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The Diet of Augsburg in 1555, opposite the emperor on both sides the electors, imperial princes, bishops, prelates, etc.

Reichsfürstenrat or Fürstenbank was the name for the college (curia) of imperial princes in the Reichstag of the Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation from about the second half of the 15th century until 1806 . In addition to the Reichsfürstenrat, the Reichstag consisted of the Electors College and the Imperial Cities College .


Since the second half of the 15th century prince who joined Imperial Count , some rich immediate gentlemen, the bishops of the bishoprics and the Empire prelates together. This made them the second college of this kind after the electoral college at the Reichstag. They were concerned with asserting their positions against the emperor and the electors. The Reichsfürstenrat was the curia with the largest number of members in the Reichstag. Due to the different nature of its members, it was also the least homogeneous body.

The Reichsfürstenrat was divided into a secular and a spiritual bank.

The leadership of the spiritual bank lay with secular imperial estates, namely the Archduke of Austria and the Duke of Burgundy . The background was that Austria, with its claim to the leadership of the secular bank , could not assert itself against the Duchy of Bavaria and therefore it was allowed to take over the voting on the spiritual bank as a way out. The situation was similar in the case of Burgundy, whose vote was also held by the (Spanish) Habsburgs . It was followed by the Prince Archbishopric of Salzburg . The Archbishop of Bisanz (Besançon) officially belonged to the empire until 1678, but no longer took part in the diets. In addition to the monasteries and the abbots of some monasteries directly connected to the empire, the high and German masters of the Teutonic Order and the Grand Prior of the Order of St. John belonged to the spiritual bank. The spiritual bank had 37 votes at the end of the empire. Of these, 35 were Viril and 2 Curiate votes.

The Lübeck and Osnabrück monasteries played a special role . Although it had become Protestant, the Diocese of Lübeck continued to exist as a bishopric. In the case of the bishopric of Osnabrück, Protestant and Catholic bishops took turns. Since both areas did not fit either the secular or the spiritual bank, they formed the so-called cross bank between the two bodies.

Voting rights

The members had Viril or Curiate votes depending on their importance . The princes were entitled to virile votes. At the beginning they were tied to the person of the respective prince. If a family died out, the territory could lose its voice. However, the number of virile votes increased when a family split into several lines of princes. This practice ended in 1582. The votes were tied to the territories. At the same time, access to the imperial princes was made more difficult. The territorial principle meant that imperial princes who had several areas with voting rights could also cast these votes. The Hohenzollern of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, for example, had eight votes.

The smaller counts and gentlemen only had the common curiate votes. In the course of time, four regional colleges of counts and lords emerged, each with a curiate vote. These were the Wetterauer Grafenverein , the Swabian , the Franconian and the Niederrheinisch-Westfälische Reichsgrafenkollegium . On the ecclesiastical bench, the non-princely imperial prelates united in the Swabian and Rhenish imperial prelate colleges . Together, the smaller territories and prelates had six curiate votes since 1653. By contrast, the princes had 94 virile votes at the end of the 18th century. Voting took place according to a fixed "call order" alternating between clergy and secular bank.


The directory of the Imperial Princes' College lay alternately with the Archduchy of Austria and the Prince-Archbishopric of Salzburg. Austria (directorium agens) and otherwise Salzburg (directorium quiescens) presided over the meetings.

The claim to equality with the electors, which was made in the Privilegium Maius (legally valid in 1453), was linked to the demand for Austria's Directory in the Imperial Council of Princes after the door to the Electoral College remained permanently closed. Here the ore house met the bitter resistance of its worst adversary in the empire, the house of Wittelsbach. As Duke of Bavaria, it had previously held the board of directors and was not ready to give up first rank on the secular bank. The compromise, which finally allowed everyone involved to save face, is typical of the complicated, but ultimately effective cooperation of the political forces in the Old Kingdom. Austria and Burgundy, also ruled by Habsburg, took their places on the clerical bench. The Archbishop of Salzburg vacated the previously occupied rank and was involved in the directorate of the Imperial Council of Dukes, which was now exercised alternately by the Archduchy of Austria, the Duchy of Burgundy and the Archbishopric of Salzburg. Since the order of appeal of the Imperial Council of Princes always jumped from the clergy to the secular bank, Austria received # 1, Bavaria # 2, Burgundy # 3, Magdeburg # 4 and Salzburg # 5. This ensured that Habsburg, Wittelsbach and Hohenzollern via the instead of the secularized The Duchy of Magdeburg, formed by the archbishopric and changed from the clergy to the secular bank, was involved in the management of this body, which is decisive for imperial politics.

