|coat of arms||Germany map|
|Height :||208 m above sea level NHN|
|Area :||108.24 km 2|
|Residents:||41,726 (Dec. 31, 2019)|
|Population density :||385 inhabitants per km 2|
|Postal code :||99734|
|Primaries :||03631, 034653 (Rodishain, Stempeda)|
|License plate :||NDH|
|Community key :||16 0 62 041|
|LOCODE :||DE NDH|
|City structure:||18 districts|
City administration address :
|Lord Mayor :||Kai Buchmann (independent)|
|Location of the district town of Nordhausen
in the district of the same name
Nordhausen ( [ ˈnɔʁtˌhaʊ̯zn̩ ] ; also Nordhausen am Harz; in northern Thuringian dialect Nordhusen ) is a town in the district of Nordhausen ( Thuringia ) and a former imperial city . As a university location and as a cultural and industrial center in Northern Thuringia, the district town has the status of a medium-sized center with partial functions of a regional center . The seventh largest city in Thuringia by population is located on the southern edge of the Harz Mountains in the northwest of the Golden Aue . The Zorge flows through the urban area .
Nordhusa , first mentioned in 876, was named in 929 as Nordhuse in a deed of donation from Henry I to his wife Queen Mathilde , who set up a women's monastery here in 961. From 1220, Nordhausen was one of two free imperial cities in Thuringia, alongside Mühlhausen , until it fell to Prussia in 1802 as a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss . The Roland Nordhausen symbol of the city symbolized freedom of the empire . In the 15th century the city was a member of the Hanseatic League . From 1937 to 1945 the V2 weapon was produced underground in the Mittelwerk Dora armaments center and from 1943 in the Mittelbau concentration camp . At the beginning of April 1945, three-quarters of the city, which is dominated by half-timbered houses, was destroyed by two air raids by the Royal Air Force ; over 8,800 people died and tens of thousands were left homeless.
The Nordhausen townscape is characterized by many hills, green spaces, loose urban development with post-war buildings, various monuments and churches. The most important building is the Romanesque-Gothic Cathedral of the Holy Cross . Parts of the city were modernized on the occasion of the State Garden Show 2004 . The city is known nationwide for its spirits production, especially the Nordhäuser Doppelkorn . The Nordhausen train station connects the Harzquerbahn at the beginning of the south-north axis of the Harz narrow-gauge railways with the west-east axis of the Kassel-Halle railway line and on site with the Nordhausen tram .
Nordhausen is a medium-sized town and is nestled between the foothills of the Harz Mountains in the north, the fertile Golden Aue in the southeast and Rüdigsdorf Switzerland in the northeast. To the north is the South Harz Nature Park . The area around Nordhausen belongs to the layered landscape , which, as the southern foreland of the Harz Mountains, occupies the space between the mountain edge and the Hainleite . In addition to wide and flat, sometimes basin-like widened valley lowlands, this foreland has a number of low elevation ranges. Diluvial gravel over Upper Buntsandstein forms the building site.
The Zorge - a tributary of the Helme - and the Salza , which rises from the largest spring in Thuringia, the Salzaspring , flow through the city . Southeast of Nordhausen are six lakes caused by gravel mining emerged in the 1960s and are commonly grouped with "gravel pit" or "Bielener gravel lakes": Auesee, Bielener lake , trout, Möwensee , Sundhäuser lake and Tauchersee.
After Erfurt , Jena , Gera , Weimar , Gotha and Eisenach, Nordhausen is the seventh largest city in Thuringia in terms of inhabitants , almost on a par with Eisenach. The closest major cities are Göttingen (around 60 km west), Erfurt (around 61 km south), Halle (Saale) (around 81 km east), Braunschweig (around 87 km north) and Magdeburg (around 91 km northeast).
The original urban area (today's old town) lies on a hill sloping to the west and south. The altitude of the city varies between 180 and 250 m above sea level. M. Hence the characteristic names Upper and Lower Town.
The area of the city is 105.62 km² (2019), which is 14.8 percent of the area of the district. The north-south extension is 12.8 km and the east-west extension 19.0 km. The lowest point of the urban area is 165 m above sea level and the highest 360 m.
Originally, Nordhausen had little land around the city. In 1315 the Hohnstein area around the city was purchased. In 1365 the new town area was incorporated and efforts continued to acquire land in the west and south beyond the Zorge to Helme and Salza (1368, 1370, 1559, 1578). In 1950 the villages of Krimderode and Salza were incorporated, and from the 1990s onwards, a total of twelve more incorporations followed, increasing the urban area from 79.14 km² (1994) to 105.62 km² (2019).
City and districts:
- Bielen , about 1,370 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1994
- Buchholz , about 210 inhabitants, incorporated on July 6, 2018
- Herreden , about 850 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1994
- Hesserode , about 660 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1997
- Hochstedt , about 80 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1950
- Hörningen , about 350 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1994 (incorporated into Herreden on July 1, 1950, outsourced from Herreden on January 1, 1963)
- Krimderode (district), incorporated on July 1, 1950
- Leimbach with Himmelgarten , about 900 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1994
- Petersdorf , about 390 inhabitants, incorporated on December 1, 2007
- Rodishain , about 320 inhabitants, incorporated on December 1, 2007
- Rüdigsdorf , incorporated on March 23, 1993
- Salza (district with the Obersalza settlement ), incorporated on July 1, 1950
- Steigerthal , about 400 inhabitants, incorporated on April 1, 1999
- Stone bridges , about 240 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1994
- Stempeda , about 300 inhabitants, incorporated on December 1, 2007
- Sundhausen , about 1,200 inhabitants, incorporated on July 1, 1994
Nordhausen is located in the northern Thuringian hill country , which consists entirely of red sandstone . The basin-like hilly landscape is mainly used for agriculture. In the valleys there are deposits of loess and other unconsolidated rock and numerous sinkholes due to underground leaching .
The area around Nordhausen is included in the so-called Börde climate, which is characterized by a July mean of over 17 ° C, a mild winter (January not below −1 ° C) and just sufficient rainfall of 500–650 mm. Beech forest, oak and hornbeam form its characteristic. To the west and north is the somewhat rougher Central German mountain and hill country climate, while the Upper Harz and the Brocken have a special position due to its low mountain range with short vegetation periods, abundant rainfall and relatively low temperatures. The Harz plays a protective role for Nordhausen; The Harz fuselage is so high and wide that it effectively blocks the cold air masses pushing up from the north and northeast. Nordhausen is much more open to the westerly winds. In the spring and autumn months a strong ground fog development can occur. The city chronicle reports several years in which the mills could not grind due to the lack of summer rainfall.
From 1900 to 1950 the average temperature was 8.1 ° C, from 1956 to 2005 8.6 ° C. In August 1998 a temperature maximum of 38.6 ° C was measured, in January 1987 a temperature minimum of −27.2 ° C.
The historian Friedrich Christian Lesser recorded 22 severe storms from 1615 to 1781. Three severe storms (1925, 1946, 1980) were counted in the 20th century. At the turn of the year 1925/26 and in January 1946 floods caused great damage; the summer and winter floods are due to the specific runoff conditions in the Harz region.
A hurricane with wind force 12 and heavy rain damaged numerous houses and uprooted trees on July 15, 1980. In the city park 60 percent and in the enclosure a third of the trees were destroyed. The valuable tree population in Hohenrode Park was also significantly decimated. The hurricane raged particularly devastatingly in the adjacent forest areas, where it caused 240,000 cubic meters of broken wood; about 70 percent of the trees hit were beeches, the rest spruce. Many slopes became bare areas.
Average monthly temperatures and precipitation for Nordhausen
Source: Josef Tauchmann: The climate of the southern Harz foreland . Nordhausen, Köhler, 2006, p. 119, p. 130 (1956-2005); weather.msn.com
name of the city
Early documented name forms are Nordhusa (876), Nordhuse (929), Northusun (965, 1075, 1105), Northuson (993, 1042, 1105), Nordhusen (from the 12th century) and Northusia (1200, Latinized). Between the 12th and 15th centuries, the Northusen spelling predominated in chronicles and statutes , from 1480 the sounding Northausen and later Nordhausen with early New High German diphthongization is attested. According to Germanistic name research, there is a formation from “ Nord ” and “ -hausen ” (originally a dative plural, ie “at the houses”); the meaning of the place name is therefore "in the northward settlement". The name-related counterpart is the town of Sundhausen , which was founded around the same time in the immediate vicinity of Nordhausen and whose name means "at the settlement located southwards" ( sunt is Middle High German for south ). The inhabitants of the city are correctly called "Nordhäuser" (in the dialect "Nordhisser"). Because of its centuries-old tradition of making brandy, Nordhausen also bears the local names “Branntwienpisser” and “Schnapshausen”. Another nickname is "Priemköppe" because of the former chewing tobacco production.
Prehistoric and early historical settlement
Early settlements in the region were known as early as the 19th century through "excavations", albeit with unsuitable means and with inadequate documentation, such as at the burial mound necropolis of Auleben (Solberg). In Windeshausen southeast of Nordhausen is one of the few grave sites in Thuringia found from the late Neolithic period, probably the Beaker culture . There was a three-quarter circle ditch about 12 m in diameter. About 300 m away there is a Late Bronze Age settlement, the grave there possibly represents the founding burial of this settlement. The warrior grave with numerous additions shows influences from the Middle Lüneburg Bronze Age and can be assigned to the early (West Central German) Late Bronze Age. Other end-Neolithic and Bronze Age graves are known in the area, which prove that the custom of digging graves in the eastern part of circular trenches was widespread in the late Middle and early Late Bronze Ages. The Early Bronze Age site of Nohra has been known for a long time .
The Nordhausen area was subject to both Celtic and Germanic influences, with the archaeologically recognizable elements being mixed and locally transformed. Accordingly, it is a mixed zone with numerous (Celtic) Latène culture elements , such as turntable ceramics or glass arm rings. At the same time, numerous elements of the Polish Przeworsk culture were found in the Nordhausen district that do not occur further south, plus a total of seven settlements of this culture in the Nordhausen area. These may go back to immigrants from Silesia who came to the southern Harz as specialists. A hierarchization can be demonstrated in the settlements, namely into the three types of hilltop castle , which are perceived as central locations , i.e. as economic, social and cultic focal points, then larger settlements, which functioned as exchange locations and specialized production, and finally smaller, open ones Settlements. After the 1st century this settlement structure disappeared, probably due to migration processes.
The area around Nordhausen belonged to the short-lived Thuringian Empire in the late 5th century and became Franconian through conquest around 531 . Between 650 and 700 Sorbian groups settle in the Bielen district. Slavic places are also proven. According to the former Nordhausen city archivist and museum director Robert Hermann Walther Müller, the settlement of the West Slavic groups, then known as Surbi , began in 640 as a result of a peace and friendship treaty between the Slav King Samo and the Thuringian Duke Radulf . First, the areas west of the Saale were settled by Sorbian colonists. Müller relies in particular on the research by Christoph Albrecht on The Slavs in Thuringia . A current analysis of the Hersfeld tithe directory by Christian Zschieschang shows a significant Sorbian settlement in Friesenfeld and Hassegau . A comparable current study on the Sorbian settlement west of Kieselhausen and Sangerhausen is currently not available, although Robert Hermann Walther Müller warned it at the time.
According to Robert Hermann Walther Müller, Bielen is clearly of Slavic origin in addition to Windisehen spreads. In accordance with the state of research at the time, he sees the villages of Sittendorf , Rosperwenda , Windehausen and Steinbrücken as Slavic places , the latter having meanwhile also been incorporated into Nordhausen. In addition, there are the desert areas of Alt-Wenden, Nausitz, Lindeschu, Tütchewenden and Ascherwenden. He mentions Nenzelsrode and Petersdorf as other Slavic places , whereby Petersdorf is now part of the city of Nordhausen. In Berga already turned Rudolf Virchow laid the remains of a fishing village in the 1872nd The villages of Görsbach , Sülzhayn , Branderode , Buchholz and Leimbach can be recognized by Wendish impact , whereby the last two have meanwhile also been incorporated into Nordhausen. In Branderode there is even evidence of a windy door in the church, as well as in Kleinfurra and Trebra . Field names of Sorbian origin can be found in Kraja , Thalwend , Worbis , "Wyndischen Luttera", between Petersdorf and Steigerthal and near Stempeda , the latter two now also belonging to Nordhausen. In the city of Nordhausen itself, he traces the Grimmei road and the Grimm mill (later the Kaisermühle) to Sorbian origins. Also in the Zorgedorf Krimderode , today also in Nordhausen, there was a Grimme brook, which has now dried up, with the same Sorbian name: 'on the sand; on the Kiese '(cf. Upper Sorbian křemjeń , "[river] pebbles"). Robert Hermann Walther Müller even traces the name for the Zorge and the Mühlgraben back to Sorbian. For him, the Nordhausen linden legend has its origins in the Sorbian colonization, as the linden tree is the symbolic tree of this people.
