Principality of Lüneburg
Territory in the Holy Roman Empire
|Principality of Lüneburg|
|coat of arms|
|Map of the Principality of Lüneburg by Johannes Mellinger , 1593|
|Alternative names||Duchy of Lüneburg, Principality of Celle|
|Arose from||1269 through the division of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg|
|Parliament||1 virile vote on the secular bench in the Reichsfürstenrat|
|Capitals / residences||Lüneburg (until 1378), Celle|
|Dynasties||Guelphs , Ascanians (1371-1388)|
|Denomination / Religions||Roman Catholic until 1527, then Lutheran|
|Language / n||
|Incorporated into||1705 attack on the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg
The principality of Lüneburg was a direct imperial territory of the Guelphs in the Holy Roman Empire in the area of today's state of Lower Saxony . It emerged from the division of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1269 . By acquiring numerous counties , bailiwicks and justice systems in the 13th and 14th centuries, the Lüneburg princes succeeded in forming a closed domain and significantly expanding their territory. After the Lüneburg line of the Welfs died out in 1369, the succession in the principality of the Lüneburg War of Succession developed . The Brunswick line of the Guelph House, which would have been entitled to inheritance according to the Guelph house laws, was opposed to the Ascanian dukes of Wittenberg, who in the meantime had been enfeoffed with the principality by Emperor Charles IV . In 1388 the conflict was finally decided in favor of the Guelphs.
In 1428 the Welf principalities of Braunschweig and Lüneburg were divided up again, with the Principality of Lüneburg essentially retaining the boundaries that existed for the next few centuries. At that time, the Principality of Lüneburg comprised the area of today's districts of Harburg , Lüneburg , Uelzen , Heidekreis , Celle , Gifhorn and Lüchow-Dannenberg on an area of approx. 12,500 km². The landscape was mainly characterized by the geest landscape of the Lüneburg Heath and the marshland in the glacial valley of the Elbe .
In 1527, Duke Ernst the Confessor introduced the Reformation in the principality, and the attempt at a counter-reformation was unsuccessful. Under Duke Georg Wilhelm , the Heath Duke , the Celler court flourished for the last time in the 17th century. During his time, the baroque theater , which is still in operation today, was built , the French garden and the design of the palace facade in baroque form. After his death in 1705, the Principality of Lüneburg fell to the Electorate of Hanover . The principality remained a point of reference for administration in the Electorate and later Kingdom of Hanover . The Landdrostei Lüneburg , consisting of the territory of the principality, was the predecessor of the Lüneburg district government , which existed until 2005. The Lüneburg Landscape Association has existed since 1990 , which refers to the historic principality and performs cultural and political tasks on behalf of the State of Lower Saxony.
After the division of the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1269, the possession of the Lüneburg princes consisted of a large number of sovereign rights in the region between Celle and Lüneburg. It was only through the acquisition of additional counties , bailiwicks and justice systems in the 13th and 14th centuries that a closed domain was formed. After another division of the principalities of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Lüneburg between the Guelph dukes in 1428, the country's territorial development was largely complete. The Principality of Lüneburg at that time comprised the area of today's districts of Harburg , Lüneburg , Uelzen , Heidekreis , Celle , Gifhorn and Lüchow-Dannenberg and was approximately 12,500 km² in size. In the following centuries there were only minor changes to the area. The counties of Hoya and Diepholz , which fell to the princes of Lüneburg in the 16th century , retained their territorial independence, as did the principality of Grubenhagen in the 17th century . The divided lordships in Gifhorn , Dannenberg and Harburg , however, did not achieve complete sovereignty and remained part of the principality.
The landscape of the principality was essentially shaped by the geest landscape of the Lüneburg Heath , plus the marshland in the glacial valley of the Elbe . In addition to the Elbe, other important rivers were the Ilmenau , Aller and Örtze . The Wilseder Berg with a height of was the highest elevation in the principality, the largest forest area was the Göhrde , an approximately 75 km² mixed deciduous forest area between Dannenberg and Lüneburg.
The territory of the later Principality of Lüneburg was part of the Duchy of Saxony until the 12th century . In the 1170s, tensions grew between the Saxon Duke Heinrich the Lion and Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa . This conflict culminated in 1180 with the imposition of the imperial ban on Henry the Lion and the smashing of the duchy at the court in Gelnhausen . The Saxon duchy went to the Ascanians , who, however, could only gain control over a small part of the old duchy. Instead of the duchy, a large number of imperial rulers established themselves in the following decades . After several years of exile, Henry the Lion was able to return to his maternal property and stay there until the end of his life.
His son Heinrich was followed by his grandson Otto the child , who took control of the Welfs' possessions in 1227. In the course of the reconciliation between Staufer and Guelph, he transferred his property to Emperor Friedrich II. In return, at the Mainzer Hoftag of 1235, he was enfeoffed with the newly founded Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg with the two castles in Braunschweig and Lüneburg and the associated ownership of the Guelphs. Any further territorial rule in the Saxon states was not associated with the award of the ducal dignity . Only through the acquisition of numerous bailiwicks , counties and cities did a closed domain develop. After Otto's death in 1252, he was followed by his sons Albrecht and Johann , who jointly took over the government. After Johann's marriage in 1265, a division agreement was signed in 1267 and carried out in 1269. Albrecht received the Principality of Braunschweig, Johann the new Principality of Lüneburg. A number of possessions and justices remained in the possession of the entire house.
Old house Lueneburg
When the duchy was divided, Johann became the first regent of the new principality of Lüneburg and the founder of the old house of Lüneburg . By winning a feud with the Counts of Schwerin , he acquired the Uelzen settlement , which he granted city rights in 1270 . After futile attempts, the Lüneburg Saltworks bring under his control, he granted the city of Lüneburg , the monopoly on the salt trade in the principality.
When Johann died in 1277, his son Otto the Strict was still a minor. Until he was able to take over the government himself in 1282, it was exercised by guardians under the direction of Prince Albrecht of Brunswick and Bishop Konrad of Verden . During his reign, Otto led numerous feuds, most of which remained without consequences. An exception was the feud against the bishop of Hildesheim in 1283, through which he was able to enforce his claim to the county of Hallermund . He bought the counties of Dannenberg (1303) and Lüchow (1320) and the bailiwicks of Bleckede (1308) and Hitzacker (1320), as well as court and Bodenteich Castle in 1323 . To finance his acquisition policy, he sold his minting rights to the city of Lüneburg in 1293 for the northern part of the principality and in 1322 for the southern part of the city of Hanover .
Otto's son Otto III. was already involved in the government since 1314, from 1325 his father withdrew from it completely. In 1315 Otto the Strenge had issued a regulation that divided the property between Otto III. and his brother Wilhelm in the sense of a mutation . However, this did not take place, from 1330 they ruled the principality together. The focus of their rule in the first few years was the further territorial consolidation of the principality. By acquiring the village of Fallersleben , the counties Papenteich and Wettmarshagen, their property in the Gifhorn area was significantly increased. Another focus was the political support of the economically emerging cities. The trade in Lüneburg in particular benefited from the making the Ilmenau navigable between Lüneburg and Uelzen and from economic agreements between the Lüneburg princes and the dukes of Saxony-Lauenburg . The two brothers ruled until Otto III's death. in 1352 together, afterwards Wilhelm ruled alone until his death in 1369.
War of the Lüneburg Succession
After Wilhelm II of Lüneburg died in 1369 without male descendants, the older Lüneburg house went out. According to the Guelph house laws, the Brunswick Duke Magnus II. Torquatus would have been entitled to inheritance. However, Emperor Charles IV considered the imperial fiefdom to have reverted to the Reich and enfeoffed Albrecht von Sachsen-Wittenberg and his uncle Wenzel with the principality, which triggered the War of the Lüneburg Succession . The city of Lüneburg supported the Wittenbergers, took the opportunity to evade the direct reach of the duke and on February 1, 1371 destroyed the ducal castle on the Kalkberg . This forced Magnus to move his residence to Celle . An attempt to overthrow Lüneburg militarily on October 21, 1371, Ursulatag , and to secure the old ducal rights, failed. In the military conflicts in the following years, neither the Brunswick nor the Wittenbergers were able to enforce their claims; Only the Peace of Hanover in 1373 ended the war, at least for the time being. According to the agreements made there, the Guelphs and the Wittenbergers were to take turns in the reign. This contract was secured by the marriage of the two eldest sons of Magnus Torquatus , who died in 1373 , Friedrich and Bernhard I , with the two daughters of Wenceslas and the marriage of Magnus' widow to Albrecht von Sachsen-Wittenberg. However, the younger brother of Friedrich and Bernhard, Heinrich der Milde , rejected the agreements and carried on the war. After Wenzel's death and the battle of Winsen in 1388, rule in the principality was granted to the Welfenhaus according to the provisions of the Hanover Treaty of 1374. In 1389 there was a hereditary brotherhood agreement between the Guelphs and the Ascanians, with which the agreement of 1374 was canceled and the principality was finally secured for the Guelphs.
