Guillaume Amontons

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Guillaume Amontons

Guillaume Amontons (born August 31, 1663 in Paris , † October 11, 1705 ibid) was a French physicist and governor of Lille . He is known for his work on friction and temperature measurement .


Guillaume Amontons was born in 1663. His father was a Normandy lawyer who had settled in Paris. He was extremely hard of hearing from a young age. However, he did not see himself severely impaired by this, but regarded it as an advantage that allowed him to concentrate more on his scientific work. Although he did not have a university education, he dealt with mathematics, science and astronomy. Furthermore he drew and dealt with cartography and architecture.

He discovered in ideal gases valid proportionality of pressure and temperature at constant volume , the law of Amontons (ideal gas law) and improved the construction of thermometers , hygrometers and barometers . Amontons postulated the existence of absolute zero based on the decrease in gas volume with decreasing temperature.

In 1699 he published a study on questions of static friction , which is considered to be the first detailed scientific publication on the subject. The laws governing dynamic friction are called Amonton's laws after him .

In 1688, Guillaume Amontons invented an optical telegraph to help deaf people and presented it to the king. The telegraph consisted of a wind turbine, the wings of which were each written with a letter. An observer at a more distant wind turbine observed the sequence of letters with a telescope and was able to pass on the message. Then in 1695 he built an optical telegraph line from Meudon to Paris.

He was a member of the Académie des Sciences in Paris. The crater of the moon Amontons was named after him.

Web links

Individual evidence

  1. Guillaume Amontons. In: Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved March 7, 2014 .
  2. ^ A b Richard S. Westfall: Amontons, Guillaume. (No longer available online.) In: The Galileo Project. Archived from the original on March 3, 2016 ; accessed on March 8, 2014 . Info: The archive link was inserted automatically and has not yet been checked. Please check the original and archive link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. @1@ 2Template: Webachiv / IABot /
  3. a b Michael Allaby: A Chronology of Weatherford . Infobase Publishing, 2004, p. 91 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  4. ^ David Lindley: Degrees Kelvin: A Tale of Genius, Invention, and Tragedy . National Academies Press, 2004, pp. 99 ( limited preview in Google Book search).
  5. Similar considerations can already be found in unpublished sketchbooks by Leonardo da Vinci .
  6. ^ List of members since 1666: Letter A. Académie des sciences, accessed on October 1, 2019 (French).