The Perpetual Reichstag 1663

Perpetual Reichstag

Ten years after the Last Reichs Farewell and fifteen years after the Peace of Westphalia , a Reichstag was finally convened again in Regensburg, from which the Perpetual Reichstag was to emerge. The list of the participating imperial princes and their seating arrangements in the council chamber make some constants clear in the function of the imperial princes' council.

The emperor was represented by the Archbishop of Salzburg, the Primate Germaniae , acting as principal commissioner . The now eight electors took their places at the front after Bavaria had risen to electoral dignity instead of the Electorate of Palatinate in 1623 and the latter then received an eighth cure in 1648. The King of Bohemia, in personal union Roman Emperor, did not take part in the deliberations of the Electoral College until the readmission of the Bohemian electorate in 1708. The electors sat in the following order:

The copper engraving by Christoph Fischer about the events in Regensburg in 1663 also shows other officials of the Reichstag. To the left of the principal commissioner is the Konkommissar, Herr Reichshofrat von Crane. In the middle of the hall with the official staff you can see the Reichserbmarschall , Count von Pappenheim , whose sex exercised this honorary office as deputy of the Electors of Saxony as Archmarshal of the Holy Roman Empire. In front of the left-hand side of the Secular Bank as seen from the principal commissioner, the commissioner of the Imperial Majesty, Count von Wolkenstein , gives the lecture; before that, Chamber Councilor Öchsl reads the Praepositio . The Chancellor of the Electorate of Mainz, Mr. Mehl, and the Hettinger Council sit at the director's table.

The imperial princes sat in the following order (numbering according to the classic call order):

First of all, it is noticeable that only around a third of those eligible to vote were actually present. For many imperial princes the effort to participate was too costly and laborious, so that permanent representation by ambassadors became increasingly common. The prominent position of the prince-abbot of Fulda stands out on the ecclesiastical bench, which is probably owed to his rank as a prince and which entered him immediately after the count's emissaries on the governing body of Austria and Salzburg. He was the only prince who had himself appeared at the Reichstag. Then, with the exception of Arenberg and Eggenberg, the secular bank was occupied by Protestant imperial estates, with the Protestant supremacy Sweden and the electors in particular dominating; Baden, Mecklenburg or Holstein, for example, and the votes of the Swabian and Westphalian Counts were not represented. An important reason for the long period between the conclusion of peace in Münster and Osnabrück and the opening of the Reichstag in Regensburg was the denominational conflict in the Wittelsbach house, because the place of honor on the secular bench that had actually been given to the Catholic Duke of Bavaria, who had now been promoted to the Electoral College, was given by the Protestant Palatine branch line Pfalz-Lautern perceived. In the period that followed, the Bavarian seat (# 2) on the Fürstenbank was occupied by various subsidiary lines such as Pfalz-Neuburg or Pfalz-Sulzbach .

The members of the Imperial Council of Princes 1792

Spiritual bank

(Call order) Virile voices

(Call order) Curate voices

Secular bank

(Call order) Virile voices

(Call order) Curate voices

The dissolution of the Reichsfürstenrat

The dissolution of the Reichsfürstenrat took place in fact in three steps. The Peace of Lunéville of February 9, 1801 resulted in the resignation of the imperial estates on the left bank of the Rhine. The Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of February 25, 1803 regulated the compensation of the deposed princes, counts and gentlemen through the secularization of ecclesiastical property. At the same time, the resolution passed a comprehensive reorganization of the Reichsfürstenrat such as the abolition of the clerical bank and the admission of numerous new votes. However, the reform no longer had any political effect. The signing of the Rhine Confederation Act on July 12, 1806 meant the end of the Holy Roman Empire, the Reichstag and the mediation of numerous small and medium-sized imperial estates by the Rhine Confederation states protected by Napoleon.


