Calendar overview 1705
|Sendlinger murder Christmas are over 1000 Bavarian insurgents slaughtered by the imperial Imperial Army.|
|Edmund Halley calculates the orbit of the comet later named after him .||Hildesheim Relations Courier appears for the first time.|
|1705 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1153/54 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1697/98 (turn of the year 10/11 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1110/11 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2248/49 (southern Buddhism); 2247/48 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||73rd (74th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1067/68 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4038/39 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||1116/17 (turn of the year April 24/25)|
|Jewish calendar||5465/66 (September 18-19)|
|Coptic calendar||1421/22 (September 10-11)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2015/16 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2016/17 (New Year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1761/62 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Holy Roman Empire
- May 5th : After the death of Emperor Leopold I , his son Joseph I succeeds him as Roman-German Emperor and King of Bohemia , Croatia and Hungary . He exchanged his father's cabinet and raised his former tutor Karl Theodor Otto zu Salm to the position of chief steward.
War of Spanish Succession and Bavarian popular uprising
- August 16 : In the Battle of Cassano as part of the War of the Spanish Succession, the French troops under Louis II Joseph de Bourbon, duc de Vendôme , suffer heavy losses, but ultimately defeat the Allied Austrian and Prussian troops under Eugene of Savoy and Leopold I. from Anhalt-Dessau . The imperial family withdraw to Treviglio, the injured are brought to Palazzuolo. The Austrian army has to retreat to Tyrol for the winter. Eugen's attempt to help the new ally, Duke Viktor Amadeus II of Savoy in the battle for Piedmont , failed. Nevertheless, France postponed the conquest of Piedmont on the instructions of Louis XIV until the following year.
- September 13 : The siege of Barcelona by the Hague Grand Alliance begins.
- October 7th : Barcelona , besieged by the allies by land and sea, surrenders. The whole province of Catalonia falls to the Habsburgs.
- Beginning of November: The Bavarian popular uprising against the imperial occupation under Joseph I begins in the Upper Palatinate , after Elector Maximilian Emanuel of Bavaria was defeated and driven out in the War of the Spanish Succession last year . The uprising spreads quickly over the Danube into the Rottal and the lower Inn and soon encompasses large areas of Lower Bavaria , the Innviertel and eastern Upper Bavaria . The fortresses Burghausen , Schärding and Braunau are taken. The entire area between the Danube and Inn is conquered and the uprising spreads to the Bavarian Forest and Kelheim an der Donau. The leaders of the uprising include Matthias Agidius Fuchs and Georg Sebastian Plinganser .
- December 19 : In the Tölzer Patent , the Oberlanders decide to take part in the uprising.
- December 21 : Representatives of the four estates of the nobility , clergy , citizens and farmers gather for a state defense congress , the so-called " Braunau Parliament " in the city quarter of Baron von Paumgarten in the Breuninger inn in Braunau am Inn .
- December 25th : In the " Sendlinger Murder Christmas ", over 1000 freedom fighters from Upper Bavaria, mostly farmers, are butchered by the imperial army . The Bavarian people's uprising then collapses.
- December 28th : A general amnesty is announced for simple insurrectionists, while “ringleaders” are still sought.
Great Northern War
- June 30th : Under the leadership of Kondrati Afanassjewitsch Bulavin , a stricken and soldiers uprising begins in Astrakhan .
- July 16 : The Swedish army under General Adam Lewenhaupt defeats the Russian army under General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetew in the Battle of Gemauerthof (today: Mūrmuiža in Latvia) in the Great Northern War . The losses of around 2,000 dead and 2,000 to 3,000 wounded are perceived by Tsar Peter the Great as a “minor misfortune”.
- June and July: The Swedish fleet under Admiral Cornelius Anckarstjerna tried twice to occupy St. Petersburg without success ; the first time the Swedes try to bypass the Kronstadt fortress , and the second time they try to avoid the coastal fortresses on the island of Kotlin .
- July 31 : In the Battle of Rakowitz , an army consisting of Saxony and Poland under Otto Arnold Paykull is defeated by a five times smaller Swedish army under Carl Nieroth .
- August 25 : Under the leadership of Tsar Peter I and Anikita Repnin , the Russian army begins the siege of Mitau .
- September 3 : The Russian army under General Anikita Repnin occupies Mitau (today: Jelgava in Latvia), the then capital of Courland .
- September 14th : The Russian army under General Field Marshal Boris Sheremetev occupies the Marienland fortress (Bauska, Latvia).
- October 4th : Stanislaus I. Leszczyński is crowned King of Poland.
- November 18th : The Warsaw Peace Treaty is concluded. King August II does not accept the treaty and declares the text to be valid only between Sweden and Poland-Lithuania , whereas the state of war with the Electorate of Saxony continues to prevail in the Great Northern War .
- November: Peter the Great founds the Russian Marine Infantry by decree .