In the absence of written sources and few archaeological findings, the development of the place and city is not certain. It is believed that a Carolingian royal palace was built on the " Frauenberg " at the end of the 8th century . The old town later developed north of it. Nordhusa is already mentioned in a diploma from Ludwig the German dated May 18, 876 . Heinrich I built the first fortified complex between 908 and 912. According to the younger Vita Mathildis, the son of Heinrich I and Mathilde, Heinrich , was born here around 921 . On September 16, 929, Heinrichs I gave Nordhuse to his wife Mathilde in a deed of gift . On June 25, 934, Heinrich I issued a certificate during a stay in Nordhausen. Mathilde founded a women's monastery in 961, in which she institutionalized a number of other sacred institutions such as the canons 'convent in Quedlinburg , in addition to the castle built by Heinrich I, which was converted into an Augustinian canons' monastery in 1220. In the vicinity of these institutions, the castle complex and the monastery, craftsmen and traders subsequently settled around the Blasius Church. In the week after Whitsun 993 Otto III kept himself . in Nordhausen and issued two certificates there. When the Frauenstift was founded by Otto III in 1000. received a Romanesque splendor cross (which has been kept in Duderstadt since 1675), the Cathedral of the Holy Cross developed into the spiritual center of the monastery. The second version of Queen Mathilde's biography was probably written in the women's monastery in Nordhausen, whose first abbess Richburga was installed in the winter of 967 . Mathilde tried again and again to the place. After Mathilde's death in 968, their property fell under the control of the emperor again. In the marriage certificate of Empress Theophanu , Otto I and Otto II handed over Nordhausen in 972 as one of several assignments of the dowry to the wife Theophanu . A merchant settlement around the Nikolaikirche from the early 12th century developed into the actual city. This was extended by a Flemish cloth weaver settlement built on the other side of the city wall at the end of the 12th century to include the Petrikirche, in the 13th century by a new town that remained outside the wall around the Jakobikirche.
From 1144 to 1225, German kings stayed in Nordhausen several times. In 1158, Emperor Friedrich Barbarossa donated all imperial possessions in Nordhausen to the cathedral monastery , which gained considerable influence as a result. In 1180 the city was destroyed by the troops of Henry the Lion because of a rift between Henry and the Emperor. During the subsequent reconstruction, the city fortifications were reinforced around 1206 in order to be able to stand up to the counts and knights of the surrounding area. They felt that their rights were restricted by the city and feuded them several times. On July 22nd, 1212, Emperor Otto IV , son of Henry the Lion, married Beatrix of Swabia from the Staufer family in Nordhausen , which brought about a reconciliation between the two rulers. As early as 1234, a major fire destroyed large parts of the city.
On July 27, 1220 Nordhausen was the king and later Emperor Frederick II. To free imperial city raised what it to the media coverage was the 1,802th The city received its first seal in 1225, a council was formed for the first time around 1260 and the first town hall was built at the current location around 1280. At the end of the 13th century, the council prevailed against the Vogt and Schultheiss, who had already been occupied around 1220: in 1277 there was a revolt of the craftsmen and petty bourgeoisie against the imperial knights . The Reichsvogt was expelled and the Reichsburg destroyed. In 1290 the Roman-German King Rudolf von Habsburg confirmed the imperial freedom of Nordhausen and placed the city under his protection in order to be reconciled with the citizens. Due to its favorable economic and geographical location, Nordhausen probably enjoyed considerable prosperity in the 13th century.
In the 13th and 14th centuries, the Counts of Schwarzburg , von Stolberg , von Hohnstein and the knights of Klettenberg Castle attacked Nordhausen several times. When knights of the Counts of Hohnstein zu Sondershausen, the Counts of Stolberg and Klettenberg Castle tried - ultimately unsuccessfully - to penetrate the city through the Barfüßertor and the Altentor in 1329, the mayor of Nordhausen, Helwig von Harzungen and three citizens, fell Defending goals. In another uprising on February 14, 1375, the council was overthrown and its members banished. The city received a new constitution and the artisans took power. During this time, some orders settled in Nordhausen, for example Augustinians , Dominicans and Franciscans . The neighboring monasteries in Walkenried and Ilfeld also founded monastery courtyards in the city. As early as the 14th century, the imperial city of Nordhausen required its citizens' sons who wanted to join one of these orders to renounce their inheritance in writing in order to prevent the church's tax-free property (“ dead hand ”) from increasing.
The highest warlord of the free imperial city of Nordhausen was originally the imperial bailiff, later the council, who appointed two warlords (so-called arrow masters) from his ranks. The city army consisted of the well-fortified citizenry (statutes 1350) and recruited mercenaries (city unification 1308). Once upon a time the arrow masters were also city governors. From 1350 chivalric captains were taken into city service. The citizenship was divided into rotten based on the parish and parish division (arrow master list 1443-1545). There were 21 squads, each with two squad masters, the strength of the squads fluctuating (1491–1499) from 17 to 48 men. In 1499 there were 577 citizens capable of arms. Since the beginning of the 17th century there were city soldiers under one captain, who in 1794 numbered around 70 men. The vigilante group consists of two companies.
Proof that Nordhausen was active as part of the Hanseatic League dates back to 1430 . In 1500 Nordhausen became part of the Lower Saxony Empire . At the end of the Middle Ages, Electoral Saxony was the protective power over the city. Probably after 1277 a wall was built that covered an area of 35 hectares. This walling was renewed between 1350 and 1450. In 1365 the settlements were also legally united. Around 1500 the city had about 5000 inhabitants.
Early modern age
In 1507 the production of brandy in the city was first mentioned in a document. At peak times there were 100 distilleries in town. Chewing tobacco was also produced in Nordhausen. Vitriol oil was also produced in the 16th century ; after the first production site in Nordhausen, the product was called "Nordhäuser Vitriol".
The Reformation prevailed in Nordhausen in 1523/24 . The driving force here was the mayor Michael Meyenburg . That year Thomas Müntzer was in the city. Nordhausen was the first city to officially join the Reformation by council resolution in 1524, after a follower of Martin Luther had already given one of the first Protestant sermons in Germany in 1522 in the St. Petri Church . In the following period, all parish and monastery churches in the city became Lutheran and the church property was secularized , with the only exception of the Holy Cross Monastery , which continued as a Catholic body until 1810.
Although two city fires (1540 and 1612), the plague epidemics and the Thirty Years War hampered the development of the city, it continued to grow. The plague raged in Nordhausen repeatedly in the years 1393, 1398, 1438, 1463, 1500, 1550, 1565 and 1682. In 1550 a first register of the dead was drawn up, which lists over 2,500 victims. In 1626 there were over 3,000 deaths and in 1682 3,509 victims are recorded.
Nordhausen was persecuted by witches from 1559 to 1644 . 27 people were involved in witch trials , eight were executed, five sentenced to expulsion from the country and four died in torture or in prison.
There were further city fires in 1710 - the burnt down rectory was replaced by today's orphanage by 1717 - and in 1712, so that little of the medieval structure remained. Of the twelve churches in the Middle Ages, only the cathedral, the Blasiikirche, the Frauenbergkirche and the Altendorf church remained. During the Thirty Years' War the city was temporarily occupied by the Swedes, high contributions were extorted and all of the city's cannons and some of the church bells were stolen. As a result, the city secretly supported the Harzschützen with money, room and board.
Brandenburg occupied the city from 1703 to 1714 .
From the 19th century to the Weimar Republic
As a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss 1802, Prussia also received Thuringian areas as compensation for territories on the left bank of the Rhine that were lost to France. The city of Nordhausen was occupied by Prussian troops on August 2, 1802 and incorporated into the Kingdom of Prussia , which lost its imperial freedom. On February 7, 1803, the city lost the right to mint . From 1807 to 1813 Nordhausen belonged to the Kingdom of Westphalia , which Napoleon had built for his brother Jérôme Bonaparte , and then again to Prussia, which was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 . Nordhausen remained a Prussian city until 1945.
In the third book (second chapter) of his novel The Hunchback of Notre-Dame from 1831, Victor Hugo Nordhausen praises Nuremberg , Vitré in France and Vitoria in Spain as a model Gothic city that, in contrast to Paris in the early 19th century, was able to retain its originality . Because of its GA Hanewacker chewing tobacco factory (founded in 1817), Nordhausen was the center of chewing tobacco production in Germany.
Nordhausen was briefly a garrison town under Prussian rule: 1832–1848 IV. Jägerabteilung, 1868–1870 II. Battalion 67th Infantry Regiment.
In the period up to 1866, a smuggling activity that was hitherto unknown in Thuringia flourished in Nordhausen . Above all, coffee, tea and tobacco were smuggled because these luxury foods were taxed much less in the neighboring Kingdom of Hanover than in Prussia. Even the strictest threats of punishment could not change the situation. The border ran along today's street at the enclosure. At times smoking of tobacco and the consumption of brandy in public were banned.
In the middle of the 19th century, industrialization began in Nordhausen and initially extended to chewing tobacco, grain brandy (Nordhäuser), wallpaper manufacture, weaving, ice machines and coffee substitutes. The economic basis broadened around 1900 mainly in the machine, engine and shaft construction industry.
In 1866 Nordhausen was connected to the railroad from Halle (Saale) , the continuation to Heiligenstadt and Kassel was opened a year later. Rail routes to Northeim and Erfurt followed in the next few years . The tram has been in Nordhausen since August 25, 1900 . The commissioning of a modern water pipeline (1874), a hospital (1888), the Harzquerbahn (1897/99) and the construction of the Nordhäuser Dam mark further municipal progress up to the First World War.
From 1815 to 1945 Nordhausen belonged to the Prussian province of Saxony , in which it had been a separate urban district in the administrative district of Erfurt since 1882. The district office of the Grafschaft Hohenstein district was also located here .
At the beginning of the World War 3,000 conscripts were drafted, in 1916 the number rose to over 5,000 and in May 1918 to around 6,500. The war memorial erected in 1925 commemorates 1,048 fallen north houses. Although economic development was interrupted by the war, it continued to develop positively, a. expressed in lively construction activity; the new city theater and the stadium with outdoor pool were built.
From May 27 to 29, 1927, the city celebrated its millennium, on the occasion of which special postmarks, postage stamps, festival postcards and medals as well as a two-volume and richly illustrated history of the city were issued. The Reich Ministry of Finance also approved the issuance of a 3-mark commemorative coin with a circulation of 100,000 pieces.
National Socialism and World War II
In 1933 the NSDAP took control of the city. In the Reichstag election on March 5, 1933 , she received 46.7 percent of the vote in Nordhausen. By the summer of 1933, at least 20 members of the KPD and SPD were taken into protective custody, but several were released after a brief detention. Some of the arrested were interned in the Siechenhof , others in the court prison, the majority, however, in the police prison in Erfurt and from there to concentration camps. In March 1933 , the NSDAP and DNVP held almost 60 percent of the seats in the city council . It was followed by the DC circuit of the city administration. Mayor Curt Baller , who is considered to be left-wing liberal, tried in vain to stay in office. On July 1, 1933, the lawyer Heinz Sting was appointed Lord Mayor by the district government. In September 1933 the social democrat and editor of the “People's newspaper” Johannes Kleinspehn was arrested and sentenced to three years in prison.
After the death of District Administrator Gerhard Stumme , a violent power struggle broke out in the spring of 1934 between Sting and the NSDAP district leader Heinrich Keizer, which also caused a sensation in the staff of the Führer’s deputy . On October 19, 1934, Heinz Sting was given leave of absence as Lord Mayor, and Keizer was transferred to Saalfeld-Rudolstadt in 1935.
After the introduction of compulsory military service, the Boelcke barracks with accommodation buildings and vehicle hangars were built for the air force in the south-east of Nordhausen in 1935/36 . The air base served primarily as a training and test site, and an aircraft yard was also in operation here at times.
During the November pogroms in 1938 , apartments and shops were destroyed and the synagogue on the horse market was set on fire. The 400 or so Jews from Nordhausen emigrated or were later deported . On April 14, 1942, the evacuation of the Jews who remained in Nordhausen began.
From December 1939 to June 1940 around 9,000 Saarlanders were housed in private households and collective accommodation in Nordhausen. The first Polish prisoners of war arrived in autumn 1939. Around 450 prisoners of war were registered in early 1942 and 700 in March 1945.
From 1937 to 1945 there was the Mittelwerk Dora armaments center near Nordhausen and from August 1943 the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp with 60,000 prisoners (20,000 of whom were killed by 1945), in which, after the attack on Peenemünde, the production of so-called retribution weapons , above all, was located the new A4 (rocket) , but also the older Fieseler Fi 103 , took place. In addition, 10,000 German prisoners and foreign forced laborers who were housed in 38 camps were forced to work in various companies. The largest forced labor camp with max. 6,000 inmates, some of whom had to work for the Junkers aircraft and engine works, were in the Boelcke barracks. From the end of January 1945 this became a “sick and death camp of the Mittelbau complex” and was located in the south-east of Nordhausen. It was badly hit in the British bombing raids on April 3rd and 4th. The US Army forced the residents of Nordhausen to rescue, transport and bury the dead. The 1,300 victims were buried in the cemetery of honor on Stresemann-Ring. A memorial erected in 1999 commemorates them. Next to it is a cemetery of honor for 215 Soviet victims, which was laid out in 1946.