The peace concluded at Lunéville in 1801 was the recognition under international law of the cession of the left bank of the Rhine to France by the Holy Roman Empire. This finally left the Imperial Council of Dukes:

  • Besançon Archbishopric
  • Margraviate Nomeny
  • Duchy of Savoy
  • Duchy of Burgundy
  • Liège Monastery
  • Stablo Abbey
  • Princely county Mömpelgard
  • Hochstift Worms
  • Speyer Monastery
  • Strasbourg Monastery
  • Hochstift Basel
  • Fürstpropstei Weißenburg
  • Priest Abbey of Prüm
  • Pfalzgrafschaft Pfalz-Lautern
  • Pfalzgrafschaft Pfalz-Simmern
  • Pfalzgrafschaft Pfalz-Zweibrücken
  • Pfalzgrafschaft Pfalz-Veldenz
  • Principality of East Frisia


The main Imperial Deputation Council ratified by the Kaiser and Reich in 1803 with binding effect under international law granted the Archduke of Austria, the Margrave of Baden, the Duke of Württemberg and the Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel the electoral dignity and brought further drastic changes to the Imperial Estates with viril votes, at the same time retaining the newly appointed electors their ancestral virile votes in the Imperial Council of Princes as well as the deposed Grand Duke of Tuscany, who was appointed Elector of Salzburg, the voice of the archbishopric (for the curate votes see the lemmas of the prelate banks and imperial counts colleges). With the reorganization, which was no longer politically effective, Austria (with Tuscany-Salzburg, Modena-Breisgau and Mergentheim), Bavaria and Prussia each had 13 votes, Hanover eight, the Ernestine Saxon duchies seven, Baden six, Württemberg and Mecklenburg over five, Orange and Hesse-Kassel over four, Hesse-Darmstadt and Saxony over three votes. All other members of the Reichsfürstenrat had two or one votes. The distribution of votes from 1803:

  • The Kaiser as Archduke of Austria (# 1) received:
    • Hochstift Trient (# 37, 1806 for Bavaria, 1810 for Italy)
    • Brixen monastery (# 39, 1806 in Bavaria)
    • 4 additional viril voices, 1 each for Styria (# 3), Carinthia (# 16), Krain (# 41), Tyrol (# 79).
  • The Elector of the Palatinate as Duke of Bavaria (Upper Bavaria # 2) received:
    • Bamberg Monastery (# 11)
    • Hochstift Würzburg (# 15, 1805 Grand Duchy of Würzburg for the Grand Duke of Salzburg, formerly Tuscany, 1806 joining the Rhine Confederation)
    • Hochstift Augsburg (# 25)
    • Hochstift Freising (# 31)
    • Hochstift Passau (# 35)
    • Prince Abbey Kempten (# 55)
    • 4 additional virile voices, 1 each for Niederbayern (# 6), Sulzbach (Pfalz-Sulzbach # 8), the Duchy of Berg (# 14) and Mindelheim (# 97),
    • he also carried the votes from Pfalz-Neuburg (# 10) and Leuchtenberg (# 72).
  • The Elector of Brandenburg and King of Prussia as Duke of Magdeburg (# 4) received:
    • Hochstift Hildesheim (# 27, 1807 to the Kingdom of Westphalia )
    • Hochstift Paderborn (# 29)
    • Hochstift Münster (# 47, shared with several imperial counts with curiate voice)
    • Duchy of Western Pomerania (# 66, in fact since 1648)
    • Principality of Cammin (# 76, in fact since 1648)
    • 2 additional virile voices, 1 each for Erfurt (# 106) and Eichsfeld (# 103),
    • he also carried the votes from Brandenburg-Ansbach (# 28), Brandenburg-Kulmbach, renamed Brandenburg-Bayreuth (# 30), Halberstadt (# 40), Minden (# 70) and Ostfriesland (# 93).
  • The Grand Duke of Tuscany, chased out of his Grand Duchy in Italy by Napoleon, received the Principality of Salzburg (# 5) as an Austrian secondary school and electorate:
    • Archbishopric Salzburg (1805 to Austria, 1809 to Bavaria; the electorate transferred to the Grand Duchy of Würzburg in 1805) and retained the virile vote
    • Hochstift Eichstätt (# 17, 1806 in Bavaria)
    • Propstei Berchtesgaden (# 61, 1805 in Austria, 1809 in Bavaria)
  • The Principality of Regensburg (# 7) was created for the Imperial Prince Chancellor Karl Theodor von Dalberg and the Mainz electoral voice was added to it:
    • Hochstift Regensburg (1810 to Bavaria),
    • 1 additional virile vote for the Principality of Aschaffenburg (# 102).
  • The Principality of Mergentheim (# 9) was created as an Austrian secondary school from the Mergentheim mastery of the Teutonic Knight Order (1809 in Württemberg)
  • The Elector of Hanover (occupied by France in 1804, became Westphalen in 1807) and King of England as Duke of Bremen (# 12) received:
    • Hochstift Osnabrück (# 45, 1807 to the Kingdom of Westphalia, 1810 to France)
    • 1 additional virile voice for Göttingen (# 96),
    • he also carried the voices of Braunschweig-Celle (# 34), Braunschweig-Calenberg (# 36), Braunschweig-Grubenhagen (# 38), Verden (# 46) and Sachsen-Lauenburg (# 68).
  • The Duke of Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel (# 32) received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Blankenburg (# 104).
  • The Elector of Saxony received:
    • 3 additional virile voices, 1 each for Margraviate Meißen (# 13) , Burgraviate Meißen (# 71) and Querfurt (# 81).
  • The Duke of Saxe-Coburg (# 18) .
  • The Duke of Saxe-Gotha (# 20) received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Thuringia (# 33), alternating with Electoral Saxony and Saxony-Weimar.
    • he also carried the voice of Sachsen-Altenburg (# 22).
  • The Duke of Sachsen-Weimar (# 24) received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Thuringia (# 33), alternating with course Saxony and Saxony-Gotha,
    • he also carried the voice of Sachsen-Eisenach (# 26).
  • The Duke of Saxony-Meiningen received:
    • the viril voice for Henneberg (# 74) alone, previously alternating between the Electorate of Saxony and the Ernestine duchies.
  • The Margrave of Baden (Baden-Durlach # 44) who was appointed elector received:
    • Remains of the Speyer Monastery on the right bank of the Rhine (Bruchsal (# 19))
    • Remains of the bishopric of Strasbourg on the right bank of the Rhine (Ettenheim (# 21))
    • Remains of the bishopric of Basel on the right bank of the Rhine
    • Hochstift Konstanz (# 23)
    • he also carried the votes from Baden-Baden (# 42) and Baden-Hachburg (# 48).
  • The Duke of Württemberg (# 50) , who was appointed elector, received:
    • Fürstpropstei Ellwangen (# 57)
    • 3 additional virile voices, 1 each for Teck (# 43), Zwiefalten (# 89) and Tübingen (# 80).
  • The Duke of Oldenburg (# 54) (1810 to France) received:
    • Lübeck Abbey (# 49).
  • The Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (# 56) with Mecklenburg-Güstrow (# 58) and the Principality of Schwerin (# 75).
  • The Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Stargard (# 105),
    • he also carried the voice of Ratzeburg (# 77).
  • Order of St. John (# 59) .
  • The Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt (# 60) received:
    • Remains of the Worms monastery on the right bank of the Rhine
    • 2 additional virile voices, 1 each for the Duchy of Westphalia (# 63) and Starkenburg (# 92).
  • The Elector of Hessen-Kassel (# 62) received:
    • 2 additional virile voices, 1 each for Fritzlar (# 84) and Hanau (# 51),
    • he also carried the voice of Hersfeld (# 78).
  • The King of Sweden as Duke of Western Pomerania (# 64) .
  • The King of Denmark as Duke of Holstein-Glückstadt (# 52) received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Plön (# 65).
  • The Duke of Modena, chased out of his Duchy in Italy by Napoleon, received the Principality of Breisgau (# 67) :
    • Landgraviate of Breisgau (1806 to Baden)
    • Landvogtei Ortenau (# 101, 1806 in Baden).
  • The Prince of Orange as Duke of Nassau-Dillenburg (# 90) received:
    • Hochstift Fulda (# 53, 1810 to the Grand Duchy of Frankfurt )
    • Hochstift Corvey (# 69, 1807 to the Kingdom of Westphalia),
    • he also carried the voice of Nassau-Hadamar (# 88).
  • The Prince of Nassau-Usingen (# 107).
  • The Prince of Nassau-Weilburg (# 108).
  • The Prince of Anhalt (# 73).
  • The Duke of Arenberg gave his "virile voice" (# 82).
  • The Prince of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (# 83).
  • The Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (# 109).
  • The Prince of Lobkowitz (# 85).
  • The Prince of Salm-Salm received his own viril voice (# 86), which was previously shared with Salm-Kyrburg.
  • The Prince of Salm-Kyrburg (# 110).
  • The Prince of Dietrichstein (# 87).
  • The Prince of Auersperg (# 91).
  • The Prince of Fürstenberg (# 94) received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Baar and Stühlingen (# 111).
  • The Prince of Schwarzenberg (# 95) received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Klettgau (# 112).
  • The Prince of Liechtenstein (# 98).
  • The Prince of Thurn und Taxis (# 99) received:
    • 1 additional virile voice for Buchau (# 113).
  • The Prince of Schwarzburg (# 100).
  • The Prince of Waldeck (# 114).
  • The Prince of Löwenstein-Wertheim-Rochefort (# 115).
  • The Prince of Oettingen-Spielberg (# 116).
  • The Prince of Oettingen-Wallerstein (# 117).
  • The Prince of Solms-Braunfels (# 118).
  • The Prince of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Öhringen (# 119).
  • The Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Schillingsfürst (# 120).
  • The Prince of Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Bartenstein (# 121).
  • The Prince of Isenburg-Birstein (# 122).
  • The Prince of Kaunitz for Rietberg (# 123).
  • The Prince of Reuss-Plauen-Greiz (# 124).
  • The Prince of Leiningen (# 125).
  • The Prince of Ligne for Edelstetten (# 126).
  • The Duke of Looz for Wolbeck (# 127).
  • The Helvetic Republic received:
    • Chur bishopric (territory since 1648 federal; bishop imperial status without immediate land, virile voice expired).
  • Swabian Imperial Counts College (# 128)
  • Wetterauisches Reichsgrafenkollegium (# 129)
  • Franconian Imperial Counts College (# 130)
  • Westphalian Imperial Counts College. (# 131)