The War of Succession had led to a great power of the estates in the principality. In order to secure the support of the cities and the lower nobility , both the Guelphs and the Ascanians were forced to guarantee the estates extensive privileges and to pledge them numerous justice and castles . The dukes of Celle, Bernhard and Heinrich, had emerged victorious from the conflict, but were faced with massive financial problems. When they approached the city of Lüneburg with a new financial request, in September 1392, in return for a loan of 50,000 marks , an extensive contract was concluded, the so-called Lüneburg Sate , in which numerous privileges were confirmed to the estates and the dukes submitted to the jurisdiction of a body formed by the estates . The following years were marked by renewed tensions between the sovereigns and the state estates and the attempt of the dukes to weaken the position of the Lüneburg Sate.
In 1396 it broke. After he had secured the aid of Sweden and Mecklenburg through a protection and fraternization treaty , Duke Heinrich , who was soon joined by his brother Bernhard , took possession of the city of Uelzen and forced them to withdraw from the Sate and the Lüneburgers To take an oath of homage to dukes . In the course of the disputes now developing between the dukes and the city of Lüneburg, numerous battles took place throughout the entire Lüneburg region. With the support of the Hanseatic cities of Hamburg and Lübeck , Lüneburg was able to achieve military superiority, so that the dukes of Celle offered the opposing party peace negotiations. In October 1397 there was a contractual agreement between the conflicting parties; a restitution of the Lüneburg Sate, as had been sought by the city of Lüneburg, did not take place.
Country divisions 1388, 1409 and 1428
In the years 1388, 1409 and 1428 the country was divided into three parts, in which the principalities of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Lüneburg were redistributed. The first division was in 1388 after the Guelphs were able to win the disputes in the War of Succession and the Lüneburg principality was secured to the ducal house. Bernhard I and Heinrich jointly received the Principality of Lüneburg, their brother Friedrich received the Principality of Braunschweig. As in the division of 1269, some rights should remain in common ownership of both lines. After Friedrich's death in 1400, Braunschweig also fell to the two brothers and was ruled jointly with Lüneburg in the following years. The second division took place in 1409. Bernhard I received the state of Braunschweig, to which the areas between the Deister and the Leine, which later formed the principality of Calenberg , were added, and Heinrich received the state of Lüneburg. Once again, various possessions and rights were to remain in the possession of the entire house, including the cities of Braunschweig and Lüneburg , the old town of Hanover and the customs of Schnackenburg . The third division took place in 1428 at the request of Duke Wilhelm , who, together with his brother Heinrich, succeeded his father in the Principality of Lüneburg in 1416 . In this third division, her uncle Bernhard received the Principality of Lüneburg, while Wilhelm and Heinrich jointly received the Principality of Braunschweig. The rights of the entire house established in 1409 were essentially confirmed in the new contract.
Middle House Lüneburg
After Duke Bernhard's death in 1434, his eldest son Otto took over the government together with his brother Friedrich the Pious . In several campaigns Otto went against incursions of the Altmark knighthood in the Principality of Lueneburg in front and led feuds with the Counts of Spiegelberg and the counts of Hoya . To finance his feuds , he pledged the Homburg-Eversteinian goods and introduced new water tariffs on the Ilmenau . The latter led to serious disputes with the city of Lüneburg, as the city's trade was affected by the tariffs. After Otto's death in 1446, Friedrich continued to run the government alone. In 1457 he abdicated in favor of his sons Bernhard and Otto in order to enter the Franciscan monastery he had founded in Celle and “serve God”. Bernhard repeatedly took action against the local nobility in order to enforce the peace in the country , including those of von Bartensleben and von der Schulenburg . In 1459 he gave the city of Celle a monopoly on grain shipping, which led to an economic boom in Celle . Influenced by monastic reform ideas, his brother Otto tried to reform monastic life in Wienhausen and carried out extensive construction work on Celle Castle . After the two brothers had died in 1464 and 1471 respectively, Frederick the Pious left the monastery and ruled the principality again until his death in 1478. Since his grandson Heinrich the Middle was underage when he died, a guardianship government was formed in 1478 under Heinrich's mother Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg with the participation of the estates until Heinrich took over the government in Celle himself in 1486.
Heinrich's reign was marked by the desolate financial situation of the principality; With the exception of the Grand Bailiwick of Celle, all offices and bailiffs were pledged at times. Efforts to get new taxes approved in the state parliaments led to a greater involvement of the estates in the administration of the principality. In 1489, half a committee was formed to monitor the collection and use of taxes. In 1512 there was a settlement with the Brunswick princes Erich and Heinrich , in which the property and justice remaining in the entire house of Brunswick-Lüneburg since the division of 1428 were divided up. Among other things, Lüneburg renounced its share in the old town of Hanover and received the customs duties from Hitzacker and Schnackenburg as well as the full rights to the city of Lüneburg. The city of Braunschweig continued to own the entire house. Heinrich's involvement in the Hildesheim collegiate feud had far-reaching effects , in which he stood on the side of the Hildesheim bishop and in opposition to the Hildesheim nobility and the Brunswick Guelphs allied with him. Although Heinrich succeeded in winning the battle of Soltau militarily in 1519, this was turned into a defeat by the intervention of the newly elected Emperor Charles V. Heinrich had been on the side of the French crown pretender in the election of the king and thus incurred the hostility of Charles V. As the Brunswick after the defeat at the Battle of Soltau Charles V called for help, the emperor imposed in 1521, the imperial ban against him. Heinrich, however, with the threat in mind, had already handed over the government to his two eldest sons Otto and Ernst the Confessor in 1520 and went into exile in France at the court of the French king. In 1522 he formally abdicated.
Ernst the Confessor was a student in Wittenberg and had contact with Luther's teachers there. Soon after taking over the government, he began to reform the Church of the Principality in the Lutheran sense. In 1527 there was a state parliament farewell, at which the nobility, who had hitherto been hostile, spoke out in favor of the new faith. In 1530 Ernst was one of the signatories of the Augsburg Confession and brought the reformer Urbanus Rhegius with him from Augsburg , who was largely responsible for the implementation of the Reformation over the next few decades. In the following year Ernst the Confessor was one of the founding members of the Schmalkaldic League , a defense alliance against the Catholic Emperor Charles V. The defeat in the Schmalkaldic War one year after Ernst's death in 1547 had no consequences for the principality due to the fate of Chancellor Balthasar Klammer. Another focus of his government was the rehabilitation of the completely indebted principality. When he took office, with the exception of the castle bailiwick, all offices were pledged; his efforts aimed primarily at their redemption. The necessary tax increases led to serious disputes with the estates . However, Duke Ernst managed to assert himself and thus initiate the debt reduction.
After Otto resigned from the government in 1527 and resigned himself to the office of Harburg and the youngest brother Franz , who had been co-ruling since 1536, accepted the position of Gifhorn in 1539 , Ernst the Confessor ruled alone until his death in 1546. Since his sons were still minors and the two uncles, Otto and Franz, refused to take over the guardianship, the Emperor appointed the Archbishop of Cologne and the Count of Schaumburg as guardians. The government was led by a newly created body of governors and councils . This remained as a government authority even after Ernst's sons took office. The eldest son Franz Otto took over the government in 1555, but his brothers Heinrich and Wilhelm followed in 1559 .