On the night of August 25 to August 26, 1940, Nordhausen was first targeted by an air raid when two bombers attacked the airfield. Smaller attacks were flown on April 12, 1944 and July 4, 1944. On February 22, 1945, at around 12:30 p.m. US bombers attacked the marshalling yard, but hit the lower town, some facilities in the industrial area and the former Luftwaffe telecommunications school in the Boelcke barracks. A total of 296 multi-purpose bombs were dropped, killing 40 people. On February 26, the Südharzer Kurier published an obituary notice for the “fallen soldiers of the terrorist attack” with the announcement that the city would be buried with a memorial service.
On July 1, 1944, the Reich Governor in Thuringia was entrusted with the exercise of the duties and powers of the High President in the state administration of the Erfurt administrative district . On October 29, 1944, the age groups 1884–1928 were recorded for the Volkssturm and divided into 29 battalions. The first 200 Volkssturm men were called to the front on February 21, 1945.
At the beginning of March 1945, 42,207 residents were registered in Nordhausen. In addition there were 23,467 “non-residents” (659 prisoners of war, 503 wounded soldiers in 5 hospitals, 420 members of the navy , 6082 foreign workers in mass quarters).
A week before the US armed forces marched in, the city was 74% destroyed by two British air strikes on Nordhausen on April 3 and 4, 1945 , killing around 8,800 people and leaving over 20,000 homeless. The bombing was ordered by the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force on April 2, 1945 . They called for an attack in support of the 1st US Army with priority at the earliest opportunity. The purpose of the RAF attacks in April 1945 was to clear the way for an unhindered advance from the resistance expected in the southern Harz region. The first major attack on April 3 at 4 p.m. was carried out by 247 Lancaster bombers and 8 mosquitos of the 1st and 8th Bomb Groups , which dropped 1,170 tons of high explosive bombs in 20 minutes, especially on the south-eastern quadrant of the city. Around 1,200 prisoners also died. The second major attack on April 4 at 9 a.m. with 243 Lancaster bombers of No. 5 bomber group and 1,220 tons of bombs are considered to be the heaviest attack and aimed as area bombing , also with a firestorm triggered by phosphorus bombs on the inner city area. Mainly residential areas (10,000 apartments), the hospital and numerous cultural monuments of outstanding importance were destroyed. The city hospital, which had already been evacuated on the evening of April 3rd, moved to the tunnel complex in Kohnstein on April 8th . There were from 3./4. April also many thousands of northern houses fled. With the exception of the earlier Boelcke barracks, no targets that could be identified as military or important to the war effort were hit. The train station, the airfield, the railway tracks, the industrial plants and the Dora concentration camp, where the A4 (rocket) was also produced, remained undamaged. The St. Blasii Church, the Cathedral and the Frauenberg Church were badly damaged. The Frauenberg monastery, the Neustadt parish church of St. Jakobi, the market church of St. Nikolai, and the St. Petri church were destroyed (tower partially preserved). The remains of these buildings were demolished after the war. The city wall including the partly used towers and Wiechhäuser was badly hit, the town hall was destroyed except for the surrounding walls. Large numbers of the bourgeois half-timbered buildings from the Gothic, Renaissance, Baroque, Rococo and early Classicism styles that are characteristic of Nordhausen were destroyed. In the city center, numerous fires raged for days, bombs with time fuses exploded, and the urban area was under fire from low-flying aircraft. Initially only a few residents tried to bury the dead or to salvage their belongings.
The losses of the permanent population were 6,000 people, those of the non-permanent population 1,500, plus 1,300 prisoners from the Boelcke barracks, which together results in an estimated number of 8,800 victims. This relates only to the closer urban area of Nordhausen, without the losses in the later incorporated districts. There are also higher estimates of over 10,000 dead, for example by the Antifa Committee in June 1945. Of the 8,800 deaths, about 4,500 were women and children.
At the beginning of April 1945 the Volkssturm made preparations to defend the city. A majority of the officers and airmen set off in the direction of the “ Harz Fortress ” in the following days . Shortly after the police and party officials left the city, the Volkssturm, which had been decimated by the air raids, dissolved.
On the morning of April 11, 1945, the 104th US Infantry Division ( 1st US Army ) advancing via Werther occupied Nordhausen without a fight with tank support. Around 11 a.m., the soldiers encountered the survivors of the Dora-Mittelbau concentration camp in the badly destroyed Boelcke barracks . Around 1,200 prisoners died in the bombing of the city in the accommodation blocks. The concentration camp to the northwest was reached on the same day. Mittelwerk Dora itself had never been bombed and fell into the hands of the US troops undamaged with all secret weapons and documents. In the area around the Kohnstein and in the village of Crimderode , there were smaller firefights. Around 200 German soldiers and suspicious people in the urban area were captured and brought together in the Rothleimmühle assembly camp . The city was officially handed over in the afternoon. Military governor became Captain William A. McElroy.
On April 12, the military administration released Nordhausen for eight days to be looted by former prisoners and foreign forced laborers . Activities of the werewolf (Nazi organization) became known at the end of April and some weapons and ammunition stocks were confiscated. On May 8, 1945, the mayor appointed by the Americans, the social democratic labor leader Otto Flagmeyer, had to threaten all looters with the death penalty. On May 13th, a funeral service for the victims from the Boelcke barracks took place in the Ehrenfriedhof. All adult northern houses had to take part in it, after which they received personal documents and ration cards. Since the Nordhausen hospitals had all been destroyed, an auxiliary hospital was set up in Ilfeld from April 1945 . In Nordhausen, too, typhus ruled from spring 1945 , which exacerbated the desolate situation in the city.
Soviet occupation zone and GDR period
On June 16, 1945, the former Prussian administrative district of Erfurt and thus also Nordhausen was incorporated into the state of Thuringia . The Red Army replaced the US Army as the occupying power on July 2, 1945.
In July 1945 there were over 7,200 people in the city and district who had their residence in the three newly formed Western Allied occupation zones . They sought protection from the air raids in the region during the war. In December 1945 their number was 1,411. In the course of the expulsion , the number of refugees in June 1945 was 10,463, in December 1945 a total of 18,054. They came from Berlin and the Mark Brandenburg , from Pomerania , East and West Prussia , very many from the Sudetenland and the vast majority from Silesia ; they were initially housed in larger camps.
The war-torn inner city of Nordhausen was rebuilt in the 1950s and 1960s after clearing it from 1945. The historical settlement structure was completely disregarded. Instead, wide main roads such as Rautenstrasse and Töpferstrasse were created, in line with contemporary tastes. Only in the north-west of the old town in the vicinity of the cathedral was the old town structure preserved, which survived both the air raids and the GDR era. The Bismarck monument in the promenade and the military freedom monument on the Theaterplatz were demolished in 1945.
The Nordhausen Trial was conducted as a United States Army war crimes trial in 1947. After the dissolution of the states in the GDR, which was founded in 1949, the city belonged to the district of Erfurt from 1952 until Thuringia was reconstituted as a federal state in 1990 . There it was the district town of the Nordhausen district , which was converted into today's Nordhausen district in 1994 .
Nordhausen was a center of unrest in the Erfurt district on and around June 17, 1953 . As early as the first days of June 1953 there were strikes against the decreed increases in labor standards. On June 17th there was a powerful strike in the VEB IFA tractor factory . However, the workers were unable to go to demonstrations in the city because the plant had been surrounded by the People's Police and the People's Barracked Police . There was also a strike in the shaft construction and drilling operations . Soon the slogans of the strikers became political: Away with the government, free elections and lifting of the state of emergency imposed by the Soviet Army . The strike leader was the union official Otto Reckstat (1898-1983), who worked as an auxiliary fitter at Nordhäuser VEB ABUS-Maschinenbau. Strikes and riots continued on June 18, when people's police units occupied the factories under the protection of the Soviet Army.
On August 22, 1961, Nordhausen was the destination of the 5th stage (Jena - Nordhausen; 136 km) and the next day the start of the 1st half stage (Nordhausen - Kyffhäuser; individual time trial; 24 km) of the 6th stage (Nordhausen - Dessau; 164 km) the 12th GDR tour ; on August 14, 1962 destination of the 1st stage (Magdeburg - Nordhausen; 147 km) and on the following day start of the 2nd stage (Nordhausen - Bad Langensalza; 100 km) of the 13th GDR tour ; on September 5, 1974 finish of the 6th stage (Dessau - Nordhausen; 143 km) and on the following day start and finish of the 7th stage (“Across the Harz”; 134 km) of the 22nd GDR tour ; on August 20, 1976 destination of the 7th stage (Jena - Nordhausen; 165 km) and on the following day the start and finish of the 8th stage (“Across the Harz”; 119 km) of the 24th GDR tour .
On May 29, 1980, at a meeting of representatives of the LSK / LV command and the GDR border troops, it was decided to relocate Helicopter Squadron 16 from Salzwedel to the new location in Nordhausen due to the increased number of personnel and technology . In the following years, this air force air base, built in the mid-1930s, was expanded and provided with concreted helicopter parking areas, taxiways and a maintenance hangar. On October 14, 1986, the relay and staff relocated. At this time there were 15 Mi-2 and three Mi-8 in stock. On December 1, 1986, on the occasion of the 40th anniversary of the border troops of the GDR, the honorary name " Albert Kuntz " was given to the helicopter unit.
With 52,290 inhabitants (1989), the city was one of the most populous in the Erfurt district and was the second largest industrial center. Around 1989, around 25,000 people were employed in the factories that manufactured numerous products for the entire GDR. The most important ones included a. the IFA engine works , the VEB shaft sinking and the RFT Fernmeldewerk , were produced in which all the telephones for the GDR. The VEB Nordbrand was considered the "largest and most modern spirits producer in the GDR", while VEB Tabak was the "largest cigarette manufacturer in the republic"; until the end of the 1990s was u. a. produced the cigarette brand Cabinet .
On October 31, 1989, around 25,000 people met at August-Bebel-Platz for the first open demonstration against the GDR regime; on November 7, 1989, around 35,000 to 40,000 participants gathered. On December 4, 1989, members of the New Forum occupied the district office of the AfNS - the former district office of the MfS - in Dr.-Kurt-Fischer-Straße (today Ludolfinger Straße 13) and prevented further destruction of files. After Peter Heiter (SED) resigned as mayor in February 1990 , Olaf Dittmann ( NDPD ) held the office. On May 6, 1990, the doctor Manfred Schröter (CDU) became the first freely elected mayor.
Nordhausen in reunified Germany
Since October 14, 1990, Nordhausen has belonged to the state of Thuringia as a district town . The last Soviet soldiers left their garrison by the end of July 1991. Almost all of the city's large companies were unable to cope with the new market economy and there was an enormous loss of jobs, which also caused the city's population to shrink.
On July 1, 1994, Nordhausen received the status of a large district town in the course of some incorporations.
In 1997 the Nordhausen University of Applied Sciences was founded and since May 1, 2004, Nordhausen has officially been “ University City ”. After the connection to the federal autobahn 38 in 2002, there was an economic stabilization and realignment of the Nordhausen companies.
Large parts of the city center, such as the Petersberg, were renovated as part of the Nordhausen State Garden Show in 2004 . On December 1, 2007, Petersdorf , Rodishain and Stempeda were incorporated.
On September 23, 2008, the city received the title “ Place of Diversity ” awarded by the federal government . Nordhausen has been the 17th fair trade city since June 5, 2010 . In 2012 she was accepted into the " Hanse City Association ". Nordhausen was the first city to officially join the Reformation by a council resolution in 1524 and is a member of the Federation of Luther Cities . Since February 2015 she has been a member of the organization " Mayors for Peace ".
According to the census on May 9, 2011, Nordhausen had 42,473 inhabitants. The proportion of foreigners was determined to be 2.3 percent, 970 people had a migration background. On December 31, 2014, the unemployment rate was 11.7 percent.
- Data source from 1994: Thuringian State Office for Statistics
- Population of the municipalities, fulfilling municipalities and administrative communities by gender as of December 31, 2011 before and after the 2011 census in comparison in Thuringia at tls.thueringen.de, accessed on June 2, 2013
- Annual statistical report 2014
- March 1; 42,207 residents, 23,467 non-residents (659 prisoners of war, 503 wounded soldiers in 5 hospitals, 420 members of the navy, 6,082 foreign workers in mass quarters)
- December 1st; 25,681 "local" residents, 3,582 "resettlers who already have their permanent address in the municipality", 2,480 "resettlers without a permanent address"
- with incorporations (Salza, Krimderode)
- According to the 2011 census : population of the municipalities, fulfilling municipalities and administrative communities by gender as of December 31, 2011 before and after the 2011 census in comparison in Thuringia ( page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. at tls.thueringen.de, accessed on June 2, 2013
The following overview shows the individual age groups in Nordhausen. All data come from December 31 of each year (source: Thuringian State Office for Statistics).
|year||Total population||Age: under 6||Age: 6 to 15||Age: 15 to 65||Age: from 65|
In Nordhausen, the northern Thuringian dialect is spoken, which is one of the Thuringian-Upper Saxon dialects. The name of the city of Nordhausen in this dialect is Nordhusen . Until the beginning of the 14th century, the northern Thuringian-Harz language predominated in Nordhausen with a strong Lower Saxon influence.