In 1806 the Rhine Confederation took the place of the dissolved Holy Roman Empire and the following former imperial estates with virile votes became signatory states:

  • The Elector of Pfalzbaiern (# 01), who was appointed King of Bavaria, received:
    • Pfalz-Neuburg
    • Brandenburg-Ansbach ( Principality of Ansbach 1806 under French military administration, 1807 part of Bavaria, 1810 offices of Crailsheim and Creglingen part of Württemberg)
    • Brandenburg-Bayreuth ( Principality of Bayreuth 1806 under French military administration, "Pays réservé" for future barter, 1810 to Bavaria)
    • Princely Landgraviate of Leuchtenberg
    • Prince von Lobkowitz prince of Störnstein
    • Rule of Seinsheim of Prince von Schwarzenberg
  • The elector of Württemberg (# 02), who was appointed king, received:
    • Reign of Neuravensburg , which fell to Prince von Dietrichstein in 1803
    • The possessions that fell to the Prince of Thurn and Taxis in 1803
  • The prince primate of the Rhine Confederation, Karl Theodor von Dalberg, as legal successor to the secularized Archbishop of Mainz and Bishop of Regensburg (# 03)
  • The elector of Baden (# 04), who was appointed Grand Duke (with the former virile votes for Baden-Baden, Baden-Durlach, Baden-Hachberg) received:
    • The possessions of the Prince of Fürstenberg
    • The possessions of the Order of St. John
    • Gefürstete County Tengen the Prince of Auersperg
  • The Grand Duke von Berg (# 05) created by Napoleon (with the former virile voice for Nassau-Hadamar)
  • The Landgrave of Hessen-Darmstadt, who was appointed Grand Duke (# 06)
  • The Princes of Nassau-Usingen (# 07) and Nassau-Weilburg (# 08) (with the former virile voice of Nassau-Dillenburg)
  • The princes of Hohenzollern-Hechingen (# 09) and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (# 10) (with the former common virile voice for Hohenzollern)
  • The princes of Salm-Salm (# 11) and Salm-Kyrburg (# 12) (for their "Virilstimme moved to this country" - the offices of Bocholt and Ahaus of the bishopric of Münster - 1810 in France)
  • The Prince of Isenburg (# 13) was not an imperial estate with a virile vote, but director of the Wetterau Imperial Counts College
  • The Prince of Arenberg (# 14) (for "his virile voice transferred to this side of the world" - Meppen office of the bishopric of Münster - 1810 to France)
  • The Prince of Liechtenstein (# 15)
  • The Grand Duke of Würzburg (# 17) (formerly Grand Duke of Tuscany, 1803 Grand Duke and Elector of Salzburg)
  • The Duke of Saxony (Kursachsen) (# 18)
  • The Duke of Saxe-Weimar (# 19) (with Saxe-Eisenach)
  • The Duke of Saxe-Gotha (# 20) (with Sachsen-Altenburg)
  • The dukes of Saxony-Meiningen (# 21) and Saxony-Hildburghausen (# 23) (with the former virile voice for Henneberg)
  • The Duke of Saxe-Coburg (# 22)
  • The princes of Anhalt-Dessau (# 24), Anhalt-Bernburg (# 25) and Anhalt-Köthen (# 26) (with the former common voice for Anhalt)
  • The Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin (# 27) (with Mecklenburg-Güstrow and Principality of Schwerin)
  • The Duke of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (# 28) (with the former virile voice for the Principality of Ratzeburg)
  • The Duke of Oldenburg (# 29) (with the former virile voice for Holstein-Oldenburg, 1810 to France)
  • The princes of Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (# 36) and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (# 37) (with the former common virile voice for Schwarzburg)
  • The King of Westphalia (# 39) created by Napoleon (with the former virile voice for the Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel, which was appointed an electorate). 1807 were added to the Kingdom of Westphalia:
    • Duchy of Magdeburg
    • Duchy of Brunswick-Celle
    • Duchy of Brunswick-Calenberg
    • Duchy of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen
    • Duchy of Brunswick-Wolfenbüttel
    • Duchy of Bremen
    • Principality of Verden
    • Duchy of Saxony-Lauenburg
    • Principality of Halberstadt
    • Landgraviate of Hessen-Kassel (Kurhessen)
    • Principality of Minden (1810 Minden west of the Weser to France)
    • Princely county of Henneberg
    • Principality of Hersfeld
  • Was occupied by France in 1807:
    • Duchy of Western Pomerania (returned to Sweden in 1809)