After Heinrich's withdrawal ten years later, Wilhelm formally ruled alone until his death in 1592, but due to his severe psychological problems he only participated in political life to a very limited extent and spent the last few years mentally deranged. Since 1587 he was no longer able to exercise his office. Under the direction of Phillip von Grubenhagen and Wilhelm's wife Dorothea , the authority of the governors and councilors took over the administration of the principality. His reign, like that of his father, was determined by a policy of debt relief. In particular, the reconciliation with the city of Lüneburg in 1562 and the associated assumption of part of the debts of the principality and the imperial taxes by the city meant a relaxation of the desolate budget situation . In addition to the church ordinance issued in 1564 , which brought the Reformation to a conclusion in the Lüneburg region, the court court ordinance issued in the same year and the police ordinance are important reforms. In 1582 and 1585 the counties of Hoya and Diepholz fell to the Guelph House. However, the territories retained their independence and were not linked to the principality. In view of the difficulties of new divisions, the sons of Wilhelm signed a contract according to which they would exercise the reign one after the other, but only one should marry appropriately and thus continue the ducal lineage. The lot fell on the second youngest, Georg von Calenberg .
New house in Lüneburg
In 1592 Wilhelm's eldest son Ernst II took over the government in the principality. Through an agreement with his brother Christian and the estates, his government was initially to be limited to eight years, but this regulation was later repealed and Ernst ruled until his death in 1611. Under him, the Celle family contract was concluded in 1610 , which made the principality indivisible provided. He was followed by his brother Christian and after his death in 1633 August . As the last of the children of Wilhelm the Younger, Frederick IV took over the reign from 1636 to 1648 . During the Thirty Years War , the principality was repeatedly the scene of military conflicts and suffered from the occasional occupation and billeting of Swedish troops. The dukes of Celle tried for a long time an armed neutrality policy and for this purpose signed a contract with the Guelph lines in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Calenberg in 1636, in which it was decided to raise an army for the entire house of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. In the following year the Guelph troops conquered Lüneburg , which had been occupied by Swedish troops for over a year . The policy of neutrality was increasingly abandoned from 1641 and an understanding was sought with the imperial family, which led to the Peace of Goslar in 1642 . At the urging of Emperor Ferdinand III. In the same year, Friedrich IV began to disband the Brunswick-Lüneburg troops and thus considerably weakened his negotiating position in the peace negotiations in Münster . The territory of the Principality of Lüneburg was not directly affected by the results of the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, but the Celle ducal house lost, among other things, the right to occupy several dioceses.
After Friedrich's death, Georg's eldest son Christian Ludwig inherited the Principality of Lüneburg in 1648 and thus became the founder of the New House of Lüneburg . Johann followed in 1665 , who took over the government in a coup d'état after Christian's death in 1665, despite the claims of his brother Georg Wilhelm , who resided in Calenberg , who would have been older and therefore entitled to inheritance before him. Georg Wilhelm managed to assert himself and gain the government, but had to cede the principality of Grubenhagen , which only came to the House of Lüneburg in 1617, to his brother, who took over the principality of Calenberg . Georg Wilhelm, often dubbed the Heath Duke , managed to lead the court to a final bloom. Among other things, the construction of the baroque theater , which was still in operation , the creation of the French garden and the design of the palace facade in its current baroque form all took place in his time. Under the influence of his wife, he issued an edict on August 7, 1684, before the Edict of Nantes , which promised the Reformed religious refugees from France to be admitted and promoted in the Principality of Lüneburg. The Celler Hof thus became a large Huguenot colony, whose members, mostly from Poitou , quickly rose to management positions at the court. Georg Wilhelm was originally engaged to Sophie von der Pfalz , but in the Celle bridal swap in 1658 he gave her up to his brother Ernst August and in return assured him not to marry and to bequeath the Principality of Lüneburg to him after his death. In 1676 Georg Wilhelm married the Huguenot Eleonore d'Olbreuse, with whom he had had a daughter, Sophie Dorothea , since 1666, contrary to the agreement . In order to ensure the connection of Lüneburg to the Hanoverian Welfenhaus, she was married to Ernst August's son Georg von Hanover . As a result, the Principality of Lüneburg fell to the Hanoverian Guelphs after the death of Georg Wilhelm in 1705 and lost its independence.
Celle Castle , residence of the Principality of Lüneburg
Former Lüneburg Castle , built around 1700
Gifhorn Castle , built 1525–1581
Harburg Castle , first mentioned around 1135
When it joined the Electorate of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , the principality lost its independence, but remained as an administrative unit. The central administration was relocated to Hanover , the state was integrated into the Hanover court system and the Lüneburg army was united with that of the electorate. The landscape of the Principality of Lüneburg , the representation of the estates , remained unchanged as an independent constitutional body, and the voice of the Principality in the Imperial Council was continued as Braunschweig-Celle until the end of the Holy Roman Empire . In the Kingdom of Hanover , too , the Principality of Lüneburg remained a point of reference for the state administration and was explicitly mentioned in the constitution of 1833. The Landdrostei Lüneburg established in 1823 as a regional administrative body was formed from the territory of the Principality of Lüneburg, from which the district government of Lüneburg emerged in 1885 , which remained in existence until 2005. After the annexation of Hanover by Prussia , the German Emperor Wilhelm I assumed the title of Duke of Lüneburg in 1873 , and the great coat of arms of Prussia was expanded to include the coat of arms of the principality, the blue lion on a gold shield. The landscape of the Principality of Lüneburg exists to the present day, as does the knighthood of the Principality of Lüneburg as the corporate representation of the landowners . The Lüneburg Landscape Association , founded in 1990 under the name Regional Cultural Promotion in the former Principality of Lüneburg , also refers to the historic Principality.
Welfish branch lines
In the 16th century, several Guelph branch lines arose , which were given their own domination territories:
After an inappropriate marriage with the lady-in-waiting Meta von Campe, Duke Otto renounced his participation in the government of the principality in 1527 and was resigned to the office of Harburg as a domain. Harburg remained part of the principality, the ducal chancellery in Celle was still responsible for border and sovereign issues, the knightly nobility in the Harburg office continued to take part in the Lüneburg meeting of the estates and was enfeoffed by the duke of Celle. When Otto died in 1549, the office of Harburg was supposed to go back to the Celle dukes in accordance with the contract, but Otto's son, Otto II., Succeeded in reorganizing the severance payment contract of 1527 in 1560. Harburg was established as hereditary property and the area of dominion was expanded to include the Moisburg district . When the Harburg line died out in 1642, the rule fell back to the ducal house in Celle.
Personal disputes between the brothers Ernst and Franz led to the establishment of the Gifhorn rule , the so-called Duchy of Gifhorn , in 1539 . For the renunciation of his participation in the government in the principality, Franz received Gifhorn Castle and the offices of Fallersleben , Gifhorn and Isenhagen as a severance payment . Although Franz tried to enforce the full sovereignty of his domain, essential sovereign rights remained with the ducal house in Celle, which was still responsible for foreign policy matters, and the Gifhorn nobility remained part of the Lüneburg estate. When Duke Franz died childless in 1549, the Gifhorn rule fell back to Celle.
When Duke Heinrich married Ursula von Sachsen-Lauenburg in 1569, contrary to an agreement with his brother Wilhelm , he had to forego any further government participation in the principality and was instead resigned to the office of Dannenberg and the monastery office of Scharnebeck . From 1569 Heinrich had Dannenberg Castle built as a residence on the site of a medieval castle . The Dannenberg rule remained part of the Principality of Lüneburg, essential sovereign rights, such as foreign policy and tax policy, remained with the government in Celle . In 1592, after the death of Duke Wilhelm , the rule was expanded to include the offices of Hitzacker , Lüchow and Warpke. Heinrich could not enforce demands for a transfer of sovereign rights. After the principality of Grubenhagen fell to Celle in 1617, the Dannenberg line received the Wustrow office as compensation. In 1671 the Dannenberg rule fell back to the Guelph line in Celle.