With 80.3 percent (2011) the majority of the population of Nordhausen does not belong to any religious community. The Protestant parishes comprise around 15.1 percent of the city's population. In the years 1522 to 1525 the Protestant creed was accepted in Nordhausen. 4.6 percent of the city's population belong to the Catholic community at the Cathedral of the Holy Cross, a parish in the diocese of Erfurt . Other Christian congregations belong to the Seventh-day Adventists (Chapel of the Adventist Church , Hesseröder Strasse 4), the Evangelical Free Church Congregation ( Baptists , Christ Church, Grimmelallee 51) and the New Apostolic Church (Riemannstrasse 2).
The history of the Jews in Nordhausen begins in the 13th century. The Nordhausen Synagogue was built between 1843 and 1845. It was located at the horse market and was destroyed and burned out during the November pogroms in 1938 . The number of parishioners peaked in 1910 with 452 Jews. The Jewish State Community of Thuringia has today again a branch in Nordhausen with a meeting center in the Thomas Mann House.
Up until 1220 the city was headed by the Imperial Vogt ( Advocatus ), who convened the Vogtthing three times a year . Under him there was the mayor as administrator of internal affairs, the market court, etc., who were also assisted by so-called market scoops. The community of "Consules" grew out of these and the bailiff's thing advisors.
The Consules was constituted after 1220 and gained independence from Vogt and Schultheiss (mentioned in 1266). The Consules elected two "Magistri" (mentioned in 1290) from among their number. The members of the council created in this way came from the sexes; the old council elected a new one on January 6th. In this way a "seated" council and two "common" councils were created, which changed every three years. Since the beginning of the 14th century, four representatives of the former city districts and six master craftsmen have been called in, and since around 1320 a citizens' committee consisting of 24, then 42 men.
After 1375, the rule of the sexes was abolished by a violent fall and the council seats were occupied by the guilds (until 1802). The division of councils remained essentially the same (a “seated” council and two “common” councils). Four mayors were elected from the seated council, plus 14 “four men”, who formed a supervisory body over the entire council. After 1626 the number of councilors was restricted (annually only two mayors, 14 city councilors and from the same three quadrants).
Jurisdiction over life and limb was initially in the hands of the Reichsvogtes, who later appears as chairman. The jurisprudence took place according to the statutes (from 1219), from 1567 according to the Constitutio Criminalis Carolina . From 1546 onwards, jurisdiction was solely in the hands of the council. The bailiff only took part in the public pronouncement of the verdict.
The citizenry initially consisted of farmers and craftsmen who had moved here. An upper class emerged from the ministerials who had moved in and the merchants who had become wealthy, who provided the “consules” and, from 1290 onwards, gained increasing independence from the imperial bailiff and mayor. In the beginning of the 14th century, the petty bourgeoisie and craftsmen tried to gain status and seats in the council regiments and initially achieved little success until the violent overthrow of the family rule in 1375. Since then, only the guilds have ruled until the expiry of imperial freedom in 1802.
From 1802 to 1808 a royal Prussian city director was at the head, under him a mayor and the magistrate . Under the French rule of the Kingdom of Westphalia until 1813 there was a prefect with a mayor, magistrate and municipal council .
After 1814, the final integration into the Prussian administration took place with a mayor at the top and a city council as an elected body. During the time of National Socialism, this system was dissolved with the German municipal code of 1935 in line with the Führer principle . Important new buildings for the city administration were the city hall (1909) and the new town hall (1937).
After the end of the Second World War, the Soviet occupying power re-established the city council with a mayor. The council was determined by a unified list of the National Front in unfree elections.
After the GDR acceded to the Federal Republic of Germany in 1990, the body, initially known as the city council and now the city council, was freely elected again. The mayor has been elected directly by the citizens for six years since 1994. He is both the chairman of the city council and the chief superior of all city officials, employees and workers. The city also has one full-time and two honorary councilors, the former also being the deputy mayor.
The city's debt level has been falling since 2012 and was at 878 euros per capita. By 2015, the debt per capita fell to 699 euros. In 2017, the city received an amount of 9,701,682 euros through key assignments. The trade tax income amounted to 14,631,684 euros in 2015.
In the local elections on May 26, 2019 , there were 34,843 eligible voters in the city of Nordhausen.
The city council has 36 members; the Lord Mayor is an officially voting member.
The local elections from 2004 to 2019 had the following results:
|Share a||Seats||Share a||Seats||Share a||Seats||Share a||Seats|
|Christian Democratic Union of Germany||CDU||22.2%||8th||31.5%||11||25.9%||9||36.0%||14th|
|Social Democratic Party of Germany||SPD||17.4%||6th||29.2%||11||35.3%||13||28.7%||11|
|The Left #||LEFT||21.8%||8th||23.2%||8th||22.0%||2||25.4%||9|
|Free Democratic Party||FDP||7.2||3||5.2%||2||7.3%||3||5.0%||2|
|Alternative for Germany||AfD||21.0%||8th||-||-||-||-||-||-|
|Alliance 90 / The Greens||GREEN||9.1%||3||6.9%||3||6.3%||2||4.8%||0|
|National Democratic Party of Germany||NPD||1.3%||0||3.9%||1||3.1%||1||-||-|
The Lord Mayor has been directly elected for a regular term of six years since 1994.
Kai Buchmann , who is not party to the party, has been Lord Mayor of Nordhausen since October 2017 . He prevailed in the runoff election on September 24, 2017 with 66.2% of the valid votes cast compared to 33.8% for Inge Klaan (CDU). The turnout was 61.2% and was the highest since 1994. In addition to the mayoral election, the election for the 19th German Bundestag took place on that day . In the previous mayoral election on September 10, 2017, none of the five candidates achieved the required absolute majority: Inge Klaan (CDU, 35%), Kai Buchmann (independent, 29.1%), Jutta Krauth (SPD, 18.7%), Michael Mohr (left, 11.4%), Dirk Erfurt (independent, 5.7%). The turnout was 44.8%.
From July 2012 to May 2017, the long-standing Thuringian Minister Klaus Zeh (CDU) was Lord Mayor of the city of Nordhausen. In the runoff election on May 6, 2012, he prevailed with 51.1 percent against Matthias Jendricke (SPD). Previously, none of the candidates had achieved an absolute majority in the election on April 22, 2012: Klaus Zeh (39.35%), Matthias Jendricke (37.1%), Hannelore Hasse (left, 16.8%), Christian Darr ( Greens, 4.2%), Martin Höfer (FDP, 2.6%). The turnout was 44.1%. After Zeh resigned on May 18, 2017 for health reasons, the office was provisionally led by Mayor Jutta Krauth (SPD) until October 2017.
The list includes the city's mayors since 1899:
- 1899-1924: Carl Contag
- 1924–1933: Curt Baller
- 1933–1935: Heinz Sting ( NSDAP )
- 1935–1942: Johannes Meister (NSDAP)
- 1943–1945: Herbert Meyer (NSDAP)
- 1945: Otto Flagmeyer ( SPD )
- 1945: Richard Senger
- 1945–1946: Karl Schultes ( KPD / SED )
- 1946–1952: Hans Himmler (SED)
- 1952–1953: Alfred Meyer (SED)
- 1953–1957: Heinz Andree (SED)
- 1957–1963: Friedrich Giessner (SED)
- 1963–1973: Kurt Juch (SED)
- 1973–1981: Fritz Lande (SED)
- 1981–1985: Herbert Otto (SED)
- 1985–1990: Peter Heiter (SED)
- 1990: Olaf Dittmann ( NDPD )
- 1990–1994: Manfred Schröter ( CDU )
- 1994–2012: Barbara Rinke (SPD)
- 2012–2017: Klaus Zeh (CDU)
- since 2017: Kai Buchmann (independent)
Nordhausen has been part of Bundestag electoral district 189 since 1990 and has been represented by direct member Manfred Grund (CDU) since 1994 , who received 30.2 percent of the votes in the city of Nordhausen in the last federal election in 2017 . Other members of the Bundestag for Nordhausen are Jürgen Pohl (AfD) and Kersten Steinke (Die Linke), who were elected from the list.
|Banner, full coat of arms and hoisted flag|
Coat of arms, flag and logo
Blazon : “The city of Nordhausen has a full coat of arms, which consists of a shield, helmet and helmet ornament / helmet cover.
Shield: In gold, a crowned, black eagle looking to the right with a red tongue and red reinforcement.
Upper coat of arms: Stechhelm with black and gold helmet covers, on top of it two gold buffalo horns each with six gold three-leaf linden stalks.
Optionally, only the coat of arms with the eagle without the upper coat of arms can be used. "
Description: The coat of arms of Nordhausen shows the imperial eagle and a sloping shield with a richly decorated helmet. The crest consists of two buffalo horns protruding from the crown; both are decorated with six branches on the outside. The helmet covers are black and gold.
According to the legend, the helmet should have belonged to the lord of the Schnabelsburg am Kohnstein . After the castle was built in 1366, it repeatedly attacked travelers, carters and citizens. The Nordhausen council decided to lure him into the city on the pretext that they wanted to buy the Schnabelsburg from him for a handsome price. When the knight arrived in town, a troop stormed his castle and burned it down. Furious, he tried to get out of the city, but was stopped at the city wall. His head was cut off with one blow and his helmet flew in a wide arc to the gate of the wall.
Since 2003, the city of Nordhausen has had a logo with which it presents itself to the public and which is used for city correspondence. The logo has a slogan: “Nordhausen am Harz | the new center | “.
Heraldic shield at the time of the Holy Roman Empire
Nordhausen maintains town twinning with the following cities :
- Bet Schemesch near Jerusalem is the only non-European and at the same time the youngest town twinning of Nordhausen. Bet Shemesh was the first Israeli city to have a partner commune in the New Lands . The partnership was signed on September 19, 1992 and in November of the same year the first delegation from Israel arrived in Nordhausen. Since 1993, encounters between citizens of both cities have taken place annually. Among other things, youth exchanges, study and friendship trips and meetings of local politicians are organized.
- Bochum is the largest city with which Nordhausen has a partnership. After the political change, around 30 German cities showed an interest in twinning with Nordhausen. On June 28, 1990, the city relationship was sealed and since then numerous activities have developed, including administrative assistance, student exchanges and the establishment of associations to promote partnership. With the help of the city of Bochum, the second oldest house in the north of the house at Rosengasse 55 was restored in 1993, which has since been called "Bochum House".
- The 40th anniversary of the town twinning was celebrated in 2018.
Since January 21, 2004 there has been a city association with the neighboring Sondershausen ( Kyffhäuserkreis ) and since December 11, 2008 a city cooperation with the neighboring Sangerhausen ( Mansfeld-Südharz district ).
Culture and sights
The figure of Nordhausen Roland at the old town hall commemorates the overthrow of the council in 1375. It is the town's landmark. The town hall itself got its present appearance around 1610. Around the town center there are parts of the old town wall. The Roland standing at the Old Town Hall is a plaster copy, the wooden original can be seen in the New Town Hall , directly opposite.
The structure of the late medieval Nordhausen showed four parts, which emerged from a penetration of gradual growth and some adaptation to the terraces and slopes. There were:
- The old town with an irregular floor plan. Two main streets running on flat ground after falling off the terrain (Rautenstraße, Kranich-Barfüßerstraße). This old town in the narrower sense forms an oval of 500 × 750 meters, the larger axis of which runs northwards. It contains the castle (Domstift) and Petersberg, in the middle the market, the town hall and the main church St. Nikolai, which was destroyed in 1945.
- The Frauenberg on the mountain spur south of the Petersberg.
- The new town between Mühlgraben or Zorge and the slope of the upper town.
- Altendorf between Geiersberg and Mühlgraben.
These four elements were united by a city fortification in 1365.
The character of the houses in Nordhausen was given by predominantly half-timbered construction. As an agricultural town, the city showed predominantly Central German forms, but with increasing trade relations it adopted more and more Lower Saxon architecture, with Goslar and Hildesheim serving as models (Nordhausen stands in contrast to the neighboring Heiligenstadt , which shows Franconian forms in its houses). This architectural character and the spatial structure was maintained in the area of the old upper and lower town through the various town fires, essentially until the destruction of Nordhausen in April 1945.
The post-medieval expansions, mainly from the 19th and 20th centuries, spread more widely and followed the pattern of the chessboard. The forms of construction were no longer used in Lower Saxony, but time-bound ones, as could be seen throughout the empire. At the same time, these penetrated the old town to a considerable extent, supported by the overall very positive economic development. One example is the "Altendorf 30", which was demolished in 2017, the first solid house in Nordhausen.
The 1930s were characterized by the development of the suburban settlements. In 1932, the Niedersalza settlement began with the first private homes and under National Socialism the Hans Maikowsi settlement (today Erich Weinert settlement) with NSKK and Weddigen settlement (today flower settlement) followed.
In 1940 the Reichsheimstättenamt published an expansion plan that provided for development on the Geiersberg and its slopes; The mountain was to be built on a single storey, emphasizing the height with a two-storey core and adding a sports facility in the city park. In an economic plan drawn up for the city in 1941, it was calculated that the years 1960-70 would have 70,000 inhabitants. Accordingly, an additional 5,100 apartments were calculated and 220 hectares of land were designated. Above all, the Geiersberg project was taken over from 1940.