  • Carl Wilhelm von Lancizolle : Overview of the German imperial class and territorial conditions before the French Revolutionary War, the changes that have occurred since then and the current components of the German Confederation and the federal states. Dümmler, Berlin 1830 (reprint). With an introduction edited by Hans Hattenhauer. Olms, Hildesheim et al. 2003, ISBN 3-487-11896-3 ( Historia Scientiarum - Department of History and Politics ), online .
  • Gerhard Taddey (ed.): Lexicon of German history . People, events, institutions. From the turn of the times to the end of the 2nd World War. 2nd, revised edition. Kröner, Stuttgart 1983, ISBN 3-520-80002-0 , p. 1022 f.
  • Rudolf Hoke : Austrian and German legal history. 2nd improved edition. Böhlau, Vienna et al. 1996, ISBN 3-205-98179-0 , pp. 152–154 ( Böhlau study books ).
  • Axel Gotthard: The Old Reich. 1495-1806. 4th revised and bibliographically supplemented edition. Scientific Book Society, Darmstadt 2009, ISBN 978-3-534-23039-6 , p. 21f. ( Compact story ).
  • Waldemar Domke, The Viril Voices in the Reichs-Fürstenrath from 1495–1654 , Breslau 1882.

Individual evidence

  1. ↑ A detailed outline of the Reichstag solemnity was employed and held on (10th) (20th) January 1663 in Regenspurg on the usual large town hall hall when the Imperial Proposition opened (copper engraving by Christoph Fischer, in: Hans-Jürgen Becker, Der Reichstag zu Regensburg, Regensburg 2003, reprint of the original edition 1786)
  2. Date according to Martin Dallmeier and Martha Schad : The Princely House of Thurn and Taxis. Friedrich Pustet, Regensburg 1996, ISBN 3-7917-1492-9 , p. 60.
  3. Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of February 25, 1803, § 31
  4. Reichsdeputationshauptschluss of February 25, 1803, § 32