Other events in Europe
- The uprising of the camisards in the Cevennes breaks out again after attacks by French troops, but is suppressed by April. Numerous rebels, including Jean Cavalier , then entered the British service and fought against France in the War of the Spanish Succession.
- December 13 : During the uprising of Francis II Rákóczi , the battle of Szentgotthárd takes place .
- Husain I. ibn Ali becomes Bey of Tunis under formal Ottoman rule . He founded the Husainid dynasty .
City rights and first documentary mentions
- April 5 : Frederick I , King in Prussia, had Lietzenburg Palace and the adjacent settlement renamed Charlottenburg and gave it city rights .
- John Lawson founds Bath, the first permanent settlement in North Carolina .
- Oberhofen is first mentioned in a document.
- June 15 : In Dresden the government decrees the first public transport : Johann Friedrich Landsberger, head of the alms office, encourages transport by litter carriers , whose surpluses should benefit the poor.
- Count Johann Philipp von Isenburg-Offenbach legalized the settlement of Huguenots in the city, which had already begun years before, and gave the new citizens privileges. Offenbach am Main is still struggling with the catastrophic consequences of the Thirty Years' War and has tried to increase its attractiveness through targeted protection. Before this time, Offenbach was known as a garden city, the only products of supraregional importance are the so-called Offenbach faience . In order to avoid conflicts with the established professions, the French religious refugees are forbidden to work in agriculture or crafts. As a result, these manufactories set up small businesses with initial industrial approaches .
- In Bielefeld , the smoke is tobacco factory of Johann Georg Crüwell first mentioned in documents.
- A forge run by the Goldhofer family is mentioned for the first time in Memmingen .
- The Spiegelberg mirror manufacturer is founded.
science and technology
- April 16 : Isaac Newton is for his contributions to the science of Queen Anne to beat Knight .
- December 19 : The Dutch scientist Nicolaus Samuelis Cruquius (hydraulic engineer and cartographer) starts in Delft as one of the first worldwide with regular meteorological recordings ( temperature , air pressure , humidity , precipitation ). Thus, uninterrupted weather records have existed in the Netherlands since 1706.
- The natural scientist and artist Maria Sibylla Merian publishes her main work Metamorphosis insectorum Surinamensium based on her trip to Suriname and after more than three years of work .
- Edmund Halley sets up his theory of comets and proves the periodicity of the comet Halley .
- January 8th : The world premiere of Almira, Queen of Castile , the first opera by Georg Friedrich Händel based on the libretto by Friedrich Christian Feustking , takes place under the direction of Reinhard Keizer at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg. It is a resounding success and will have 20 performances by February 25th.
- February 25 : Georg Friedrich Handel's second opera Nero is also premiered at the Theater am Gänsemarkt. The tenor Johann Mattheson gives his last stage role in it. Handel is not satisfied with this libretto by Friedrich Christian Feustking, which is why the work, which is now considered lost, will be discontinued after three performances.
- August 5th : The opera Die Roman Unrest, or The noble Octavia by Reinhard Keizer with the libretto by Barthold Feind is premiered at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- November 29th : The world premiere of the musical tragedy Lucretia by Reinhard Keizer takes place at the Theater am Gänsemarkt in Hamburg.
- November 17 : Prince Georg Wilhelm of Brandenburg-Bayreuth donates based on the English Order of the Garter the Order of sincerity as a court order of knights .
- November: The 20-year-old Johann Sebastian Bach travels for study purposes from Arnstadt to Lübeck and studied there Dietrich Buxtehude , the 70-year-old organist of St. Mary's Church , which is very fond of him.
- The distressed Polish King Augustus the Strong founds the Order of the White Eagle based on the model of the Prussian Order of the Black Eagle .
- The pastor and people's missionary Louis-Marie Grignion de Montfort founds the Montfortan religious order in Brittany .
- The Elči-Ibrahim-Pascha-Medresa Islamic University in Travnik is founded.
- September 28 : 121 people are killed in a fire at a pilgrims' house in Svatý Kopeček in the Czech Republic .