After the Second World War, the further development of the city was determined by the state housing programs in the GDR. The completely destroyed city center was rebuilt in the 1950s and 1960s, whereby the historical settlement structure was ignored; wide main roads such as Rautenstrasse (1958/59) and Töpferstrasse were laid out. The buildings of the urban planner Friedrich Stabe (1912–2000) were particularly formative for the cityscape. The first apartment block was built on Weinberg in 1949, followed by three apartment blocks on Hohekreuzstraße in 1950. The residential district Jüdenstrasse-Predigerstrasse-Königshof-Lutherplatz was built from 1950 to 1954. 1954–56 were built on Blödaustrasse, Körnerstrasse, Lindenstrasse and Morgenröte.
However, large areas of the city center remained undeveloped until the 1980s. Many buildings that survived the air raids in 1945 had to be demolished during the GDR era because they were dilapidated.
From 1966 to 1968, large slabs were built in the Töpferstrasse. Later, the two large estates Nordhausen-Nord (1978 to 1982) and Nordhausen-Ost (from 1984) were built with apartment blocks in prefabricated construction.
The area was expanded at the beginning of the 21st century with the development of the Rössingsbach in Nordhausen-Ost and in the Gumpetal in the north of the city.
Theater life in Nordhausen looks back on over 400 years of tradition.
In spring 1913, the construction of the new neoclassical theater building on the promenade according to the plans of the Nordhausen-based architect Gustav Ricken and under the direction of the engineer Nerlich began at its current location. To the north of the building, the “New Tivolite Theater” existed from 1882 to 1913 on the city wall of the promenade. Despite the difficult framework conditions in the course of the First World War, the newly completed city theater was opened on September 29, 1917 with a delay of almost three years. However, the original plan was not fully implemented, a planned northern extension, in which, among other things, the workshops of the theater would be housed, was not built. The theater was destroyed and rebuilt in the air raids in April 1945. The merger in 1991 with the Loh-Orchester Sondershausen to form Theater Nordhausen / Loh-Orchester Sondershausen GmbH initiated the formation of a three-branch theater (music theater, drama and ballet). In 2004 the own acting division had to be wound up for cost reasons. Since then, the Nordhausen theaters (music theater, ballet) and Rudolstadt (drama) have been exchanging their productions. In 2006 the theater struggled again for survival. The orchestra, musical theater and ballet initially remained in place until 2016, despite the necessary staff cuts.
Churches and monasteries
Almost all of the churches in the urban area of Nordhausen were built in the Romanesque era , and none of the buildings in the style have been preserved.
The parish church of St. Blasii is used today as a Protestant church. A previous building mentioned in a document from Heinrich VII in 1234 , of which remains can be found in the substructure of the church towers, was largely replaced in 1487–1490. The damage caused by the air raids in 1945 was repaired in 1949. The outside of the building was reconstructed in 2004 and the interior was renovated in 2014 and 2015.
There are hardly any traces of the previous buildings of the Cathedral of the Holy Cross Nordhausen , which were built from the 2nd half of the 10th century. Today's construction goes back to renovation and new building measures from the 13th century. While the early Gothic choir was built between 1230 and 1267 (consecration date), the late Gothic nave was built around 1450. The interior of the church was renovated in the 1970s and the structure was repaired in the 2000s (completed in 2008).
The church of St. Maria im Tale (" Altendorfer Church ") goes back to a previous building at the end of the 13th century. In 1353 it was rebuilt as a three-aisled hall church with a high Gothic choir . Due to underestimated difficulties with the building ground, parts of the church had to be renewed repeatedly in the following centuries. As the only church in Nordhausen, the building was spared the air raids in 1945.
Four churches were largely destroyed in the heavy air raids on April 3 and 4, 1945. The Frauenbergkirche St. Maria auf dem Berg was badly destroyed by bombs on April 4, 1945. In the years 1953 to 1955 the ruins were cleared and the masonry that was still preserved was subsequently secured by installing roofs and drawing in vaults. The interior work began in 1968. In the run-up to the State Garden Show in 2004, the outside area of the church was restored and redesigned. The church of St. Petri was also completely destroyed in the bombing on April 3, 1945. Conserves the monumental, he received in 1954 a makeshift roof again roof or one on April 4, 1987 spire restored and as Petri Tower for the State Garden Show of 2004. Since the Church of St. Jacobi was destroyed in an air raid on April 3, 1945, only the foundation walls (uncovered) have remained. After the war, the remains of the nave were demolished and the tower ruins were later removed. The so-called Market Church of St. Nikolai was also destroyed in the air raids on April 3, 1945.
The only remnant of the former barefoot monastery is the gate house of the donation cemetery, built in 1667. The Dominican monastery in Predigerstraße, founded in 1287, was dissolved in 1525 when its inmates emigrated. As a result of some repairs, the buildings, which were henceforth intended for school purposes, lasted until 1866. After their demolition, the buildings of today's Humboldt-Gymnasium were erected. The Augustinian monastery was built around 1300. The rich church treasure fell to the city during the Reformation and was sold in 1532 to finance the Turkish tax . The church of the monastery burned down in 1612 due to a lightning strike. The Walkenrieder Hof , founded in the middle of the 12th century, has gradually perished since the Reformation. From the middle of the 19th century it served as the main customs office, main tax office and city archive. Today used as a museum depot and seat of parts of the Nordhausen city administration.
Of the four former hospitals in the city, only the hospital with the Cyriaci chapel is used by the district music school. The remains of the hospital of St. Elisabeth's Church, which was demolished in 1828, were demolished in the early 1980s. The tower of the hospital and the church of St. Martini was demolished in 1808 and the church was demolished in 1835. The hospital and the St. Georg chapel were destroyed in a town fire in 1612.
Museums and memorials
The municipal antiquity museum was opened in 1876 on the premises of the former secondary school for girls on Blasiistraße. Three years later the company moved to the elementary school on Taschenberg. In 1890 the museum had 17 exhibition rooms. Other locations were the municipal elementary school in Predigerstrasse (1892–1906) and the pottery school on what was then Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz (1907–1934). At that time, the pottery school was also home to the archive and library. In 1926 the city acquired Villa Becker in the upper town, where ten stylish rooms were presented by 1938. In 1934 the Municipal Museum moved to the Villa Lindenhof. At the same time, the style room museum was renamed the Meyenburg Museum . In 1938 the city museum moved into the Meyenburg Museum, as the Lindenhof from then on served as the headquarters of the Army Construction Office. The period furniture had to give way. The Second World War caused great losses in the collection. In 1951 the Meyenburg Museum was reopened. On June 30, 2012 the city history museum opened in the Flohburg .
- Flea castle
- Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp memorial
- Meyenburg art house
- Museum tobacco store
- Südharzer Fachwerkzentrum Nordhausen e. V. (renovation property Altendorf 48)
- Traditional distillery
- Death march stele on Stolberger Strasse
- Memorial stone at the former location of the synagogue on the horse market
- Stele in front of the town hall in memory of the 8,800 victims of the air raids on Nordhausen on April 3 and 4, 1945
- Mahnstein, since 1993 in the garden of the Meyenburg-Kunsthaus, with the inscription: “Memorial stone of the north houses and south Harzer, erected in 1955 in Bad Sachsa as a memorial against the division of Germany 1945–1989. Found home in 1993 in Nordhausen "
Parks, natural monuments and protected areas
Nordhausen has numerous parks and green spaces (a total of 80 hectares) and is a city that is green right down to the center. Around 18,000 trees line the streets in the urban area. In 1874 the Hohenrode Park was created , a ten-hectare facility planned by Heinrich Siesmayer and Philipp Siesmayer , which the manufacturer Carl Kneiff had built as a private villa park. This park, which is now freely accessible, is considered the most important and dendrologically most valuable in the city. The oldest nature park in Nordhausen is the 18-hectare enclosure on Geiersberg. The area was originally bare and was afforested from the middle of the 18th century. Over the decades, a high forest park with a large oak and beech population was created. In 1817 Carl Friedrich Salomo, student of gymnastics father Friedrich Ludwig Jahn , set up one of the first gymnastics grounds in Germany in the enclosure. A memorial stone at the entrance to the enclosure reminds of the first gymnastics area in Nordhausen. From 1830 concerts were held here regularly, fountains and clay halls were built, and gas lighting had been in place since 1861. In 1892 the enclosure was laid out in its current form and the first bars were built all around. At the beginning of the 20th century the enclosure became a “pleasure forest” and events are still held here today.
The promenade is located north of the city theater . The site was originally a moat that was bordered by the inner and outer city walls. At the beginning of the 19th century, the ditch served as a rubble dump, and from 1835 work began on leveling and planting the area. In June 1900 the Bismarck monument was unveiled in the northern area and in October 1901 the Kaiser Friedrich monument on Friedrich-Wilhelm-Platz (today Theaterplatz). From 1902 the site was extensively redesigned into a park. a. planted several copper beeches. In 1917 the city theater at the foot of the park was inaugurated. In 1935 the Neptune Fountain was erected. Another redesign took place in the same year.
The city park with Kastanienallee, located on the outskirts of Nordhausen, was built in 1880 and was originally a swampy floodplain of the Zorge. Thousands of trees and bushes have been planted, circular paths and two ponds have been created, which are connected by an artificially created watercourse. There has also been an animal enclosure in the park since the 1950s.
In 1927 the rose garden was inaugurated in the north of the city, not far from today's Südharz clinic.
In the course of the incorporation there are three designated nature reserves in what is now the city of Nordhausen: Rüdigsdorfer Schweiz ( Rüdigsdorf ), the Sattelköpf ( Hörningen ) and the Pfaffenköpf ( Petersdorf ).
The best-known Nordhausen natural monument was the Merwigslinde , which was located above the enclosure on the Geiersberg. The linden tree is said to have been a stately tree even before the Reformation. The Merwigslinden legend is reminiscent of a Thuringian tribal prince or king named "Merwig", who had also made a name for himself as a skilled shoemaker before he was elected a king. In his honor, the Nordhausen shoemakers made a pilgrimage every seven years to the linden tree, where a messenger is said to have informed Merwig about the result of the king's election. Since December 1833, the upper half of the linden tree had been broken off by a storm. In 1896 their trunk was lined with stones and the branches held with iron bars. In 1972 the Merwigslinde finally had to be felled. A plaque attached last showed the linden tree with a circumference of 9 meters and an age of over 700 years. Today's Merwigslinde was replanted in 1972 and is fenced.
Another natural monument is the oak in the Krimderode district , which is around 600 to 1000 years old and is one of the oldest natural monuments in the southern Harz. In 2015, the chest height was 7.25 meters, with a height of 21 meters. The pedunculate oak known as Flehmüller's oak stood in a forest that has been gradually felled since 1829. In 1840, the then Krimderöder manor Drechsler applied to the Hochgräflichen Stolberg-Hohnstein Consistory for the preservation of the oak. Since 1992 the “oak festival” has been held under the tree in June.
With the “Antiquar Oak” there is another pedunculate oak in the city area; it is over 300 years old, has a height of 20 meters with a trunk circumference of 5.5 meters.
Libraries and Archives
At the beginning of the 16th century, Prior Johannes Pilearius began building the Himmelgarten monastery library , which had come to the St. Blasii Church in 1525 due to the turmoil of the Peasants' War . After the Second World War, the library was initially stored in the Wolkramshausen potash shaft and then found its home in the rectory of St. Blasii. Then she was transferred to Naumburg and from there in 1989 she was sent to the Evangelical Preachers' Seminar in Lutherstadt Wittenberg . In 2014 the library returned to Nordhausen and is displayed in the Flohburg Museum .
In the 19th century, the first privately operated lending libraries emerged, offering almost exclusively trivial literature. With the participation of the municipal association and the Society for the Promotion of Popular Education , which was founded in 1871 , the public library was founded in 1877, today's city library "Rudolf Hagelstange" .
With the founding of the Nordhausen University of Applied Sciences , the university library with around 120,000 media was created in 1997 (2018).
The beginnings of the city archive in Nordhausen cannot be reconstructed beyond doubt due to the lack of sources and presumably go back to the 13th century. The archive library probably emerged from the former “council library” (16th century). The grammar school teacher and local researcher Ernst Günther Förstemann (1788-1859) also looked after the archive and the library and contributed to the fact that the inventory was systematically sorted for the first time from 1834 onwards. In the year of the millennium in 1927, the archive and the historical library moved to the former city prison at Mauerstraße 15. Under the schoolteacher and local researcher Hans Silberborth , the archive library was reorganized in 1939 and adapted to modern principles (including cataloging). The air raids on Nordhausen on April 3 and 4, 1945 destroyed the archive building and the library. At the beginning of May 1945, files, chronicles and other manuscripts that were stored in the basement of the Sparkasse were mostly looted and destroyed by former Polish slave laborers. The holdings of the scientific library and newspaper volumes were moved to the orphanage and were hidden from the looters in the basement of the Heinrich Middle School by Nordhäuser. In 1947, Hans Silberborth made the "modest remainder of the once stately archive library" available again in an orderly manner. Almost all documents survived the war, there were losses in the files, very large losses in the official books and other bound manuscripts, guild files and chronicles. In February 1952 the archive moved to initially three rooms in the newly built Old Town Hall , in 1975 to the upper floor of the Walkenrieder Hof in Waisenstrasse, and in the summer of 1997 to the New Town Hall . The inventory of the city archive amounts to 1,115 running meters.