  1. ^ Duchy of Magdeburg, Margraviate Brandenburg-Ansbach, Margraviate Brandenburg-Kulmbach, Principality of Halberstadt, Duchy of Western Pomerania, Principality of Minden, Cammin and East Friesland.
  2. ^ Guidobald von Thun and Hohenstein . In 1662 he was appointed Principal Commissioner at the Perpetual Diet in Regensburg by Emperor Leopold I. Since then he has rarely been to Salzburg. The Bishop of Chiemsee Franz Vigilius von Spaur acted as his representative .
  3. On the contemporary copper engraving, only six electors can be recognized at the front, as the Archbishop of Trier has taken the chair opposite the Principal Commissioner.
  4. ^ Hugo Everhard Cratz von Scharfenstein (* before 1595; † March 13, 1663 at the Reichstag in Regensburg), Bishop of Worms 1654 - 1663.
  5. ^ From the Aldenhof line of the Electoral Cologne ministerial family Spee .
  6. From the family of the master builder at St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna, Jörg Öchsl (1506 - 1510).
  7. From the von Gersdorff family, who live in Gersdorf in Upper Lusatia.
  8. Count Christian from the Engelbert male line of the Counts of Sayn-Wittgenstein was enfeoffed in 1654 by the Electoral Palatinate with the County of Sayn.
  9. Wenzeslaus von Thun and Hohenstein (1629 - 1673), Prince-Bishop of Passau and Gurk, half-brother of the Prince-Archbishop of Salzburg, Guidobald von Thun and Hohenstein , who acted as Principal Commissioner .
  10. ^ Prince Abbot Joachim von Gravenegg.
  11. Johann Adam von Senglau, Chancellor of Würzburg and Bamberg.
  12. Christoph Rudolf von Stadion (* December 1638; † January 17, 1700), imperial baron, president of the court council, cathedral provost, multiple candidate for the office of elector in Mainz.
  13. ^ Wolfgang Franz Schenk von Castell († 1669), Canon in Eichstätt.
  14. ^ Adam Lorenz von Toerring-Stein (* 13 August 1614; † 16 August 1666), provost, 1663 bishop of Regensburg.
  15. From the family of the imperial commissioner Johannes von Renner, owner of Allmendingen Castle (1516).
  16. ^ Wilhelm von Winkelhausen († 1669), canon and cathedral dean in St. Peter's Cathedral in Osnabrück.
  17. David II. Disgrace von Weissenwolff (1604 - 1672).
  18. Philipp Christoph von der Lancken (born October 31, 1617; † July 2, 1677), Swedish-Pomeranian diplomat and chancellor.
  19. ^ Johann Thomae, President of the Consistory in Altenburg.
  20. ^ Curt Asche von Marenholtz (born October 25, 1619; † October 29, 1674 in Regensburg), Elector of Brandenburg's secret and Halberstadt government councilor.
  21. Gottfried von Jena (* November 20, 1624; † January 8, 1703), Chancellor of the Duchy of Magdeburg in Halle. Because of his excellent knowledge of the law, Kurbrandenburg appointed him envoy to the Reichstag in Regensburg in 1662.
  22. From the Hessian-Waldeck family of the Dalwigk.
  23. From the knight family of sables from Giebelstadt.
  24. Arenberg prince in 1576, 1645 Duke of Aarschot, 1675 curiate vote in the Westphalian Imperial Counts College .
  25. ^ Eggenberg prince in 1623, Duke of Krumau in 1625 , Count von Gradisca prince in 1647, extinct in 1717.
  26. ↑ Virile voice alternating with Basel.
  27. Virile voice alternating with Brixen.
  28. ↑ Virile voice alternating with Osnabrück and Liège.
  29. ↑ Virile voice alternating with Münster and Liège. Reformation 1543, from 1648 alternating between a Catholic prince-bishop and a Protestant prince from the House of Braunschweig-Lüneburg. Special regulation for Osnabrück: If the bishop was Protestant, it sat with Lübeck on the cross bench between the clerical and secular bank.
  30. Virilstimme alternating with Münster and Osnabrück.
  31. 1530 Reformation, 1535 first Protestant bishop, since 1555 administrators from the House of Holstein-Gottorf. Despite the evangelical creed, Lübeck was still part of the ecclesiastical bank, seat on a cross bench between the ecclesiastical and the secular bank.
  32. Virilstimme with Ellwangen, Murbach and Lure competing
  33. ^ Virilstimme with Ellwangen and Kempten competing
  34. Virilstimme with Kempten, Murbach and Lure competing
  35. Virilstimme with Weißenburg / Prüm and Stablo / Corvey competing
  36. Virilstimme internally with Prüm and still competing with Berchtesgaden and Stablo / Corvey. Weißenburg in personal union with the Bishop of Speyer.
  37. Virilstimme internally with Weißenburg and still competing with Berchtesgaden and Stablo / Corvey. Prüm in personal union with the Archbishop of Trier.
  38. Virilstimme internally with Corvey, still competing with Berchtesgaden and Weißenburg / Prüm.
  39. Virilstimme internally with Stablo, still competing with Berchtesgaden and Weißenburg / Prüm.