Historical maps and views
- January 14th : Jean-Baptiste Charles Bouvet de Lozier , French navigator and explorer († 1786 )
- January 24th : Carlo Broschi, called Farinelli , famous Italian singer († 1782 )
- February 12 : Johann Elias Bach , German composer († 1755 )
- February 15 : Charles André van Loo , French painter († 1765 )
- February 20 : Nicolas Chédeville , French composer and oboist († 1782 )
- February 24 : Hieronymus David Gaub , German physician and chemist († 1780 )
- February 27 : Peter Artedi , Swedish naturalist († 1735 )
- March 12 : Noël de Jourda, comte de Vaux , Marshal of France († 1788 )
- March 21 : Lorenz Natter , German gemstone cutter, gem cutter and medalist († 1763 )
- March 30th : August Johann Rösel von Rosenhof , German naturalist and miniature painter († 1759 )
- May 4 : Justin Gerhard Duising , German physician and university professor († 1761 )
- May 5 : John Campbell, 4th Earl of Loudoun , British peer, politician and general († 1782 )
- May 17th (baptized): Ambrosius Stub , Danish poet († 1758 )
- July 6th (baptized): Martin Kröncke , German mint master († 1774 )
- July 10 : Daniel Stadler , German Jesuit († 1764 )
- July 31 : August Franz Friedrich zu Castell-Remlingen , ruler of the county of Castell († 1767 )
- August 8 : Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff , Venetian scholar, poet and librettist († 1750 )
- August 19 : Johann Gottfried Biedermann , genealogist for the Franconian region († 1766 )
- August 31 : Henning von Ahlefeldt , Danish Chamberlain and Privy Councilor († 1778 )
- September 5 : Catherine-Jeanne Dupré , French actress († 1767 )
- September 7th : Matthäus Günther , German painter († 1788 )
- September 19 : Marguerite-Antoinette Couperin , French harpsichordist († around 1778 )
- September 21 : Richard Turpin , English mugger and cattle thief († 1739 )
- September 24 : Leopold Joseph von Daun , Austrian field marshal († 1766 )
- September 27 : Herman Kaau-Boerhaave , Dutch physician († 1753 )
- September 24 , 28 or 29 : Johann Peter Kellner , German composer († 1772 )
- October 6 : Maximilian Trumler , Italian master stonemason and sculptor († 1749 )
- October 23 : Maximilian Ulysses Browne , Austrian field marshal of Irish descent († 1757 )
- October 29 : Gerhard Friedrich Müller , German historian and Siberia researcher († 1783 )
- October 31 : Lorenzo Ganganelli, under the name of Clement XIV. Pope († 1774 )
- November 4 : Louis-Élisabeth de la Vergne de Tressan , French writer and encyclopedist († 1782 or 1783 )
- November 17 : Karl Georg Friedrich von Flemming , Saxon envoy, general of the infantry and secret cabinet minister († 1767 )
- November 23 : Thomas Birch , English historian and writer († 1766 )
- November 29 : Michael Christian Festing , English violinist and composer († 1752 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Conrad Graf von Ahlefeldt , Count and Lord on Gut Eschelsmark († 1786 )
- Karl von Arberg , German officer († 1768 )
- Rosa Bavarese , Bavarian electoral chamber singer († 1755 )
- Johann Jacob Cramer , German flautist († 1770 )
- Rudolph Culemann , German civil servant († 1771 )
- Friderike Elisabeth von Grabow , German poet and educator († 1779 )
- Dawit Guramishvili , Georgian poet († 1792 )
- January 3 : Luca Giordano , Italian painter, fresco artist and etcher (* 1634 )
- January 5th : Georg Christoph Eimmart , Nuremberg astronomer, mathematician and engraver (* 1638 )
- January 10 : Étienne Pavillon , French lawyer and writer (* 1632 )
- January 11 : Dominik Andreas I. von Kaunitz , Austrian diplomat and privy councilor at the imperial court, Reichsvizekanzler (* 1655 )
- January 13 : Madame d'Aulnoy , French writer (* 1650 / 51 )
- January 17th : John Ray , British naturalist, sometimes called the father of British natural history (* 1627 )
- Matthias Möller , Mayor of Greifenberg in Pomerania (* 1658 ) January:
- February 1 : Sophie Charlotte of Hanover , Queen in Prussia (* 1668 )
- February 5 : Olof Bromelius , Swedish botanist and doctor (* 1639 )
- February 5 : Jean Gilles , French composer (* 1668 )
- February 5 : Philipp Jacob Spener , German Protestant theologian and one of the most famous exponents of Pietism (* 1635 )
- February 16 : Gertraud Moller , Königsberg poet (* 1641 )
- February 20 : Lorenz Beger , German lawyer, archivist and numismatist (* 1653 )
- February 21 : Johann Praetorius , German astronomer, educator and musician (* 1634 )
- Pierre Beauchamp , French violinist, composer, dancer and choreographer (* 1631 ) February:
- March 14 : Nicolaus Wilhelm Beckers , doctor from the Spanish Netherlands, personal physician to Emperor Leopold I (* around 1630 )