Politics and administration
Owners of the imperial fief were the Guelph Dukes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and during the War of the Lüneburg Succession from 1370 to 1388 the Ascanian Dukes of Wittenberg. The lendings were made separately for the Lüneburg principality in the 13th and 14th centuries. In 1414 there was a contractual agreement between the Guelph lines in Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel and Lüneburg, on the basis of which in 1420 King Sigismund made a total loan for the first time. At this time, the principalities of Göttingen and Grubenhagen , which had been split off from the Principality of Brunswick in 1291 , were not included in the overall lending . The Principality of Göttingen fell back to the Brunswick Guelphs a few years later and was also included in the overall lean-back. In 1566, Grubenhagen sought to be included in the overall loan association, which also took place. Since then, the Guelphs have been enfeoffed for the principalities again at the hands of the entire house. Due to an agreement in the deed of division of 1269, all Guelph dukes of the entire house of Braunschweig-Lüneburg carried the title of Duke of Braunschweig-Lüneburg even after the division . The exact powers of the dukes had never been set down in writing and changed over the course of the history of the principality. These were primarily restricted by the inclusion of the estates in state politics and by imperial politics . So they were the Reich laws , the Reich jurisdiction and decisions of the Reichstag subject could but at the same time through its seat in the Imperial Council itself exercising influence on the national politics.
coat of arms
The coat of arms of the Principality of Lüneburg is emblazoned as follows : “In the golden (yellow) oval shield a red armored and tongued soaring blue lion ; the head of the shield accompanied by four and in the sign foot accompanied by three red hearts "Originally, without further additives, are located in the shield since 1293 red hearts, their number varies. There are representations with four, six, seven, nine, ten and twelve red hearts. The model for the Welf coat of arms was the coat of arms of Denmark , to whose royal house there was a family relationship of the Welfs. This also shows three blue lions sprinkled with red hearts. The coat of arms carried by the dukes has been changed and expanded several times over the centuries. In the 14th century there was a union with the coat of arms of the Brunswick line of the Welfenhaus , so that from that time on the coats of arms stood for the entire house of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. Initially, the coats of arms were divided into two parts and, in addition to the Lüneburg lion, also contained two golden leopards on a red background, the main coat of arms of the Brunswick line. In the centuries that followed, the number of coats of arms was repeatedly increased after new territorial acquisitions. In the 15th century the coats of arms of the County of Everstein and the Lordship of Homburg were added, at the end of the 16th century the coats of arms of the Counties of Hoya and Diepholz and the coats of arms of the Harz counties of Lauterberg, Klettenberg , Hohnstein, Regenstein and Blankenburg, which are connected to the Brunswick principality . The upper arms existed since the union of Guelph coat of arms in the 14th century from a crowned helmet with a red-and-gold ceiling and a silver column which had sullied with peacock feathers and in front of a silver horse jumped. The coat of arms has also been expanded several times over the years and in the 17th century finally consisted of five helmets and the jewels of the respective territories.
A special form was the coat of arms of August the Elder with the coat of arms of the diocese of Ratzeburg.
In the 13th century, the court offices of the stewardess , the tavern , the chamberlain and the marshal still existed in the 12th century . The offices were in the hereditary possession of individual noble families. So the von Grote family provided the head sitter, the von Meding family the marshal. The Schenk and the Chamberlain came first from the von Berge family, after their extinction those from Knesebeck provided the Chamberlain and those from Behr the Schenken. The offices mentioned were mentioned in a document up to the 14th century, but had largely lost their political influence around the turn of the 14th century. At this time a princely council was formed, which was composed primarily of members of the Lüneburg ministerial nobility. The composition of the staff was not constant, but depended on the Duke's whereabouts. Only with the development of Celle as a royal seat in the middle of the 15th century did clear council contours emerge and individual councils belonged to the duke's advisory group for a longer period of time .
The head of the ducal chancellery, the highest authority in which documents were issued, was the head of the chancellery. The scribes, who mostly came from the Lüneburg clergy, were subordinate to him . In the 16th century, the aristocratic councilors, who from that time on were referred to as district administrators, were joined by learned councilors, often foreign to the country. At the top of the firm stood with the Chancellor also a scholar. Since then, the office has not only served as a clerk's office, but has also served as a counseling center for the councils and the seat of the chancellery court. Since 1536, the financial management was the responsibility of the Rentkammer, headed by the Rentmeister.
After Ernst the Confessor's death in 1546, a guardianship government was formed for his underage sons. The government was headed by the so-called governor, and the Grand Bailiff, the Chancellor and the Vice Chancellor also belonged to it. This institution remained as the highest state authority even after Ernst's sons took over the government. In 1593, following the enactment of new chancellery and government regulations, the chamber council, to which the governor, the Celler Vogt and the chancellor belonged. He was responsible for the central political decisions, especially in financial matters and the area of foreign policy, while the law firm's tasks were limited to pure administrative activities. In 1618, following the enactment of a new regimental order, several council chambers were set up, each of which was only responsible for certain areas. The consistory was responsible for ecclesiastical questions, the military council was responsible for the military system, and the budget council was responsible for financial management . The old chamber council was replaced by the secret council , which was primarily responsible for questions of foreign policy.
Goo dishes served the local administration of the country until the 16th century . In addition to the jurisprudence, they were responsible, among other things, for the deployment of the rear passengers who were obliged to follow suit, for the defense organization and for the military forces . The chair was held as a representative of the supreme court lord , the duke , the gogrefe . This was originally freely chosen by the judicial community. The Duke only had to confirm the election, but could not refuse a Gogrefen. From the 14th century the sovereigns tried to expand their influence on the occupation of the Gogrefen until the electoral rights of the judicial community were abolished in most of the Goen in the 16th century and sovereign officials ran the courts.
The former Gogerichte have since been referred to as regional courts and had already lost a large part of their competencies to the newly created offices and bailiffs . In addition, individual courts were merged, so that since the 17th century there has only been one court per district. In addition to the jurisprudence in lower criminal court cases, the regional courts were also responsible, among other things, for keeping the number of men, that is, counting the subjects subject to the obligation, and for announcing sovereign ordinances.
The offices developed beginning in the 13th century partly parallel to the existing Gogerichten, partly they were based on them. However, there is little knowledge about the development process. Since the 16th century the term office prevailed, the subdistricts of the offices were called bailiwicks . The main features of the office formation process were completed in the 16th century after the Reformation with the establishment of the monastery offices. At the head of the offices was a bailiff appointed by the duke. The office included the so-called Amtshof , which was originally administered by the bailiff himself, but has mostly been leased since the 17th century. The offices of the ducal financial administration, the Rentkammer in Celle, were subordinated. The offices exercised the ducal power and were involved in the collection of sovereign taxes. In particular, they were the court of first instance for all civil disputes and the administrative center for the ducal property, that is, they levied the manorial duties due to the duke.
The so-called closed aristocratic courts in Gartow and Wathlingen represented special cases . There the resident families von Bernstorff and von Lüneburg were not only in possession of the lower and higher jurisdiction, but also performed the ducal administrative tasks. The cities of Celle , Harburg , Lüchow , Dannenberg , Hitzacker and Soltau were independent administrative bodies and were also not integrated into the system of offices. In addition to their own administration, they had the lower jurisdiction, only for the higher jurisdiction was the Chancellery in Celle responsible. Lüneburg and Uelzen achieved even greater independence and had both lower and higher jurisdiction.
Independent administrative and judicial activities of the localities, which were carried out independently of the lordly offices, regional and Gogerichten, existed in the Principality of Lüneburg only in individual cases in the form of the so-called Bauernköhr. In the Wendland authorities this included the so-called cloths. These were an association of several localities and, among other things, responsible for the maintenance of the Elbe dykes , the land succession and the land services. In addition, they had the right to hold court themselves and to impose fines in minor criminal cases.
Up until the 16th century, the Go Courts were responsible for all civil and criminal proceedings. Since the 16th century, most of the judicial powers were transferred to the offices and the Chancellery in Celle. The only thing left to the original Gogerichten was the lower criminal jurisdiction, the so-called Wrogen jurisdiction. Since that time they have mainly been referred to as regional courts.
For the majority of the residents of the principality, the offices were responsible for civil law issues in the first instance , the regional courts in lower criminal court cases, in higher criminal court cases the investigation was directed by the offices and the verdict, after the decision by the Chancellery in Celle, by implemented this. The city courts were responsible for the inhabitants of the cities with lower or higher jurisdiction, and the respective landlords were responsible for the inhabitants of the aristocratic courts. For the nobility and most of the higher officials, the Chancellery Court was the first instance in all civil and criminal cases. The court of appeal was the chancellery court and, since 1536, the court court in Celle, which was occupied by estates . There was no clear delimitation of responsibilities; the choice of court was left to the plaintiff. In the last instance there was the possibility of calling the Reich Chamber of Commerce in Wetzlar.
The logging courts, which met once or twice a year and whose limits were independent of those of the offices, were responsible for all civil legal disputes and criminal cases in connection with the use of the forest . Under the chairmanship of the Holzgrefen, the judgments were decided by those entitled to the Holzmark, the Erbexen or heirs. In addition to the punishment of forest outrages, decisions were made on planting measures, the use of wood or the start of fattening . Since the 16th century these courts lost their influence, forest disputes were then decided by other courts. The police order of 1618 finally transferred the majority of the competencies of the timber courts to the sovereign offices . Only where not the sovereign but the church or individual aristocrats were owners of the lordship, the wooden courts could also survive.