The district archive with approx. 3,000 running meters (2012) is located at Grimmelallee 20 at the historical district office.
In 1876 the city's first communal cemetery on the road to Leimbach was put into use.
The main cemetery on Stresemannring was built in 1921 as a park-like forest cemetery and was completed in 1927 with a crematorium. With its functional architectural design, the cemetery complex is an expression of the cemetery reform movement of the early 20th century and is one of the most important representatives of Thuringia from this period. A grove of honor created in 1997 in the southeastern part of the main cemetery commemorates 565 named victims of the air raids on Nordhausen and around a thousand German soldiers who died in World War II.
Across from the main cemetery, a total of 2,259 prisoners from various nations, mainly from the Boelcke barracks, found their final resting place in mid-April 1945 . In 1946 a memorial with 215 graves for Soviet citizens was built in the southern area.
The Nordhausen Jewish cemetery with 320 tombstones is located on Ammerberg .
The numerous stairs in Nordhausen are a characteristic feature of the cityscape. The following list shows important open stairs that are located in the urban area of Nordhausen. On some of these stairs there are works of art in public space, the so-called stair beetles .
|Water stairs||Probably the oldest staircase in Nordhausen and has existed since the 9th century. There is documentary evidence of it for the 15th century.||74||51 ° 30'11.4 "N.
10 ° 47'22.8 "E.
|Grimmel / Neuer Weg → Domstrasse|
|John's staircase||Was created after the Grimmel wetland was drained. The staircase in its current form was built in 1872.||85||51 ° 30'07.0 "N.
10 ° 47'24.1 "E.
|Under the willows → New way|
|Tripe staircase||With the water staircase it is one of the oldest stairs in Nordhausen. The tripe gate was first mentioned in 1206 and 1304. It is the only staircase to have a wall opening from the old city fortifications that has been preserved. The name comes from the tripe (entrails), which the butchers brought to the mill ditch for cleaning.||74||51 ° 30'01.1 "N.
10 ° 47'28.9 "E.
|Lohmarkt / Neuer Weg → Predigerstrasse|
|Schlunztreppe||Has been traceable since 1411. The stairs were rebuilt in 1899 and badly damaged by the air raids on Nordhausen in 1945; In 1951 the upper part was filled in.||114 (until 1945), 65||51 ° 29'58.1 "N.
10 ° 47'43.4 "E.
|lower Rautenstrasse → Petrikirchplatz|
|Altendorfer stairs||Leads from the old town up to the Geiersberg.||86||51 ° 30'22.9 "N.
10 ° 47'28.1 "E.
|Altendorf / Kreuzen → Wallrothstrasse|
|Bingerhof stairs||The name of the street and stairs goes back to Louis Binger. It should be seen in connection with the "love tunnel staircase" in the enclosure .||86||51 ° 30'31.5 "N.
10 ° 47'21.6 "E.
|Bingerhof → lower Wallrothstrasse|
|Petersberg stairs||Was reconstructed for the State Garden Show in 2004.||33 (1945)||51 ° 30'04.1 "N.
10 ° 47'47.6 "E.
|Weberstrasse → Petrikirchplatz|
|Frauenberger stairs||Until 1945 the staircase was a narrow street of a similar course. The lower part of the church was a narrow alley.||162||51 ° 29'49.7 "N.
10 ° 47'48.4 "E.
|Martinstrasse → Am Frauenberg|
|Jacob Plaut stairs||Named after Jacob Plaut .||65||51 ° 29'47.9 "N.
10 ° 48'22.6 "E.
|Plautstrasse → Bergstrasse|
|Love tunnel stairs||Four steps are made of stones from the Geiersberg cemetery.||145||51 ° 30'32.5 "N.
10 ° 47'29.0 "E.
|Wallrothstrasse → Alexander-Puschkin-Strasse|
|New Lesserstiege||In the immediate vicinity of the city terrace.||51 ° 29'58.1 "N.
10 ° 47'35.7 "E.
|Rautenstrasse → Jüdenstrasse|
Sights and cultural monuments
- Old chewing tobacco factory
- Old post office
- Old municipal waterworks
- Calibration office
- Judenturm on the Petersberg
- The old Roland from 1717 in the New Town Hall
- The new Roland from 1993 (replica of the Roland from 1717)
- The giant at Lutherplatz (mentioned in a document since 1375)
- Old town with half-timbered buildings
- Domstrasse 12 , built in 1327 (d) and 1555 (d)
- Altendorfer Kirchgasse 3, built around 1370.
- Finkenburg , built around 1444 (d)
- Altendorf 55, House Bochum, built around 1450.
- Gumpertstrasse 1, built around 1712 (older core building from 1643)
- Gate house, built in 1667.
- Altendorf 48, built 1668 (d) (two plank rooms, bakery oven from 1900 available, house well in the cellar)
- Altendorf 49, built around 1680.
- Orphanage, built 1715 to 1717 (u)
- Pfaffengasse 2, built in 1719.
- Altendorf 50, rococo frame around 1770.
- Altendorf 30, built around 1850, late classical plastered building in the palazzo style, demolished in 2017
- Altendorf 24, distillery building, historicism, built in 1842 (i) and 1849 (u)
- Altendorf 27, distillery building, historicism, built 1873 (u)
- Rhenania-Ossag AG tank station , built in 1930/31 in the New Building style
The tradition of bridal couples to plant a memorial tree in the enclosure - the city forest of Nordhausen - on the northern outskirts of the city developed into the custom of the city of Nordhausen . The forest park that was created in the last two centuries offers the opportunity for walks, especially in summer and autumn. At the highest point of the enclosure is the location of the legendary Merwigslinde , the current tree was replanted in 1972. The Merwigslinde , which was probably already stately in pre-Reformation times, was regarded by the people of Nordhausen as a hat tree and was the venerable center of the often excessively celebrated Nordhäuser Lindenfest . The Merwigslinde is reminiscent of a Thuringian tribal prince or king named Merwig , who had also made a name for himself as a skilled shoemaker before he was elected a king. In his honor, the Nordhausen shoemakers made a pilgrimage every seven years to the linden tree, where a messenger is said to have informed Merwig about the result of the king's election.
Martini is part of the centuries-old festival culture of Nordhausen . The Martinsfeier (or Martinsfest) is celebrated by the Nordhäuser on November 10th - Martin Luther's birthday - at 5 p.m. with an ecumenical service in front of the Blasiikirche . Then children go from house to house singing with a lantern. Prayer, sermon and the singing of the Luther song “ A strong castle is our God ” on Lutherplatz at the town hall are part of the custom of this evening. In tradition-conscious families, roast goose with dumplings and red cabbage or carp is served as a festive meal. The festival had a purely family character until 1846 and has been associated with a public elevator ever since.
The three-day Rolandsfest , which takes place every June, has the highest public response. The folk festival, which has existed since 1955, with music events, historical parades and numerous other performances, attracts around 100,000 visitors. The Roland group that appears consists of four figures ("originals"): Nordhäuser Roland, Brockenhexe, Professor Zwanziger and the old Ebersberg.
Another city festival that originated in 1994 is the old town festival held annually in August with medieval and modern craft stalls, music and children's programs. Here, too, originals appear with “Altstadt-Manne”, “Hannichen Vogelstange”, and the “Red Asshole of Salza”.
Music and events
The Nordhausen youth clubhouse , which caters to all mainstream genres and age groups, is located in the historic Harmonie on the Promenade . The Karzer student club is located on the campus or premises of the Nordhausen University of Applied Sciences . A classic large-capacity disco was the Alte Weberei, founded in 1995 in the Salza district, with a focus on house and electro music. After renovations, different names and changing owners, the discotheque opened as a Salt Club in 2018 .
Venues for major events: Wiedigsburghalle at the Herder high school and the open-air stage in the enclosure. For urban events is the Council Chamber in the community center used.
The club house "Thomas Mann" in Wilhelm-Nebelung-Straße is available for clubs. In the middle of the 19th century, a lively club life began to develop in Nordhausen. As early as 1790, the Masonic lodge "To the crowned innocence" ( Johannisloge ) was founded. The Art Association was founded in 1853 and the Scientific Association was established in 1855. The Nordhausen History and Antiquity Association was founded in 1870. The oldest association in Nordhausen is the Nordhäuser Schützenkompanie von 1420 e. V. In 1897 there were around 175 clubs, in 1914 there were over 240.
The most successful soccer club in town is Wacker Nordhausen , which has played in the Northeast Regional Soccer League since 2013 . The club appeared nationwide through several DFB Cup participations. The club plays its home games in the Albert-Kuntz-Sportpark, which offers space for 8,000 spectators. There is also the football club FSG '99 Salza-Nordhausen, which plays in the Northern Thuringia regional league . The historical associations include SpVgg Preußen Nordhausen and BSG Motor Süd Nordhausen .
In December 2014, the Bundesliga boxers of Nordhäuser SV became German team champions for the first time.
The women's handball team from Nordhäuser SV should also be mentioned, which has been successfully participating in the Thuringia League for several years .
The men's team of SVC Nordhausen is represented in the volleyball Thuringian league .
The Roland rally has been held in and around Nordhausen since 1971. Today it is part of the Rally 200 and is part of the Gravel Cup. The event is carried out by Nordhäuser MSC e. V. in the ADAC Hessen-Thuringia.
Nordhausen also has a long triathlon tradition. Since 2013, the international ICAN Nordhausen Germany has been held at the Nordhäuser Theater. For the previous ten years, the Scheunenhof triathlon was already well-known beyond the country's borders. The event is organized by the Nordhäuser Triathlon Association.
On the southern edge of Nordhausen there is the Sundhäuser Lake and other quarry ponds , which today u. a. can be used as diving waters , developed through two diving centers. For example, divers can use several wrecks and a. the underwater city of Nordhusia with Germany's first underwater church can be visited.
General economic history
The city has had market rights since 962 . The economic development of Nordhausen was initially based on agriculture and on the exchange of own handicraft products in the market with the surrounding area and hinterland. The brewing trade, which was regulated in 1308 and privileged as an export factor in 1386, brought the first seeds of an industry. Attempts to make viticulture at home failed at the beginning of the 16th century; instead, from 1507 onwards, the distillery (rye) became an industry of great importance.
Until the Thirty Years War, the distilleries and breweries remained house industries (there were over 100 Nordhäuser breweries in 1612), after which the grain trade dominated the city's economic life until the end of the 18th century. In 1750, 400 to 600 wagons loaded with fruit were counted on market days; the transport from Thuringia alone amounted to 700,000 bushels a year . At the same time, the distillery developed into an independent industry. Tobacco processing in Nordhausen has been traceable since 1721, in particular chewing tobacco production, which ceased after 1945.
After the heavy air raids on Nordhausen in 1945 and the destruction of numerous factories, the city's economy fell to the ground. Under the Soviet occupation, the remaining companies, facilities and institutions, the reconstruction of the infrastructure and vital objects and facilities were pushed. Production was concentrated in a few branches of industry (mechanical engineering and vehicle construction, electronic industry, mining and building materials industry). In the following years, the companies were gradually nationalized. Some companies went to the western occupation zones with some of their employees and started a fresh start. The relatively rapid reconstruction and recovery process of Nordhausen's industry meant that the city was of great importance for the entire southern Harz region and, at the beginning of the 1960s, for the Erfurt district as well , and regained the position it had before 1945 as the economic center of northern Thuringia. With around 25,000 employees, Nordhausen was the second largest business location in the Erfurt district in the mid-1980s. The economy was characterized by a concentration of important production, such as telephones, engines for trucks, excavators, alcohol and cigarette production.
After reunification, a re-profiling process and structural change began in the Nordhausen economy. The majority of the companies were privatized or re-privatized; restructuring resulted in radical job cuts, especially in the leading companies. After the renovation of the IFA industrial park, around 45 new companies settled on the site of the former IFA engine plant. New industrial areas were created, especially in the south of the city. The industry structure is diversified and characterized exclusively by medium-sized companies.
The production of brandy
The production of spirits has a long tradition in Nordhausen. It was first mentioned in documents in 1507 when the city began to tax the production of spirits and thus introduced Germany's first spirits tax. In 1545 the grain distillery in Nordhausen was banned due to faulty crops and impending famine; In 1570 the city allowed grain distilling again. Something similar happened several times over the next few centuries (including during the world wars). After the Thirty Years' War , the distillery achieved national importance; the so-called Nordhäuser Korn brought the city back to wealth. In 1726, 1.3 million liters of brandy were produced annually in 69 distilleries. A little later, in the middle of the 18th century, the number of distilleries reached its maximum of 100. In 1775 the council issued an emigration ban for Brenner.
In 1789, a purity law was set for the ingredients of Nordhäuser Korn: at least two thirds of rye and a maximum of one third of barley malt . In 1795, the entire area between the Rhine and Elbe was supplied with Nordhäuser Doppelkorn . However, when the Prussian state began to promote the production of brandy from potatoes in 1819 , many distilleries in Nordhausen added potato fuel to the grain.
