland because of stormy seas. The pretender set up a counter-government at Eilean Donan Castle on the west coast, but the castle was destroyed by British frigates a little later . After that, the pretender could only recruit about a thousand Scottish soldiers, but they were poorly equipped and had no chance against the British artillery. The Scots fled to the Highlands and the Spanish surrendered. Ultimately, this uprising did not pose a serious threat to the king.
Increasing loss of power
When the Whigs came to power in 1717 , Robert Walpole, Viscount Townshend , Earl Stanhope and the Earl of Sunderland George were George's chief ministers. Townshend and Walpole resigned that same year; Stanhope took on a leading role in foreign policy, while Sunderland took on domestic affairs.
In 1719, Sunderland's power began to decline. He submitted a bill to reduce the size of the House of Lords (consisting mostly of Tory aristocrats); but the law was rejected. The South Seas Bubble was an even bigger problem . The South Sea Company offered to convert just under £ 31 million of the UK's national debt. Back then, it was extremely difficult to trade government bonds due to unrealistic restrictions. For example, it was not possible to pay off certain bonds while the debtor was alive. Each bond represented a very large sum and could not be split up and sold. For this reason, the South Sea Company made the proposal to convert high-yield and non-redeemable bonds into low-yield and easily tradable bonds. The company bribed Stanhope to support their plan; she was also supported by Sutherland. The value of society rose rapidly. If the price of a share was £ 128 in January 1720, by August it was worth £ 1,000. However, uncontrolled sales drove the share price to £ 150 in late September. Many investors, including aristocrats, were completely ruined.
The South Sea Bubble made George I and his ministers extremely unpopular. Lord Stanhope died and Lord Sunderland resigned in 1721; thereby he made the rise of Robert Walpole possible. At first he was actually the first Prime Minister of Great Britain . This title was also formally recognized in 1730; previously Walpole was officially First Chancellor of the Exchequer. Walpole's management of the crisis was so effective that it averted an open conflict between the King and the House of Commons .
Walpole strengthened his influence in the House of Commons through bribery. He asked George to found a new order of knights, the Order of the Bath . Walpole rewarded his political friends by offering them membership in this prestigious organization. Walpole thereby gained great power. He controlled the government, not the king. Walpole could appoint or dismiss ministers at will. Georg did not even take part in the Cabinet meetings; he only exercised a certain influence on foreign policy. Some of Georg's descendants, especially his great-grandson Georg III. , tried to shift the balance of power back in favor of the royal family, but ultimately without success.
In 1727 Georg wanted to visit his homeland Hanover for the sixth (and last) time, but on the way there he died on June 11th July. / June 22, 1727 greg. in Osnabrück . He was buried in the chapel of the Leineschloss in Hanover.
Georg's son took over as Georg II .
- May 28, 1660 - December 18, 1679: His Highness Duke Georg Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg
- December 18, 1679 - October 1692: His Highness Hereditary Prince Georg Ludwig of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
- October 1692 - 23 January 1698: His Highness Elector Prince Georg Ludwig of Hanover
- January 23, 1698 - August 1, 1714: His Highness Georg Ludwig, Archbanner-Bearer of the Holy Roman Empire and Elector, Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
- August 1, 1714 - June 11, 1727: His Majesty George I, by the grace of God King of Great Britain, France and Ireland, defender of the faith etc., Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, bearer of archbands and elector of the Holy Roman Empire
|Pedigree of King George I.|
According to him, King George County named in Virginia.
- Ronald G. Asch (Ed.): Hanover, Great Britain and Europe. Experience space personal union 1714–1837 (= publications of the Historical Commission for Lower Saxony and Bremen. 277). Wallstein, Göttingen 2014, ISBN 978-3-8353-1584-6 .
- John M. Beattie: The English Court in the Reign of George I. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1967.
- Jeremy Black : The Hanoverians. The History of a Dynasty. Hambledon and London, London et al. 2004, ISBN 1-85285-446-4 .