In the Principality of Lüneburg there were 18 so-called unclosed aristocratic courts in Gartow and Wathlingen in addition to the closed aristocratic courts. These had the lower and partly also the higher jurisdiction, but in contrast to the closed courts did not perform any sovereign administrative tasks. In addition, there were numerous aristocratic patrimonial courts , whose competencies were limited to individual residents and individual areas of jurisdiction. So there were the inland, stake, fence, village, street and field courts .
The consistory in Celle had existed as the highest spiritual court since 1562. It was responsible for all matrimonial matters, processes between churches and between lay people and clergy. For religious offenses, such as witchcraft or absenteeism, however, the ordinary courts were responsible.
The exact responsibilities of the courts have increasingly been regulated by ordinances since the 16th century, including the court court ordinances of 1535 and 1564, the regimental order of 1618 and the police order of 1564 and 1618. The judgments made were based on various legal sources . In addition to traditional customary law , the Sachsenspiegel and the criminal law of the Carolina , the judgments were based on other sources such as the Reich Police Order , the Lüneburg Police Order of 1618 or the letters of privilege of the Lüneburg Sate .
The corporate co-determination goes back to the late 13th century. In 1292 a state parliament was convened for the first time , at which the state estates approved a new bede . In view of the increasing financial hardship of the dukes of Celle , other state parliaments followed in the 14th and 15th centuries, which were also primarily concerned with approving new taxes. In the 16th and 17th centuries, in addition to tax approvals, participation in state legislation and involvement in the administration of the principality took place. Among other things, the stands had the right to present themselves to numerous administrative offices. Beginning in the 16th century, the provincial parliaments increasingly formed committees that took over the negotiations with the dukes and had decision-making powers for the entire estates. From these committees, the landscape of the Principality of Lüneburg developed in the middle of the 17th century as a permanent representation of the estates . This consisted of representatives of the prelature , the knightly nobility and the cities and had its seat in Celle . A meeting of the entire estates has only taken place in exceptional cases since then.
Until the 16th century, the military contingent consisted of the feudal militia , i.e. the knighthood obliged to serve in the military, and the army, that is, parts of the rural population. The duty of the feudal militia arose from the feudal ties to the dukes of Celle, the army ban the obligation to the landlord. Since the advent of firearms in the 15th century, an increasing number of mercenary armies were used, each of which was committed to individual wars and then released from service. In the beginning they only supplemented the knight armies, but largely replaced them in the 16th century due to their military superiority. Standing troops were very rare until the 17th century. Only the ducal bodyguards and soldiers to secure the Celle residence were permanently in the service of the dukes.
In the first years of the Thirty Years' War the troops consisted of mercenary armies until 1631, under Duke Georg of Calenberg, troops were set up for the Whole House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg , which for the first time remained permanently in the service of the dukes as a standing army. After the end of the common army of the entire house of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in 1644, some of the regiments came to the Principality of Lüneburg and formed the Lüneburg army. In 1650, the troop strength was initially reduced at the request of the estates, and was increased significantly again in 1651 and 1665 after Georg Wilhelm took office. During this time, the troops were deployed primarily in several European wars, including in Venice , Spain and the Netherlands , in which the Principality of Lüneburg was not involved itself, but the dukes of Celle provided the troops for payment in the service of foreign warring powers posed. After connecting the Principality of Lüneburg to the electorate of Hanover , the lüneburgische army was with the kurhannoverschen combined.
Economic and social history
The Principality of Lüneburg was primarily characterized by rural settlements and agriculture. The size of the farms varied widely and reflected the different social classes of the peasant population: In addition to full farms and half farms, there were so-called mutts , who had little land and few rights to the commons , and had been since the end of the 15th century the so-called Brinkitzer . These only had garden land and were usually not involved in the common land. Residents and residents owned no land at all, lived on rented farms and were dependent on paid work on foreign farms or in rural handicrafts. While the arable land belonged to each farm separately, the pasture land and the forest, the so-called common land, were owned by the village community and were jointly managed. Most of the farms were owned by the landlords, only in the large open air and in the Elbmarschen were peasant property. The manorial rule was exercised by the mostly aristocratic owners of the manors, the church or the Lüneburg dukes themselves. As a rule, the farmers of a village belonged to different landlords - closed manor districts were an exception in Lüneburg and were to be found especially in the eastern part of the principality, in Wendland . The majority of the farms were assigned according to Meierrecht . The farmers had to pay taxes to the landlord, on the other hand, the Meierrecht also included the landlord's duty of care towards the farmer. Originally the farms were only given to the farmers for a few years, after which the contracts had to be renegotiated. Since the 16th century, the Meierrecht developed into a hereditary right of use.
The duty and service obligations of the farms included the obligations towards the landlord , the court lord and the sovereign . These individual legal institutions could be owned by different carriers, but in some cases the dukes of Celle also combined all rights in one hand. The most important payment to the landlord was the so-called Meier slope . It consisted of part of the crop yield , which usually had to be delivered in the form of marketable fruits, for example rye . In addition, there were taxes on cattle ownership , which, however, were only a minor burden for the farmers in the Lüneburg Heath. In addition, the peasants were obliged to serve, the extent of which depended on the size of the farm. Since the 16th century, the Meier gradient has been increasingly fixed in the form of fixed, income-independent taxes and since that time could consist of contributions in kind as well as money. In addition, there were other taxes that were levied, for example, when the farm changed hands. The grain tithe , on the other hand, was originally a donation to the church, but was also partly owned by the noble landlords and amounted to an individually determined share of the agricultural yield. There were also other tithe, for example the flax tithe or the lean tithe, which referred to livestock ownership. Sovereign taxes were levied from the 13th century. In the beginning, this was done irregularly as so-called Beden , but in the 16th century taxes became increasingly the rule and levies were constantly expanded. Further service obligations were due, on the one hand, to the owner of the jurisdiction and, on the other, to the sovereignty. The services for the judge were dependent on the size of the courtyards and included manual and tension services . The services to the sovereign, the so-called Burgenvestendienste, consisted, for example, of helping with hunting, building dykes or fortification work.
The manors were given as feudal estates of the dukes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg to the Lüneburg nobility, sometimes also to non-aristocratic farmers. The goods were distinguished by their tax exemption, for their owners the ducal chancellery was basically the first court instance and the owners had a seat and vote in the knighthood of the principality of Lüneburg and thus the right to elect members for the Lüneburg state parliaments . The goods were integrated into the cooperative ownership structure of the villages - just like the farms, they only owned their arable land as individual parcels, the pasture and forest were shared with the rest of the village community. In some cases, however, the goods were not only entitled to joint logging, but also had separate forests. The equipping of the goods with arable land and entitlements to the commons varied widely, but usually did not exceed two to three times the size of a full yard. The scope of the justice belonging to the estate also differed greatly and could include manorial rights over compulsory peasant positions, tithe rights , court rights or hunting rights. According to the knighthood registers of 1752, there were 192 properties on the territory of the principality at that time. The goods were not evenly distributed over the principality, but mainly occurred in the southern part of the country. The Lüneburg nobility largely developed from the ministerial class in the 12th and 13th centuries . In addition to managing their estates, many landowners were in the service of the dukes and occupied positions in administration and in the military. The families that were often found in the Duke's administration and advisory group for centuries included the Bothmer , Estorff , Meding , Lenthe , Wense and Grote families .
Studies on the population history of the Principality of Lüneburg are only available for the period from 1550 and only for the cities. For this period up to the middle of the 17th century, a continuous increase in population is assumed, which, however, was repeatedly interrupted by the plague and the population decimated. In the following years, however, an increasing rate of population growth can be assumed. Armed conflicts, especially during the Thirty Years' War , also led to a decline in the population. The cause, however, is seen primarily in the diseases which, because of the population weakened by the wars (burdens from billeting, food shortages, poor hygienic conditions than in peacetime), led to a higher mortality rate than in peacetime. For the beginning of the 17th century, Lüneburg is assumed to have around 12,500 inhabitants, Celle around 3,500 and Uelzen around 1,400 inhabitants. A population of less than 2,500 is assumed for Harburg and Burgdorf , and less than 1,000 for the small towns and spots Soltau , Gifhorn , Bevensen and Wustrow .