In April 1945 all the distilleries were destroyed or damaged in the bombing of the city. As early as 1948, 200,000 liters of brandy were produced again. 1949, with the founding of the GDR nationwide associations of nationally-owned enterprises (VVB) formed. The VEB Nordbrand displaced the remaining distilleries in the following years. From 1961 Nordhausen grain was also exported to West Germany. At the end of the 1960s, the company produced over 10 million liters of spirits a year. This corresponded to 15% of the GDR spirits production. In 1986 grain production in Nordhausen reached its peak when 60 million liters of brandy were produced annually. After the political change in 1989/90, grain production was halved. In 1991 the company was taken over by Eckes AG , after which the product could be better marketed throughout Germany. In February 1994, work began on converting the former Museum of Nordhäuser Distillery History into a working technical monument with its own right to distill 103,500 liters of pure alcohol . The spirits produced there are so rare that they cannot be sold everywhere in supermarkets, but can only be obtained in a few liquor stores.
Because of its GA Hanewacker chewing tobacco factory (founded in 1817), Nordhausen was the center of chewing tobacco production in Germany. The company Grimm & Triepel Kruse-Kautabak , founded in Nordhausen in 1849, was the last manufacturer of chewing tobacco in the country until it was dissolved in December 2016.
Locomotives with internal combustion engines have been built by "Montania AG formerly Gerlach & König" since 1907 . In 1912 Montania is taken over by the mechanical engineering company Orenstein & Koppel and renamed "Orenstein & Koppel AG - Nordhausen". By 1935, 5,299 locomotives were produced, up to the last delivery in 1942 a total of 9,371 units, including probably the class 50 of the Deutsche Reichsbahn and the class 52 war locomotive . In January 1942, locomotive construction, including 421 locomotives that had already started , was relocated to Prague . After the end of the war, locomotive construction was not resumed in Nordhausen.
From 1925 to 1935 small cars were built in the Rudolf Weide vehicle factory.
During the GDR era, excavators , among other things , were manufactured at VEB Schwermaschinenbau NOBAS Nordhausen . The company was taken over by GP Günter Papenburg AG in the 1990s and operates as its division GP Papenburg Maschinenbau GmbH (previously (1998–2015): HBM-Nobas ). It mainly produces motor graders , components for construction machinery and dragline excavators. During the GDR era, engines for the W 50 and L 60 trucks were also built at the Nordhausen engine plant. After privatization, the company was able to hold out until 1996 and has been insolvent ever since. The company premises were redeveloped by LEG-Thuringia and are now home to BBM Laseranendungstechnik GmbH. The then largest drilling company in Germany, H. Anger's Söhne , relocated to Hessisch Lichtenau in 1952 . The VEB Hydrogeology was established on the company premises.
Schachtbau Nordhausen GmbH is internationally active , to a large extent in bridge construction. Founded in 1898 as Gebhardt & Koenig , it went through a number of renaming and name changes, partly due to historical events, until it was incorporated into the Bauer Group in 1992 .
The city of Nordhausen is not only a center for industry, but also for retail trade, and the many small craft and commercial enterprises play a major role in the city. Since February 2014, the city has had two shopping centers. In addition to the Südharzgalerie in Bahnhofstrasse, there is also another shopping center in the upper part of the city called Echte Nordhäuser Marktpassage .
The spectrum in retail ranges from large department stores and discount chains to small specialist dealers. Nordhausen is also home to the Nordthüringer Volksbank eG and the Kreissparkasse Nordhausen . The establishment of the university of applied sciences in Nordhausen has also created innovative new companies, some of them as spin-offs from the university.
As of June 30, 2018, there were 22,106 jobs subject to social insurance in Nordhausen and 15,586 residents of the city were employed subject to social insurance. There were 11,683 in-commuters versus 5,180 out-commuters. The average unemployment rate in 2017 was 9.4 percent (1,925 people). In September 2018, 3,427 people were dependent on benefits to supplement their livelihood according to SGB II ("Hartz IV") .
Rail transport and local public transport
The Halle – Hann railway line meets at the Nordhausen transport hub . Münden , the Northeim – Nordhausen railway line and the Wolkramshausen – Erfurt railway line overlap . In addition to several regional train lines, fast regional express trains run every hour to Halle Hauptbahnhof and Leinefelde and every two hours to Kassel-Wilhelmshöhe . There are no long-distance trains stop in Nordhausen. Since 1898, Nordhausen Nord train station has also been in the immediate vicinity, the southern terminus of the meter-gauge Harzquerbahn (HSB) from Wernigerode . The Stadtwerke subsidiary Verkehrsbetriebe Nordhausen is responsible for public transport in Nordhausen . This operates three tram and eight city bus routes . Since 2004, the tracks of the Nordhausen tram and Harzquerbahn have been connected at Nordhausen Nord station. Since then, trams with hybrid drives have been running continuously as line 10 from the hospital in the inner city of Nordhausen to the neighboring town of Ilfeld .
The city lies on the A 38 motorway , which leads from the A 7 near Göttingen to Leipzig . The departures run via junction 10 “Werther” (from the west), 11 “Nordhausen”, 12 “Heringen” (from the east). Several federal highways run through Nordhausen. The B 4 ( A 36 / A 369 ) connects Bad Harzburg with Erfurt . The former B 80 was downgraded to Landesstraße 3080 . Similarly, from the former B 243 , the county road 28 become.
The Nordhausen airfield is located between Nordhausen and the Bielen district and is suitable for gliders and small powered aircraft with a takeoff and landing weight of up to 7.5 t. The nearest international airports are Erfurt-Weimar Airport, about 60 km away , Leipzig / Halle Airport 100 km away and Hanover-Langenhagen Airport, 130 km away .
Two long-distance hiking trails lead through the urban area. The Kaiserweg is a thematic long-distance hiking trail with a length of 110 km that leads from Goslar and Bad Harzburg on the northern edge of the Harz via Walkenried and Nordhausen to Tilleda am Kyffhäuser . The karst hiking trail is 233.2 km long and runs on the south side of the Harz along the central German karst landscape through the three districts of Mansfeld-Südharz , Nordhausen and Göttingen .
The first written mention of a school comes from the year 1220. In the 1880s, Nordhausen was, besides Halle, the only town in the province of Saxony that had two municipal high schools for boys. As a large city that belongs to the district, Nordhausen has its own school sponsorship for primary and mainstream schools. The grammar schools in the city (Humboldt and Herder grammar schools and the vocational grammar school belonging to the vocational center ) are sponsored by the Nordhausen district. In 1997 the Nordhausen University of Applied Sciences was founded.
There are a total of eight primary schools, four mainstream schools, two grammar schools, three vocational schools and two special schools. This educational offer is extended by the Kreismusikschule, the Kreisvolkshochschule (KVHS), the district and city archives as well as the library of the Nordhausen University and the “Rudolf Hagelstange” city library.
A daily newspaper is represented in Nordhausen with the local editorial office of Thüringer Allgemeine . The two advertising-financed newspapers, Nordhäuser Wochenchronik and Allgemeine Anzeiger, appear weekly . Both are free and are sold as in-house mail and through retail outlets. There is also the news website NNZ-Online ( Neue Nordhäuser Zeitung ) founded in 2000 , which is also financed through advertisements.
The Northäusische Adler Relation is attested as the first newspaper for 1690 . From 1766 the Nordhäusische Intellektivenblatt appeared with a changing title, most recently as a circular and news paper until 1851. From 1848 the new Nordhäusische Intellektivenblatt appeared, from 1858 until it was discontinued in 1943 under the name Nordhäuser Zeitung . Other Nordhausen newspapers were:
- (new) circular and news bulletin since 1855, as Nordhäuser Courier until 1896
- Nordhäuser Post 1896, from 1905 as Allgemeine Zeitung until 1938
- Nordhäuser Volksblatt 1890–1897
- Nordhäuser Volkszeitung 1906–1933
- Thuringian Gau newspaper 1937, local edition Nordhausen until 1945
- Das Volk 1946, local edition Nordhausen until 1990 (successor to Thuringian General )
In June 2000 the Offene Kanal Nordhausen (OKN) was founded, which was renamed Radio Enno in January 2016 .
Nordhausen is the seat of several public institutions, also of national importance.
The state police station in Nordhausen is the northernmost of a total of seven state police stations of the Thuringian police . The districts of Nordhausen, Kyffhäuser, Eichsfeld and Unstrut-Hainich (a total of approx. 400,000 inhabitants) belong to the protection area. One of the three Thuringian motorway police stations (AS) is also based in Nordhausen. The state police station is located in a former barracks area on Darrweg. The barracks buildings were supplemented by new buildings at the end of the 1990s.
In May 1888, the Nordhausen am Taschenberg district hospital was inaugurated with 28 hospital rooms and 103 beds; An extension followed in 1913. The building was in the air raids on Nordhausen on 3rd / 4th. Destroyed April 1945.
Today's Südharz Klinikum Nordhausen is the largest hospital in Northern Thuringia with around 1,900 employees. The laying of the foundation stone for the building complex west of the "Rosengarten" in the Nordhausen-Nord district took place in 1976. Plans for a large new hospital building at this point were already in place at the end of the 1930s, but construction was postponed in 1939 due to the outbreak of war. When it went into operation in 1981/82, 850 beds were available. In 1982 the children's clinic with 135 beds and the polyclinic were attached. In 1983 the hospital was named " Maxim Zetkin ", and in 1991 it was renamed "Südharz-Krankenhaus Nordhausen". The hospital has existed as a non-profit limited company with the district and the city of Nordhausen as shareholders since January 1st, 1992. A rescue helicopter has been stationed on the site since October 1992. In the following years the hospital was u. a. extended by a ward block. In 1999 the Südharz Hospital received the first prize for the most environmentally friendly hospital in a national comparison. The clinic serves the Jena University Clinic and the Martin Luther University Halle-Wittenberg as a teaching hospital. According to the company, more than 31,000 patients are cared for each year.
Drinking water supply
The water arts of Nordhausen are among the "Seven Wonders of Nordhausen". Until the beginning of the 1970s, the city's water supply came from nine public fountains and two water arts, the "upper art" and the "lower art". The Oberkunst in Altendorf (today Altendorfer Kirchgasse 5), which was laid out in 1546 by Hans Saxner from Niedersachswerfen and expanded by Peter Günther from Halle in 1598, lifted the water from the artificial moat derived from the Zorge 52 meters up into the reservoir on Geiersberg, the so-called "Schöpfmännchen". From there the water ran with its own gradient in wooden pipes to the individual water arts and drains. The accommodation was at the foot of the Johannistreppe, was also laid out in 1598 by Peter Günther and drove the water taken from the Mühlgraben 44 meters high into a reservoir at the Neuen-Weg-Tor and was removed in March 1837.
In contrast to the utility water supply, the city's drinking water supply was largely provided by natural sources. Such a source was located in Rumbach (today “Vor dem Vogel”), and the water from the Elisabethbrunnen (Elisabethstraße) was also considered to be the best in town. In addition, the "Tröppelbörnchen" in Grimmel, below the water staircase, was very popular; this fountain was removed around 1900. The “Judenbrunnen” or “Wolfsbrunnen” (laid out around 1240) in the former Jüdenstrasse and the “Frankenborn” in the Barfüßerstrasse were considered to be the oldest fountains in Nordhausen. A very old well seems to have stood in the royal court; In 1434 the construction of a new well is documented here. There were also at least seven public fountains, which were opened on the 15th and 16th centuries. Century existed and were removed or filled in in the 1890s.
In 1874, the city acquired the waterworks completed in 1873 by the “Neptun” company. In 1904/1905 the Neustadt dam was built.
The Nordhausen local technical aid organization is also available for larger missions.
Daughters and sons of the city
The first known personality in the city was Gerberga , daughter of King Heinrich I. Her mother was Mathilde , who founded a monastery in 961 next to the castle built by Heinrich I. The Roman-German Empress Beatrix von Schwaben married and died in Nordhausen.
Important scholars in the humanities were Wilhelm Gesenius and Friedrich Christian Lesser . In the 19th century the politician Albert Traeger , the first kindergarten teacher Ida Seele and the democrat, theologian and founder of the German vegetarian movement Eduard Baltzer worked in the city. The mathematician Oswald Teichmüller became known worldwide . Joachim Raack was a judge at the Federal Social Court.
Honorary citizenship has been granted in Nordhausen since 1865. Since then, 26 people have received this highest honor from the city. Five people are currently honorary citizens of Nordhausen: since 2004 Andreas Lesser, the founder and board member of the Friedrich Christian Lesser Foundation; since 2009 the provost (retired) Joachim Jaeger . In 2010, Lothar de Maizière , who was born in Nordhausen and was the last Prime Minister of the German Democratic Republic, became an honorary citizen of the city; in 2013 the writer Erika Schirmer and in 2018 the pastor and superintendent Christoph Lerchner.
The Nordhausen coin history goes back to the 12th century; There is evidence that a mint had been operating in Nordhausen since at least 1130. Minting in Nordhausen ended in 1685. For the millennium celebration in 1927, the Reich Ministry of Finance approved the issuance of a 3-mark commemorative coin with a circulation of 100,000.
