The mountain garden in the Herrenhausen district of Hanover was created on the slope of an Ice Age sand dune and developed from a vegetable and nursery garden to a botanical garden . The rainforest house that was built here in 2000 was converted into an aquarium in 2006. Together with the Great Garden , the Georgengarten and the Welfengarten , it belongs to the Herrenhausen Gardens .
The Berggarten is north of the Great Garden on the other side of Herrenhausen Street. It is one of the oldest botanical gardens in Germany.
Electress Sophie converted the mountain garden into a garden for exotic plants, for which a greenhouse was built in 1686 . In addition to the cultivation of exotic plants, the garden served as an experimental field for the cultivation of southern plants. This experiment failed with rice cultivation, but succeeded with the cultivation of tobacco and mulberry trees . From 1706, the silk worms of the Royal Silkworm Manufactory in Hameln were fed with Herrenhausen mulberry tree leaves. In the long term, however, this breeding was not worthwhile.
In 1726/1727 the horticultural artist Ernst August Charbonnier created the avenue, which today is the driveway leading from Herrenhäuser Straße to the Welfen mausoleum and is the property of the Welfenhaus.
Between 1817 and 1820 Georg Ludwig Friedrich Laves built a garden master's house, into which the garden library moved in 1952 and which thus became the library pavilion. The palm house built by Laves was opened in 1849, and five years later it housed the most valuable and extensive collection of palm trees in Europe.
From 1842 to 1847 work on the Guelph mausoleum according to plans by Laves lasted. King Ernst August and his wife Queen Friederike first found their final resting place here. In the meantime (1845 to 1846) the mountain garden was enclosed by walls and fences.
In 1880 Richard Auhagen built the large palm house to replace the previous greenhouse . It was a palatial greenhouse made of steel and glass about 30 meters high with galleries and water fountains.
After the greenhouses were destroyed in an air raid during the Second World War in 1944, the restoration of the Berggarten gradually began. In the 1950s the palm house was demolished.
In 2013, the discovery of the Russian beetle prevented many rotten linden trees from being felled on the avenue in the Berggarten.
Show houses and themed gardens
In the show houses and themed gardens of the Berggarten there are currently 11,000 different plants from different climates, including the largest orchid collection in Europe.
Aquarium in the rainforest house
Came to at the site of the former Palm House Expo 2000 , the Rainforest House . It housed an artificial tropical landscape in which butterflies, frogs and smaller bird species from tropical regions lived. The rainforest house was closed in 2006 because of excessive costs.
The house was out in a Sealife rebuilt -Aquarium, where the rain forest has been preserved. It is the first almost completely tropical sealife center. The deep sea basin holds 300,000 liters of water. A large ocean basin with sharks and turtles is four meters deep and can be observed by visitors through an eight meter long acrylic glass tunnel.
- The royal gardens. Fame and Splendor of a Residence , ed. by Kurt Morawietz, Hanover: Steinbock-Verlag 1963
- K.-H. Meyer: On the history of the mountain garden. In: Landeshauptstadt Hannover (Ed.): Herrenhausen 1666–1966 , anniversary exhibition in Hannover, 1966, p. 27
- Ulrike and Hans Georg Preissel: Hanover's mountain garden. A botanical garden . Hanover: Schlueter 1993. ISBN 3-87706-376-4
- Kaspar Klaffke, Gesa Klaffke Lobsien: Hanover. City of Gardens - Gardens of a City , 1st edition, Seelze-Velber: Kallmeyer, 2000, ISBN 3-7800-5265-2 , p. 20ff.
- English edition under the title Hannover - city of gardens
- Waldemar R. Röhrbein : The rescue of the Herrenhausen Gardens. In: Waldemar R. Röhrbein (Ed.): Preserve your home, shape your home. Contributions to the 100th anniversary of the Heimatbund Lower Saxony , Hanover 2001. pp. 95–99
- Friedrich Lindau : Hanover - the courtly area Herrenhausen. How the city deals with the monuments of its feudal era . With a foreword by Wolfgang Schächen . Munich (among others): Deutscher Kunstverlag 2003. ISBN 3-422-06424-9
- J. Knoll: In the footsteps of the court botanist Erhart, From the Herrenhausen Gardens , 2006, No. 2
- in: Marieanne von König (Ed.): The Royal Gardens in Hanover , with photos by Wolfgang Volz, with contributions by B. Adam, U. Boeck, G. Frühsorge, C. Meckseper, H. Palm and Hans Georg Preißel, H Radich, M. Rohde and Alheidis von Rohr , Göttingen, 2006
- C. Meckseper: From the palm house to the rainforest house , ibid, p. 215ff.
- H. Palm, H. Rettich: The history of the mountain garden , ibid, p. 165ff.
- Nik Barlo Jr., Hanae Komachi, Henning Queren: Herrenhausen Gardens . Rostock: Hinstorff Verlag 2006. Illustrated book (144 pages). ISBN 3-356-01153-7
- Eva Benz-Rababah : Berggarten. In: Klaus Mlynek, Waldemar R. Röhrbein (eds.) U. a .: City Lexicon Hanover . From the beginning to the present. Schlütersche, Hannover 2009, ISBN 978-3-89993-662-9 , pp. 59-62.
- Sabine Zessin, Stefan Schulze: Herrenhausen Gardens: Mountain Garden. Ulmer Verlag, Stuttgart 2016. ISBN 978-3-8001-1269-2 .
- Helmut Knocke : Charbonnier. In: Dirk Böttcher , Klaus Mlynek, Waldemar R. Röhrbein, Hugo Thielen : Hannoversches Biographisches Lexikon . From the beginning to the present. Schlütersche, Hannover 2002, ISBN 3-87706-706-9 , p. 84, online via Google books
- Helmut Knocke: Mausoleum. In: Stadtlexikon Hannover , p. 433
- Animal wins: beetles stop felling trees