After 1650, the territory of the principality was no longer affected by armed conflicts, and there were no major epidemics or plagues . The population in the cities grew steadily, in the countryside many farms that had fallen desolate during the Thirty Years War were put back into cultivation. An exception to this development is Lüneburg , which had passed its economic peak and whose population fell by a third between the years 1600 and 1700. Figures for the total population are available for the first time for the year 1727. It is assumed that the total population of the Principality of Lüneburg will be around 190,000 this year.
Until the Reformation was introduced, the principality of Lüneburg belonged to the dioceses of Minden , Verden , Hildesheim , Bremen and Halberstadt . At the beginning of the 16th century there were 15 monasteries and canons in the principality : the women's monasteries of the Cistercians in Isenhagen , Wienhausen and Medingen , the Benedictines in Lüne , Ebstorf and Walsrode , the male monasteries of the Benedictines in Oldenstadt and Lüneburg, the Cistercians in Scharnebeck and the Premonstratensians in Heiligenthal. In addition, there were the convents of the Franciscan order in Celle, Lüneburg and Winsen as well as the canons in Bardowick and Ramelsloh.
The first reports of Lutheran sermons in the Principality of Lüneburg come from a church in Adenbüttel in the Gifhorn district in 1524 . At the same time there were also first disputes about the teachings of Martin Luther in the citizenships of the cities of Celle and Lüneburg. In 1525, Duke Ernst the Confessor from Lüneburg publicly confessed to Luther for the first time. In 1527 the estates of the principality decided in a state parliament that in future the gospel should be preached in pure form and without human additions. In the same year, a provisional church order was issued, a so-called article book, with which the services should be redesigned in the Reformation sense. With the introduction of the article book, the Principality of Lüneburg broke away from the Catholic Church and founded its own regional church with the Duke as head. The theologian Urbanus Rhegius , whom Ernst the Confessor had brought with him from the Reichstag in Augsburg and who organized the further church reorganization of the country and was appointed general superintendent , was formative for the further development of the regional church of the principality .
During the Reformation , most were convent convents disbanded and confiscated the monastic estates of the Dukes Celler. The canons' monasteries in Bardowick and Ramelsloh remained, as did the monasteries in Lüne , Ebstorf , Isenhagen , Wienhausen , Medingen and Walsrode in the form of evangelical women's monasteries as supply institutions for the daughters of the Lüneburg nobility. The Michaeliskloster initially continued to exist as a Protestant male monastery and was converted into the Lüneburg Knight Academy in 1655 . While the new doctrine prevailed in the cities as well as in the parish churches in the countryside in the following years, the remaining monasteries of the principality offered massive resistance and stuck to their old creed. It was not until 1587 that the last monastery in the principality, the Cistercian monastery in Wienhausen, finally became Protestant after the election of a new abbess.
In 1564 a printed church ordinance was published for the principality, which regulated the organizational structure of the Lüneburg regional church and which remained valid until the 17th century. At the head of the regional church stood the general superintendent, the so-called generalissimo . His duties included the ordination and visitation of pastors, and he was also the most important member of the consistory. This supreme spiritual authority was responsible for the administration of the church; it was also the supreme court authority for all matrimonial matters, processes between churches and between laypeople and clergy in the principality. In 1619 General Superintendent Johann Arndt issued a new church ordinance, which, revised again in 1643, remained in force until the principality was annexed to Hanover in 1705.
A Reformed community had existed in Celle since 1686 . In 1684, under the influence of his wife, the Huguenot Eleonore d'Olbreuse , Georg Wilhelm issued an edict that promised the Reformed religious refugees from France to be welcomed and supported in the Principality of Lüneburg. The Celler Hof became a large Huguenot colony, whose members, mostly from Poitou , quickly rose to management positions at the court.
As early as the 13th century, the Judenregal , the king's right to payment of protection money by Jews, had passed to the Dukes of Braunschweig-Lüneburg . Jewish settlements on the territory of the Principality of Lüneburg are attested in the 13th century in Lüneburg , at the end of the 1350s there were riots against the Jewish community there as a result of the plague epidemics. Further Jewish settlements are documented in Lüchow and Meinersen during this period . It was not until the 17th century that new Jewish settlements were found in the principality: in Harburg since 1610, in Celle since 1673, in Lüneburg since 1680 and in Dannenberg since 1685.
Agriculture was mainly characterized by the so-called heather farming , which relied on the use of the vast heather areas of the Lüneburg Heath . The heather served as pasture for cattle and as litter in the form of heather plagues , which were then spread onto the fields as fertilizer . Since there was predominantly light sandy soils in the principality , which would have produced hardly any income without fertilizer, this was the prerequisite for being able to operate agriculture at all. In return, this form of agriculture also contributed to the creation and maintenance of the large heather areas of the Lüneburg Heath. By using the heather as pasture for cattle and by felling the plague, it was ensured that the heather was not forested. The Heidschnucke was of central importance in animal husbandry , as it was very frugal and accepted the heather as fodder. The most important fruits in arable farming were rye as a permanent crop and buckwheat . In addition to animal husbandry and agriculture, heather beekeeping played an important role. This also relied on the heather plants as the basis of food for the bees, in return the bees ensured that the heather would multiply through pollination. Agriculture in the Elbe marshes differed from the heather farming industry , which produced higher yields due to the better soil.
In addition to agriculture, there was also a small amount of handicrafts in the rural areas . However, this was subject to strict regulations and politically only insofar as it was absolutely necessary. The mills for grain and oil production and the textile production as home trade also gained importance in the countryside .
The focus of the city's economy was on handicrafts and trade . Lüneburg and Uelzen were members of the Hanseatic League , and Celle's economic power was also heavily dependent on trade. Since 1459, Celle had a monopoly on grain shipping on the Aller and owed this to its economic boom in the 15th century. The loss of monopoly in 1618 was associated with severe economic losses. In the city of Lüneburg in particular, salt extraction played a major role, through which the municipality achieved great wealth and political influence in the late Middle Ages. In addition to the Lüneburg saltworks , there was another saltworks in Sülze on the territory of the principality . This was specifically promoted by the Lüneburg dukes in order to create a counterweight to Lüneburg, but only achieved low volumes due to the lower brine quality.
The coinage in the Principality of Lüneburg was characterized by a large number of currency units that were used at the same time. The coins were primarily Kurant coins , that is, their market value roughly corresponded to their material value. From the 17th century, divisional coins were also added, for example in the form of copper coins. Since the 14th century, the shillings , double shillings and witches of the Wendish Mint Association and the Brunswick pfennigs have dominated monetary transactions in the principality. In 1555 the Braunschweigische Münzgenossenschaft was founded, which the Celle dukes joined. According to the agreement of its members, only princely groschen should be minted . After the Augsburger Reichsmünzordnung of 1566 and the formation of the Lower Saxony Mint Circle , the Braunschweigische Münzgenossenschaft was dissolved again and the taler gained considerably in importance. This has been struck in northern Germany since the 1530s, including in Lüneburg from 1546.
Coins were minted in the principality both by the cities and by the dukes themselves. In 1293 Duke Otto the Strict sold his minting rights for the northern part of the principality to the city of Lüneburg , and in 1322 for the southern part to the city of Hanover . This led to a reorganization of the coinage and several small mints had to be closed. The Münzgericht was a corporative transferred Occupied body representing the mint master hire and coin standard should be determined. As early as the 15th century, the Guelphs minted their own coins again. Bernhard I had groschen worth six-lobes after 1409 , Frederick the Pious from 1445 Meißner groschen . The majority of the coins were struck in urban mints until modern times. In Harburg, the dukes had double shillings struck from 1616 and thalers and other coins in later years. From 1622 copper coins were minted in Celle and a mint was set up in Winsen . From 1673 ducats , thalers, groschen and Mariengroschen were minted in Celle under Duke Georg Wilhelm .
- Wilhelm Havemann : History of the Lands Braunschweig and Lüneburg. 3 vols., Reprint. Hirschheydt, Hannover 1974/75, ISBN 3-7777-0843-7 . (Original edition: Verlag der Dietrich'schen Buchhandlung, Göttingen 1853–1857)
- History of Lower Saxony. Founded by Hans Patze . (= Publications of the Historical Commission for Lower Saxony and Bremen. Vol. 36). Edited by Ernst Schubert. 7 vols. Hahn, Hanover 1977 ff.