The Nordhausen was a Mercator type cargo ship put into service in 1976 . The Schön apple variety from Nordhausen was brought onto the market in 1892. The Nordhausen / Hesseröder Berg transmitter is a transmitter near Hesserode . The Nordhäuser Dam is a dam near Neustadt / Harz . The name of a shrub rose bred by Max Krause from Nordhausen in 1940 is Nordhausen and the name of an album by the synth-pop band And One is also Nordhausen . The vitriol process is the oldest process for the production of sulfuric acid . From the 16th century, the demand for sulfuric acid increased, which is why the vitriol process was applied on an industrial scale and after the focus of production in Nordhausen, the product was named Nordhäuser Vitriol .
List of sources, literature and maps
- Address books of the city of Nordhausen from 1824 to 1948
- Peter Kuhlbrodt (edit.): Special inventory of sources on the history of the Free Imperial City of Nordhausen in external archives . Nordhausen 2012.
- Günter Linke (edit.): Nordhäuser document book. Volume 1: The imperial and royal documents of the archive . Nordhausen 1936.
- Gerhard Meissner (edit.): Nordhäuser document book. Volume 2: Documents from princes, counts, lords and cities . Nordhausen 1939.
- Robert Hermann Walther Müller (Hrsg.): History of the Nordhäuser city archive . Nordhausen 1953. Digitized.
- Robert Hermann Walther Müller (Ed.): Official register of the imperial city of Nordhausen 1312-1345. Liber privilegiorum et Album civium . Nordhausen 1956.
- Johann Christoph Sieckel: The unfortunate after two. Kayserl recovered from fire-fires. fr. Imperial city of Nordhausen, after its name, antiquity and description of its streets . Coeler, Nordhausen 1753.
- Hermann Weidhaas: Half-timbered buildings in Nordhausen . Berlin 1955.
- Mathias Seidel: The Southern Harz Foreland from the Pre-Roman Iron Age to the Migration Period - On the settlement history of an old settlement landscape in northern Thuringia (Weimar Monographs on Prehistory and Early History, 41), Beier & Beran, Weimar 2006.
- RH Walther Müller: Merwigslinde, Pomei Bog and Königshof (= local history research of the Nordhausen city archive, Harz. Volume 7). Neukirchner, Nordhausen 2002, ISBN 3-929767-53-8 .
- Peter Kuhlbrodt: Nordhausen - an imperial city in the century of the Reformation (= series of publications by the Friedrich Christian Lesser Foundation. Volume 30). Atelier Veit, Nordhausen 2015, ISBN 978-3-930558-26-2 . content
- Arthur Propp: The industrial development of Nordhausen . Klinz, Halle 1935. Digitized
- Julius Schmidt : Descriptive representation of the older architectural and art monuments of the city of Nordhausen (= descriptive representation of the older architectural and art monuments of the province of Saxony. Volume 11). Hendel, Halle 1887.
- Stadtarchiv Nordhausen (Ed.): Local history research by the Stadtarchiv Nordhausen, Harz . Volume 1.1953 to Volume 7.1995; Volume 8 since 2002. Geiger, Horb am Neckar, ISBN 3-89570-883-6 .
Nazi era and World War II
- Walter Geiger: Nordhausen in the bomber visor . Neukirchner, Nordhausen 2000, ISBN 3-929767-43-0 .
- Peter Kuhlbrodt: Inferno Nordhausen. Fateful year 1945 (= research on local history by the Nordhausen City Archives, Harz. Volume 6). Archive of the city of Nordhausen, Nordhausen 1995, ISBN 3-929767-09-0 .
- Jens-Christian Wagner : Production of Death. The Mittelbau-Dora concentration camp. Wallstein, Göttingen 2001 (2nd edition 2004), ISBN 978-3-89244-439-8 .
- Martin Clemens Winter: Public memories of the aerial warfare in Nordhausen. Tectum, Marburg 2005, ISBN 978-3-8288-2221-4 .
Popular science presentations
- Uwe Gerig : Nordhausen. History - home - humor . Gerig, Königstein im Taunus 1991, ISBN 3-928275-09-7 .
- Rainer Hellberg, Paul Lauerwald: Nordhausen - gate to the Harz . City administration, Nordhausen 2004, ISBN 3-00-014133-2 .
- Gabriele Scholz: Nordhausen in old views. Sutton, Erfurt 2002, ISBN 978-3-89702-421-2 ( digitized ).
- Friedrich Christian Lesser , Ernst Günther Förstemann: Fried. Chrn. Lesser's Historical News of the formerly Imperial and the Heil. Roman imperial free city of Nordhausen printed there in 1740 . Eberhard, Nordhausen 1860. Digitized
- Ernst Günther Förstemann: Documented history of the city of Nordhausen up to 1250 , Förstemann, Nordhausen 1840.
- Ernst Günther Förstemann: Small writings on the history of the city of Nordhausen . Förstemann, Nordhausen 1855 ( digitized version ).
- Heinrich Heine : History of Nordhausen and the district "Grafschaft Hohenstein" . Meyer, Hanover 1900 (new edition edited by Vincent Eisfeld. Norderstedt: Book on Demand 2018. ISBN 978-3-7481-2995-0 ).
- Magistrat der Stadt Nordhausen (Ed.): The thousand year old Nordhausen , 2 volumes, Verlag des Magistrats, Nordhausen 1927 (Vol. 1: Hans Silberborth , Stadtarchiv Nordhausen (Ed.): History of the free imperial city of Nordhausen , Nordhausen 1927, reprint Geiger, Horb am Neckar 1997, ISBN 3-89570-288-9 ).
- Matthäus Merian , Martin Zeiller : Nordhausen / Northausen. In: Topographia Superioris Saxoniae. Marian, Franckfurt am Mayn 1650, pp. 145-146. Digitized
- City map of Nordhausen 1: 10,000 (1910)
Further content in the
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- Official website of the city of Nordhausen
- NordhausenWiki - The digital lexicon for Nordhausen
- Literature about Nordhausen in the catalog of the German National Library
- Literature about Nordhausen in the bibliographic database WorldCat
- Article Nordhausen (Thuringia) In: wiki-de.genealogy.net
- City of Nordhausen on YouTube
- Population of the municipalities from the Thuringian State Office for Statistics ( help on this ).
- Hans-Joachim Graul: Nordhuse - Nordhausen. Nordhausen-Salza 2005, p. 46.
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- Eduard Fritze, Gunter Görner: Naturhistorische Chronik . Rockstuhl, Bad Langensalza 2015. p. 347.
- Harry Bresslau and Paul Kehr (eds.): Diplomata 16: The documents of Heinrich III. (Heinrici III. Diplomata). Berlin 1931, pp. 125–126 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Pierre Fütterer: ways and rule. Investigations into the development and recording of space in East Saxony and Thuringia in the 10th and 11th centuries (= Palatium. Volume 2). Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7954-3064-1 , Vol. 1, pp. 296-301.
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- Peter Bühner: The free and imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire. Small revision course . Michael Imhof Verlag, Petersberg 2019, p. 222.
- Pierre Fütterer: ways and rule. Investigations into the development and recording of space in East Saxony and Thuringia in the 10th and 11th centuries (= Palatium. Volume 2). Schnell + Steiner, Regensburg 2016, ISBN 978-3-7954-3064-1 , vol. 1, p. 298f. Note 1350: "However, archaeological finds do not support this assumption so far."
- This and the following according to Karlheinz Blaschke : Nordhausen , in: Lexikon des Mittelalters , Vol. VI, Lachen am Zürichsee 1999, Sp. 1236.
- Paul Kehr (ed.): Diplomata 8: The documents of Ludwig the German, Karlmann and Ludwig the Younger (Ludowici Germanici, Karlomanni, Ludowici Iunioris Diplomata). Berlin 1934, pp. 238–241 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Certificate of Heinrich I. No. 20 Theodor Sickel (Ed.): Diplomata 12: The documents Konrad I., Heinrich I. and Otto I. (Conradi I., Heinrici I. et Ottonis I. Diplomata). Hannover 1879, pp. 55–56 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Imperial certificates in illustrations
- Theodor Sickel (Ed.): Diplomata 12: The documents Konrad I., Heinrich I. and Otto I. (Conradi I., Heinrici I. et Ottonis I. Diplomata). Hanover 1879, pp. 70–71 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Theodor Sickel (Ed.): Diplomata 13: The documents Otto II and Otto III. (Ottonis II. Et Ottonis III. Diplomata). Hanover 1893, pp. 538–539 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Theodor Sickel (Ed.): Diplomata 13: The documents Otto II and Otto III. (Ottonis II. Et Ottonis III. Diplomata). Hanover 1893, pp. 539-540 ( Monumenta Germaniae Historica , )
- Bernd Schütte : Investigations into the life descriptions of Queen Mathilde (MGH, Studies and Texts Vol. 9). Hahn, Hannover 1994, ISBN 3-7752-5409-9 .
- Hans K. Schulze : The marriage certificate of Empress Theophanu , p. 32. Regest in: Hans K. Schulze: Die Heiratsurkunde der Kaiserin Theophanu , p. 89.
- August von Wersebe: Description of the district between the Elbe, Saale and Unstrut, Weser and Werra. Published by Hahn'schen Buchhandlung, Hanover 1829, pages 59
- Hans Oelze: The economic life of the city of Nordhausen am Harz in the last two centuries of its imperial directness (17th and 18th centuries). Trosse, Nordhausen am Harz 1933. p. 6.
- Werner Mägdefrau : The Thuringian Association of Cities in the Middle Ages . Böhlau, Weimar 1977, p. 145.
- Bernd Schmies: Structure and organization of the Saxon Franciscan Province and its Thuringian Custody from the beginnings to the Reformation. In: Thomas T. Müller , Bernd Schmies, Christian Loefke (eds.): For God and the world. Franciscans in Thuringia. Paderborn u. a. 2008, pp. 38–49, here p. 43.
- Claus Priesner : Johann Christian Bernhardt and vitriolic acid. In: Chemistry in our time , 1982, 16, 5, pp. 149-159; doi: 10.1002 / ciuz.19820160504 .
- Rudolf Eckart : Memorial sheets from the history of the former free imperial city of Nordhausen . Leipzig 1895, p. 22.
- Ernst Günther Förstemann; Friedrich Christian Lesser: Historical news of the formerly imperial and the Heil. Roman imperial free city of Nordhausen printed there in 1740 . Nordhausen 1860, p. 245.
- Ronald Füssel: The witch persecutions in the Thuringian area (= publications of the working group for historical witchcraft and crime research in Northern Germany. Volume 2). Hamburg 2003, p. 252 f.
- After 1945 the stadium was named Ernst-Thälmann-Stadion .
- Jens-Christian Wagner: Production of death . Wallstein, Göttingen 2004, p. 131.
- Jens-Christian Wagner: Production of death . Wallstein, Göttingen 2004, p. 132.
- Stadtarchiv Nordhausen (ed.): Chronicle of the city of Nordhausen. 1802 to 1989 (= local history research by the Nordhausen City Archives, Harz. Volume 9). Geiger, Horb am Neckar 2003, ISBN 3-89570-883-6 , p. 343.
- Heinrich Keizer - NordhausenWiki, accessed on August 21, 2020.
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- Stadtarchiv Nordhausen (ed.): Chronicle of the city of Nordhausen. 1802 to 1989 (= local history research by the Nordhausen City Archives, Harz. Volume 9). Geiger, Horb am Neckar 2003, ISBN 3-89570-883-6 , p. 391 / After * Alfred Gottwaldt , Diana Schulle: The "Deportations of Jews" from the German Reich 1941–1945: An annotated chronology. Marix, Wiesbaden 2005, ISBN 3-86539-059-5 , p. 194, originally 148 Jews from the area of the Gestapo Erfurt with Nordhausen were supposed to travel with Nordhausen on this date, but their deportation on May 10, 1942 was included moved to Belzyce via Leipzig. These Jews were previously concentrated in the Marstall of Weimar before the train left Weimar / Leipzig on May 10, 1942.
- Stadtarchiv Nordhausen (ed.): Nordhäuser news. Südharzer Heimatblätter . 1.2014, p. 10.
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- tank station of Rhenania-Ossag AG on NordhausenWiki. Retrieved May 6, 2018
- Rolf Wille: Legendary Merwigslinde . In: The people . Erfurt June 27, 1969.
- Heidelore Kneffel: Fresh, pious, happy, free - Nordhausen's city forest enclosure . In: Park landscapes and their monuments in Nordhausen . Issue 7. Neukirchner publishing house.
- Thüringer Allgemeine: Around 100,000 visitors at the 45th Rolandsfest in Nordhausen , June 16, 2013. Accessed July 23, 2015.
- Roland Group on NordhausenWiki
- Roland Parade . In: NordhausenWiki , accessed on April 11, 2019.
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- NSV boxers secure the championship title early ( memento from December 23, 2014 in the Internet Archive )
- Erich Keyer (ed.): German city book. Handbook of urban history (Volume 2: Central Germany). Kohlhammer Verlag, Stuttgart 1941. p. 626.
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- Historical guide - sites and monuments of history in the districts of Erfurt, Gera, Suhl , Urania-Verlag Leipzig-Jena-Berlin, Leipzig 1978, p. 71
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