- Tim Blanning : George I. The Lucky King. Allen Lane, London 2017, ISBN 978-0-14-197683-9 .
- Ragnhild Hatton : Georg I. A German elector on England's throne. Translated from the English by Götz Pommer. Societäts Verlag, Frankfurt am Main 1982, ISBN 3-7973-0398-X (2nd edition. Ibid 1985; English original edition: George I. Elector and King. Thames & Hudson, London 1978, ISBN 0-500-25060-X ; Standard work, in the German translation but without notes and bibliography).
- Adolf Schaumann : Georg Ludwig (Elector of Hanover) . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 8, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1878, pp. 638-642.
- Georg Schnath : In: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 6, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 1964, ISBN 3-428-00187-7 , p. 210 f. ( ).
- Christian Schnee: Georg I. A Welfensohn between London and Hanover. Verlag Ludwig, Kiel 2013, ISBN 978-3-86935-208-4 .
- Literature about George I in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about George I in the German Digital Library
- Entry in the Classic Encyclopedia ( memento of October 23, 2012 in the Internet Archive ) at 1911encyclopedia.org (English)
- Claus Hesseling: October 20, 1714 - The coronation of King George I. WDR ZeitZeichen from October 20, 2014 (podcast)
- The kings of Great Britain traditionally also carried the title of King of France, as did Georg in his King's Proclamation of 1714, cf. Ragnhild Hatton: Georg I. A German elector on England's throne. 2nd Edition. 1985, p. 117.
- Ragnhild Hatton: Georg I. A German elector on England's throne. 2nd Edition. 1985, p. 327 ff.
- Ragnhild Hatton: Georg I. A German elector on England's throne. 2nd Edition. 1985, p. 29.
- Heinrich Thies : A King from Hanover. MatrixMedia, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-932313-44-8 .
- Heinrich Thies: A King from Hanover. MatrixMedia, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-932313-44-8 .
- Ragnhild Hatton: Georg I. A German elector on England's throne. 2nd Edition. 1985, p. 55 ff.
- Cf. Ragnhild Hatton: Georg I. A German Elector on England's Throne. 2nd Edition. 1985, p. 62 f.
- Heinrich Thies: A King from Hanover. MatrixMedia, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-932313-44-8 , p. 53.
- Heinrich Thies: A King from Hanover. MatrixMedia, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-932313-44-8 , p. 54.
- Heinrich Thies: A King from Hanover. MatrixMedia, Göttingen 2011, ISBN 978-3-932313-44-8 , p. 65.
- The proclamation read: We, the ecclesiastical and secular lords of the House of Lords, are hereby acting unanimously and in unison, with the assistance of the Lords of the Privy Council of State of Her Faded Majesty, numerous other distinguished and distinguished gentlemen, the Lord Mayor, the City Council and the citizens of London Mouth and heart announced and to know that the sublime and powerful Prince Georg, Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, now through the death of our monarch in blessed memory, our lawful and legitimate liege, Georg by God's grace, has become King of Great Britain, France and Ireland . quoted after Ragnhild Hatton: Georg I. A German elector on England's throne. 2nd Edition. 1985, p. 117.
- Edward Geo. Pearce: The Story of the Lutheran Church in Britain. Through Four Centuries of History. Evangelical Lutheran Church of England, London 1969, p. 14.
- Daniel Szechi: The Jacobites. Britain and Europe 1688-1788. Manchester University Press, Manchester 1994, ISBN 978-0-7190-3774-0 , p. 35 ( excerpt )
- Ragnhild Hatton: George I. Elector and King. Thames and Hudson, London 1978, p. 131.
- Helmut Knocke , Hugo Thielen : Mausoleum. In: Hanover. Art and culture lexicon . P. 92.
Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
King of Great Britain
King of Ireland
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Georg Ludwig|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||King of Great Britain and Ireland, Elector of Braunschweig-Lüneburg|
|DATE OF BIRTH||June 7, 1660|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Hanover|
|DATE OF DEATH||June 22, 1727|
|Place of death||Osnabrück|