- Anne Denecke (Ed.): The Lüneburg Heath and the Hannoversche Wendland. A small regional study for the former Principality of Lüneburg. Westermann, Uelzen 2010, ISBN 3-07-509704-7
For the development of the territory after 1409 see: Günther Franz : Verwaltungsgeschichte des Verwaltungsgeschichtees Lüneburg , Bremen 1955, pp. 5-11.
For the development of the territory see: Wolf-Nikolaus Schmidt-Salzen, Handbook of Lower Saxony State Parliament and Estates History , Volume 1: 1500–1806, ed. v. Brage bei der Wieden, Hannover 2004, p. 135, ISBN 3-7752-6016-1 .
For the consolidation of the ducal property and the territorial development see: Ernst Schubert (Hrsg.), In: Ernst Schubert (Hrsg.): Geschichte Niedersachsens. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; here: pp. 730–736.
- On the disputes about Heinrich the Lion and the loss of the ducal dignity, see: Bernd Schneidmüller : The Guelphs: Lordship and Memory (819–1252). Stuttgart 2000, ISBN 3-17-014999-7 , pp. 224-240.
- 1227 his uncle Heinrich died. He already exercised the government in 1218, he was introduced to power in 1223 in a solemn ceremony in Braunschweig. See: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3–904, here: p. 518.
For the division of land in 1267/1269 see: Gudrun Pischke: The divisions of the Welfs in the Middle Ages. Lax, Hildesheim 1987, ISBN 3-7848-3654-2 , pp. 35-44.
For the award of the ducal dignity see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; here pp. 504–507.
- On Johann's policy see: Karl Janicke: Johann, Herzog von Braunschweig . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 14, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1881, p. 177.
For the sale of the minting rights, see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; Here: P. 855.
For Otto's territorial policy see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; Here: pp. 730–736.
- On the reign of Otto II and his brother Wilhelm II see: Paul Zimmermann : Wilhelm, Herzog von Braunschweig-Lüneburg . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 42, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1897, pp. 730-733.
For the history of the War of Succession see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; Here: pp. 755–769.
For the hereditary brotherhood treaty of 1389 see: Gudrun Pischke: The divisions of the Guelphs in the Middle Ages . Lax, Hildesheim 1987, ISBN 3-7848-3654-2 , p. 92.
- For the history of the Lüneburg Sate see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; Pp. 771-777.
- For the history of the Sat War see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; Pp. 777-782.
For the division of the year 1388 see: Gudrun Pischke: Die Landesteilungen der Welfen in the Middle Ages . Lax, Hildesheim 1987, ISBN 3-7848-3654-2 , pp. 85-94.
For the division of the year 1409 see: Gudrun Pischke: The divisions of the Guelphs in the Middle Ages . Lax, Hildesheim 1987, ISBN 3-7848-3654-2 , pp. 95-111.
For the division of the year 1428 see: Gudrun Pischke: The division of the Welfs in the Middle Ages . Lax, Hildesheim 1987, ISBN 3-7848-3654-2 , pp. 112-133.
- Friedrich in a document dated March 11, 1457, quoted from Wilhelm Havemann : Geschichte Lande Braunschweig and Lüneburg , Göttingen, 1853, p. 708.
For the government of Otto IV. See: Wilhelm Havemann : Geschichte der Lande Braunschweig and Lüneburg , 3 vol., Reprint. Hirschheydt, Hannover 1974/75, ISBN 3-7777-0843-7 (original edition: Verlag der Dietrich'schen Buchhandlung, Göttingen 1853-1857), pp. 692-693.
For the government of Frederick the Pious and his sons Otto V and Bernhard II see: Wilhelm Havemann : Geschichte der Lande Braunschweig and Lüneburg , 3 vol., Reprint. Hirschheydt, Hannover 1974/75, ISBN 3-7777-0843-7 (original edition: Verlag der Dietrich'schen Buchhandlung, Göttingen 1853-1857), pp. 708-714.
For the government of Otto V and his brother Bernhard II see also: Christa Geckler: Die Celler Herzöge – Leben und Wirken 1371–1705 , Georg Ströher Celle 1986, ISBN 3-921744-05-8 , pp. 35–37.
On the government of Heinrich the Middle and specifically on the division of the property remaining in the house, see: Wilhelm Havemann : Geschichte der Lande Braunschweig and Lüneburg , 3 vols., Reprint. Hirschheydt, Hannover 1974/75, ISBN 3-7777-0843-7 (original edition: Verlag der Dietrich'schen Buchhandlung, Göttingen 1853-1857), pp. 711-714.
For the Hildesheim collegiate feud see: Manfred von Boetticher: History of Lower Saxony , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , p. 15– 351, here: pp. 35-39.
For the increased involvement of the estates in the administration see: Wolf-Nikolaus Schmidt-Salzen, Land estates in the Principality of Lüneburg between 1430 and 1546 , Bielefeld 2001, ISBN 3-89534-394-3 .
- See: Manfred von Boetticher: Geschichte Niedersachsens , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , pp. 15–351 , here: p. 69.
- For Ernst the Confessor's government see: Manfred von Boetticher: History of Lower Saxony , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , Pp. 69-72.
- On the government of Wilhelm the Younger see: Christa Geckler: Die Celler Herzöge – Leben und Wirken 1371–1705 , Georg Ströher Celle 1986, ISBN 3-921744-05-8 p. 59.
- Arnold Engelbrecht , the Chancellor of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel, played a key role in the conclusion of these contracts .
For the history of the Principality during the Thirty Years' War see: Manfred von Boetticher: Geschichte Niedersachsens , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901- 5 , pp. 15-351, here: pp. 121-136.
For the history of the Principality during the Thirty Years' War see: Anne Denecke: Die Lüneburger Heide und das Hannoversche Wendland , 2010, ISBN 3-07-509704-7 , pp. 50–51.
- For the history of the Huguenots, see: Andreas Flick: The Celler Hof is completely lost - Huguenots and French Catholics at the court and with the military, Duke Georg Wilhelm of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in: Huguenots Volume 72 No. 3/2008 (digital copy ) (PDF; 2.3 MB).
- See: Anne Denecke (ed.): The Lüneburger Heide and the Hannoversche Wendland. A small regional study for the former Principality of Lüneburg , 2010, ISBN 3-07-509704-7 .
- See the composition of the Reichsfürstenrat 1792: Composition of the Reichsfürstenrat 1792 .
- See the Hanoverian constitution of 1833: Basic Law of the Kingdom of Hanover (1833). (No longer available online.) Archived from the original on September 21, 2013 ; Retrieved September 8, 2013 .
- On the continuation of the Principality of Lüneburg as a regional unit within the Kingdom of Hanover, see: Ulrike Hindersmann, Dieter Brosius: The knights of the Lüneburg landscape. ISBN 978-3835316805 , pp. 11-12.
- See the acceptance of the Duke title: Rudolf Stillfried: The titles and coats of arms of the Prussian royal house, historically explained , Berlin 1875, Reprint 2011, ISBN 3-8430-7214-0 .
- For the history of the Harburg rule see: Manfred von Boetticher: Geschichte Niedersachsens , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , p 15-351, here: pp. 72-76.
- For the history of the Gifhorn rule see: Manfred von Boetticher: Geschichte Niedersachsens , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , p 15-351, here: pp. 72-76.
- For the history of the Dannenberg rule see: Manfred von Boetticher: Geschichte Niedersachsens , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , p 15-351, here: pp. 72-76.
- For the feudal situation after 1269 see: Gudrun Pischke: Die Landesteilungen der Welfen in the Middle Ages. Lax, Hildesheim 1987, ISBN 3-7848-3654-2 , pp. 206-210.
- For the history of the coat of arms of the Lüneburg princes see: Peter Veddeler: Das Niedersachsenross – history of the Lower Saxony state coat of arms. , 2002, ISBN 3-7716-2400-2 Coat of arms, lines and territories of the Welfen (2): The development of the Welfen coat of arms. Retrieved October 16, 2013 .
- For the development of the central administration see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; Pp. 656-663.
- For the history of the central administration, see: Günther Franz , Verwaltungsgeschichte des Verwaltungsgeschichtees Lüneburg , Bremen 1955, pp. 13-25.
- On the Gogerichte see: Götz Landwehr: Die althannoverschen Landgerichte, Hildesheim 1964, pp. 155–188.