- March 14 : James Scott, Earl of Dalkeith , Scottish soldier (* 1674 )
- March 20 : Maximilian Philipp Hieronymus , Duke of Bavaria-Leuchtenberg and Regent of the Electorate of Bavaria (* 1638 )
- March 20 : Martin Trumler , Italian stonemason and sculptor (* 1651 )
- March 22 : Christian Heinrich Postel , German lawyer, epic poet and librettist (* 1658 )
- March 30th : Johannes Pery , Swiss stonemason and sculptor (* 1670 )
- April 2 : Johann Löhner , German composer, organist and singer (* 1645 )
- April 5 : Itō Jinsai , Japanese Confucian philosopher (* 1627 )
- April 13 : Balthasar Ableithner , German sculptor (* 1614 )
- before April 17th: Johann Paul von Westhoff , German composer and violinist (* 1656 )
- May 5 : Leopold I , Holy Roman Emperor (* 1640 )
- May 8th : Otto Graf von Schwerin , Brandenburg-Prussian Privy Councilor and diplomat (* 1645 )
- before May 17th: Johann Moritz Richter , Thuringian architect and town planner (* 1647 )
- June 4th : Wilhelm Jakob Rinck von Baldenstein , Prince-Bishop of Basel (* 1624 )
- June 10 : Michael Wigglesworth , American theologian, preacher and poet (* 1631 )
- June 16 : Gotthard Kerkring , Mayor of Lübeck (* 1639 )
- June 20 : Michiel van Musscher , Dutch painter and Old Master (* around 1643 )
- July 1 : Giovanni Andrea Bontempi , Italian castrato, music writer and composer (* around 1624 )
- July 12th / 13th : Titus Oates , English clergyman and seducer (* 1649 )
- July 24 : Christoph Burckhardt , Basel politician (* 1631 )
- July 31 : Maria Hueber , Tyrolean nun and founder of the order (* 1653 )
- August 4th : Kitamura Kigin , Japanese Haikai poet and scholar (* 1624 )
- August 6th : Johann Ferdinand von Auersperg , Prince of Auersperg and Duke of Silesia-Münsterberg (* 1655 )
- August 16 : Jakob I Bernoulli , Swiss mathematician and physicist (* 1655 )
- August 28 : Georg Wilhelm , Duke of the Principality of Calenberg and Duke of the Principality of Lüneburg (* 1624 )
- August: Maria Rampendahl , last woman accused of being a witch in the Lemgo witch trials (* around 1645 )
- September 13 : Georg von Hessen-Darmstadt , viceroy of Catalonia (* 1669 )
- September 13 : Emmerich Thököly , Hungarian magnate and statesman, leader of an uprising against Habsburg rule and Prince of Transylvania (* 1657 )
- September 20 : Johann Jakob Kees , Leipzig merchant and electoral Saxon chief postmaster (* 1645 )
- September 22nd : Melchor Portocarrero Lasso de la Vega , Spanish colonial administrator, viceroy of New Spain and Peru (* 1636 )
- September 23 : Johann Heinrich Schweizer , Swiss Protestant clergyman and university professor (* 1646 )
- October 2 : August Friedrich von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , Prince-Bishop of Lübeck (* 1646 )
- October 9 : Johann Christoph Wagenseil , German polyhistor, legal scholar and orientalist (* 1633 )
- October 11 : Guillaume Amontons , French physicist (* 1663 )
- October 13 : Michael Stephan Radziejowski , Bishop of Warmia, Archbishop of Gniezno and Primate of Poland-Lithuania (* 1645 )
- October 17th : Ninon de Lenclos , French courtesan (* 1620 )
- October 27th : Thyrsus González , Spanish general of the Jesuits (* 1624 )
- November 3 : Laurentius Blumentrost , German medic and personal physician to the Russian Tsar (* 1619 )
- November 10th : Augustin Lippi , French doctor and botanist (* 1678 )
- November 10th : Justine Siegemundin , German midwife and author (* 1636 )
- November 15 : Dorothea Charlotte of Brandenburg-Ansbach , Countess of Hesse-Darmstadt (* 1661 )
- December 5th : Ernst Jacob von Audorf , Bohemian captain of the Breslau city garrison, military engineer and novelist (* 1639 )
- December 12th : John Easton , English politician and governor of Rhode Island (* 1624 )
- December 21 : Christine von Baden-Durlach , Margravine of Ansbach and Duchess of Saxe-Gotha-Altenburg (* 1645 )
- December 23 : Luise Dorothea Sophie von Brandenburg , Hereditary Princess of Hessen-Kassel (* 1680 )
- December 25th : Franz Daiser , participant in the Bavarian popular uprising and victim of the Sendlinger Murder Christmas (* 1635 )
- December 31 : Catherine of Braganza , wife of Charles II, but as a Catholic not Queen of England, regent of Portugal (* 1638 )
- December: Christof Lederwasch , Salzburg painter (* 1651 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Peter Appelmann , Swedish governor and landlord (* 1622 )
- Zhu Da , Chinese painter and calligrapher of the Qing Dynasty (* 1625 )
- Raimondo De Dominici , Italian painter (* 1645 )
- Johann Georg Melchior Schmidtner , Swabian church painter (* 1625 )
- Henry Frederick Thynne , English politician and courtier (* around 1644 )