  40. Duke in Bavaria was a title that the Wittelsbach dukes of Palatinate-Neuburg and the secondary lines derived from them carried. The other family members held the title Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.
  41. Duke in Bavaria was a title that the Wittelsbach dukes of Palatinate-Zweibrücken and the subsidiary lines derived from them carried. The other family members held the title Pfalzgraf bei Rhein.
  42. Voice leadership of the Ernestine duchies alternating.
  43. Voice leadership of the Ernestine duchies alternating.
  44. Voice leadership of the Ernestine duchies alternating. The voice was suspended because of a dispute over the share of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld and Saxe-Meiningen
  45. Voice leadership of the Ernestine duchies alternating.
  46. Voice leadership of the Ernestine duchies alternating.
  47. 1707–1735 on loan to the Principality of Braunschweig-Blankenburg
  48. ^ The first Elector of Hanover, Ernst August I (1661–1698), previously Bishop of Osnabrück, enforced a house law in 1692 with the help of the Emperor, which decreed the primogeneity and the indivisibility of the united duchies. Only Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel stayed away from Guelph territory for a long time.
  49. ^ Viril voice alternating with Mecklenburg-Güstrow.
  50. ↑ Virile voice alternating with Mecklenburg-Schwerin.
  51. Virilstimme alternating with Hessen-Darmstadt.
  52. ↑ Virile voice alternating with Hessen-Kassel.
  53. ↑ Virile voice alternating with Baden-Durlach.
  54. Since 1720 only formally member since, following the Peace of Utrecht in 1713, the dukes became sovereigns of the Kingdom of Sardinia ("Sardinia Piemont") and therefore no longer voted at the meetings of the Upper Rhine Empire.
  55. ^ Virilstimme von Anhalt-Bernburg, -Köthen, -Dessau, -Zerbst led together, senior had the lead.
  56. Virilstimme led alternately through the Electorate of Saxony and the Ernestine duchies.
  57. 1736 Takeover of the seat for the Duchy of Lorraine in the Imperial Council of Dukes. Under French sovereignty since 1766.
  58. ↑ Virilst voice jointly for Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen.
  59. Voice guidance from 1739 together by Salm-Salm and Salm-Kyrburg.
  60. Nassau-Diez-Oranien led the vote of Nassau-Hadamar in the Imperial Council of Dukes together with Nassau-Dillenburg from 1711.
  61. Seat in the Reichsfürstenrat due to the Reichsherbgeneralpostmeisteramt (Reichsheir General Postmaster General), which has been declared an imperial throne (80,000 Reichstaler). Since 1743 Imperial Principal Commissioner in the Perpetual Diet of Regensburg.
  62. Virilstimme together for Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt.
  63. Besançon since 1648 under Spanish sovereignty, but still valid as a direct empire until 1678, ceded to France in the Peace of Nijmegen on August 10, 1678; the vote in the Reichsfürstenrat was no longer exercised.
  64. ^ Nomeny and the Duchy of Lorraine fell to France on February 23, 1766 by agreement; the voice in the Reichsfürstenrat was silent.
  65. In 1720 Savoy received the royal title for Sardinia in an exchange for Sicily initiated by Austria and thus effectively left the empire, occupied by French revolutionary troops in 1792.
  66. 1789 Brabant Revolution in the Austrian Netherlands, occupied by French revolutionary troops in 1794, annexed by France in 1795, recognized under international law in the Peace of Campo Formio on October 17, 1797.
  67. ^ Liège occupied after the Battle of Fleurus (1794) and annexed by France in 1795, recognized under international law in the Peace of Campo Formio on October 17, 1797.
  68. Stablo occupied by French revolutionary troops in 1794, annexed by France in 1795, recognized under international law in the Peace of Campo Formio on October 17, 1797.
  69. Mömpelgard ceded to France by Württemberg in the supplementary agreement of August 7th to the Paris Peace of 1796
  70. Kaub 1803 to Nassau-Usingen.
  71. ^ East Frisia to Holland in 1807, back to France in 1810.
  72. ^ The imperial county Niederisenburg owned by the Archdiocese of Trier in 1803 to the Principality of Isenburg. In 1806 Isenburg-Birstein joined the Rheinbund, acquired the estates of Isenburg-Philippseich and half of the rule of the Counts of Schönborn-Heusenstamm, secured sovereignty over the lines of Isenburg-Büdingen, Isenburg-Wächtersbach, Isenburg-Meerholz and united so are all Isenburg goods. In 1815 it was mediated and first came to Austria and in 1816 partly to Hessen-Darmstadt, partly to Hessen-Kassel.
  73. The Principality of Liechtenstein is the only sovereign monarchy of the 39 Confederation of the Rhine that still exists in the 21st century.