- On the regional courts see: Götz Landwehr: Die althannoverschen Landgerichte, Hildesheim 1964
- For the development of the constitution of offices see: Martin Krieg: The origin and development of the administrative districts in the former Principality of Lüneburg , Göttingen 1922, ISBN 3-87898-089-2 , pp. 89-107.
- Sometimes in the literature the dishes in Brome and Fahrenheit are also referred to as closed dishes. See: Martin Krieg: The emergence and development of the administrative districts in the former Principality of Lüneburg , Göttingen 1922 ISBN 3-87898-089-2 , p. 108
- War mentions that a sovereign bailiff in Uelzen had jurisdiction over lower jurisdiction, but does not explain this in more detail. See: Martin Krieg: The emergence and development of the administrative districts in the former Principality of Lüneburg , Göttingen 1922 ISBN 3-87898-089-2 , p. 112
- On the closed aristocratic courts and on the municipal administration see Martin Krieg: The origin and development of the administrative districts in the former Principality of Lüneburg , Göttingen 1922 ISBN 3-87898-089-2 , pp. 108-113.
- On Bauernköhr see: Götz Landwehr: Die althannoverschen Landgerichte, Hildesheim 1964, p. 132
- For the procedure of the Gogerichte see: Götz Landwehr: Die althannoverschen Landgerichte, Hildesheim 1964, pp. 155–188.
On the case law by the Gogerichte see: Ernst Schubert (Hrsg.), In: Ernst Schubert (Hrsg.): Geschichte Niedersachsens. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; here: pp. 593–603.
For the development of the judiciary see: Martin Krieg: The emergence and development of the administrative districts in the former Principality of Lüneburg , Göttingen 1922, ISBN 3-87898-089-2 , pp. 89-107.
- On the courts of appeal, see: Günther Franz : Verwaltungsgeschichte des Verwaltungsgeschichtees Lüneburg , pp. 13-25
- On the forest courts see: Alexandra Brück: Die Polizeiordnung Herzog Christian von Braunschweig-Lüneburg of October 6, 1618 , ISBN 978-3-631-51422-1 , pp. 178–191.
- The numbers refer to the topographical collections of Scharf, see: Martin Krieg: The emergence and development of the administrative districts in the former Principality of Lüneburg , Göttingen 1922 ISBN 3-87898-089-2 , p. 110. In the literature are partly also called other numbers, depending on which criteria the respective author applies. Brosius, who refers to the Statistical Repertory of the Kingdom of Hanover by W. Ubbelohde from 1823, names eight closed and 23 unclosed courts, i.e. a significantly higher number. See Ulrike Hindersmann, Dieter Brosius: The manors of the Lüneburg landscape. ISBN 978-3835316805 , p. 44
- On the patrimonial courts see: Martin Krieg: The emergence and development of the administrative districts in the former Principality of Lüneburg , Göttingen 1922 ISBN 3-87898-089-2 , pp. 108-113.
- On the consistory see: Günther Franz : Verwaltungsgeschichte des Verwaltungsgeschichtees Lüneburg , pp. 13-25.
- For the history of the landscape see: Günther Franz , Verwaltungsgeschichte des Verwaltungsgeschichte des Lüneburg , Bremen 1955, pp. 99–107.
- For the history of the military system up to 1648 see: Louis von Sichart, History of the royal Hanoverian army , Volume 1; Hanover 1866, pp. 1–23.
For the history of the military from 1648 to 1665 see: Louis von Sichart, History of the royal-Hanoverian army , Volume 1, Hanover 1866, pp. 119-122.
For the history of the military from 1665 to 1679 see: Louis von Sichart, History of the Royal Hanoverian Army , Volume 1, Hanover 1866, pp. 143–152.
For the history of the military from 1679 to 1705 see: Louis von Sichart, History of the Royal Hanoverian Army , Volume 1, Hanover 1866, pp. 257-272.
For the farm structure see: Anne Denecke: Die Lüneburger Heide and the Hannoversche Wendland , 2010, ISBN 3-07-509704-7 , p. 61 Heinrich Pröve: Village and estate in the old Duchy of Lüneburg. , Göttingen, 1929, pp. 9-45 and pp. 75-94.
For Meierrecht see: Dietrich Saalfeld: Rural economic and social history from the beginning of the 16th to the middle of the 17th century. in: History of Lower Saxony , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the Beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , pp. 637–654.
- For the duty and service obligations see: Dietrich Saalfeld: Ländliche Wirtschafts- und Sozialgeschichte from the beginning of the 16th to the middle of the 17th century. in: History of Lower Saxony , Volume 3, Part 1, Politics, Economy and Society from the Reformation to the Beginning of the 19th Century , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , pp. 637–654. and Wilhelm Westermann: The Agrarian Reforms in the Principality of Lüneburg: Origins and Fundamentals - Implementation and Effects, illustrated using the example of the Barum parish, Uelzen district , ISBN 978-3867078375
- For the manors see: Ulrike Hindersmann, Dieter Brosius: The manors of the Lüneburg landscape. ISBN 978-3835316805 , pp. 11-24. and Heinrich Pröve: Village and estate in the old Duchy of Lüneburg. , Göttingen, 1929, pp. 46-67.
- On the population history between 1550 and 1650 see: Ulf Wendler: Not only plague and smallpox: On the population history of the Lüneburg Heath, the Wendland and the marshes of the Principality of Lüneburg 1550-1850 , 2008, ISBN 3-7752-5929-5 , p. 34 -48.
- On the population history after 1650 see: Ulf Wendler: Not only plague and smallpox: On the population history of the Lüneburg Heath, the Wendland and the marshes of the Principality of Lüneburg 1550-1850 , 2008, ISBN 3-7752-5929-5 , pp. 73-80 .
- For the monasteries in the principality see: Dieter Brosius: Die Lüneburgischen monasteries in the Reformation in Reformation 450 years ago. A memorial from Lüneburg. , Pp. 95-113.
- For the introduction of the Reformation in the Principality see: Dieter Brosius: Reformation im Fürstentum Lüneburg. 450 years of the Augsburg Confession. , Pp. 6-17.
- For the abolition of monasteries in the principality see: Dieter Brosius: Die Lüneburgischen monasteries in the Reformation in Reformation 450 years ago. A memorial from Lüneburg. , Pp. 95-113.
On the consistory see: Günther Franz : Verwaltungsgeschichte des Verwaltungsgeschichtees Lüneburg , pp. 13-25.
For the history of the Lüneburg church after the introduction of the Reformation see: Hans Walter Krumwiede : Church history of Lower Saxony. First and Second Part Volume. , ISBN 3-525-55434-6 .
- For the history of the Huguenots, see: Andreas Flick: The Celler Hof is completely lost - Huguenots and French Catholics at the court and with the military, Duke Georg Wilhelms of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in: Huguenots Volume 72 No. 3/2008 (digital copy ) (PDF; 2.3 MB).
- For the history of the Jews in Lower Saxony and the Jewish policy of the dukes see: Albert Marx: History of the Jews in Lower Saxony. , Hannover, 2001, ISBN 3-7716-1577-1 ; Anne Denecke: The Lüneburg Heath and the Hannoversche Wendland , 2010, ISBN 3-07-509704-7 , p. 117.
- For information on heather farming see: Horst Brockhoff, Gisela Wiese, Rolf Wiese (eds.): Yes, the heather is green. Aspects of a special landscape (writings of the Freilichtmuseum am Kiekeberg, vol. 33). Ehestorf 1998, ISBN 3-927521-34-5 , pp. 57-72.
- For information on rural handicrafts and trades, see: History of Lower Saxony , Volume 3, Part 2, The Economy in the Early Modern Age , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , pp. 450–454.
- For the history of coinage see: Konrad Schneider: Münz- und Geldwesen in Geschichte Niedersachsens , Volume 3, Part 2, The Economy in the Early Modern Age , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , p. 575.
On the reorganization of the coinage system in 1293 see: Ernst Schubert : History of Lower Saxony from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. In: Ernst Schubert (Ed.): History of Lower Saxony. Volume 2. Part 1. Politics, constitution, economy from the 9th to the end of the 15th century. Hannover 1997, ISBN 3-7752-5900-7 , pp. 3-904; here: p. 855.
For the history of coinage see: Konrad Schneider: Münz- und Geldwesen in Geschichte Niedersachsens , Volume 3, Part 2, The economy in the early modern times , Hanover 1998, ISBN 3-7752-5901-5 , p. 575.