Philipp Jacob Spener
Philipp Jacob Spener (born January 13, 1635 in Rappoltsweiler , Alsace , † February 5, 1705 in Berlin ) was a German Lutheran theologian. He was one of the most famous exponents of Pietism . He was also the most important genealogist of the 17th century and the founder of scientific heraldry .
In 1663 Spener became a preacher at Strasbourg Cathedral , in 1666 a senior at the Lutheran Ministry of Preachers in the free imperial city of Frankfurt am Main and in 1686 electoral Saxon court preacher in Dresden . From 1691 he was provost and consistorial councilor at the Nikolaikirche in Berlin . In 1694 he helped found the Reform University in Halle an der Saale , where his student August Hermann Francke played a prominent role.
In his main work Pia Desideria or Heartfelt Desire for God-Pleasing Improvement of the True Evangelical Church from 1675, he denounced grievances in the church and the believers' lack of knowledge of the Bible and proposed a comprehensive reform program for the Lutheran Church. He also promoted the formation of the collegia pietatis ( house groups ), which had been developing since 1670 .
Alsatian period 1635–1666
On January 13, 1635, Philipp Jacob Spener was born in Rappoltsweiler in Alsace as the son of the Count of Rappoldstein's court master Johann Philipp Spener († 1657) and Agata († March 8, 1683 in Frankfurt / Main), the daughter of the Countess Rappoltstein council and mayor Johann Jacob Saltzmann and his wife Cecilia Meyer, born. His sister Agatha Dorothea (* 1636) married the court preacher Joachim Stoll in 1660 and, after his death in 1683, the pastor Johann Heinrich Otho; Sophia Cäcilia (1640–1727) married the pastor Johann Heinrich Horb in 1671 . He grew up at the court of the Lords of Rappoltstein and enjoyed private lessons a. a. with his brother-in-law Stoll. In doing so, he came into contact with Puritan edification writings and with Johann Arndt's books on true Christianity .
From 1651 to 1659 he studied philosophy , history and theology in Strasbourg . With a work on Thomas Hobbes ' De cive , he obtained the degree of a Magister artium in 1653 . In addition to theology, his main interest since 1655 was genealogy (later also heraldry ), which he studied with Johann Heinrich Boeckler . Among his theological teachers are Sebastian Schmidt and especially Johann Conrad Dannhauer , to whose main work Hodosophia Christiana sive Theologia positiva (1649, 2nd edition. 1666) he referred to dogmatic questions throughout his life . However , he did not follow Dannhauer's appreciation of Aristotelianism and theological polemics as well as his skepticism towards Arndt.
Study trips led Spener between 1659 and 1663 a. a. to Basel and Geneva, where he met Jean de Labadie . In 1663 Spener was appointed as a preacher at the Strasbourg Cathedral . In 1664 he received his doctorate with a thesis on the interpretation of Rev 9: 13-21 EU . On the day of his doctoral degree, he married Susanne Erhard, with whom he was to have eleven children.
Frankfurt period 1666–1686
His appointment as a senior at the Frankfurt Ministry of Preachers and preacher at the Barfüßerkirche ended his academic career. In Frankfurt he endeavored to introduce confirmation , the observance of Sunday sanctification and church discipline , but also to found poor houses, orphanages and workhouses. His sermons, urging active faith and disciplined piety, aroused divided echo in the community; partly enthusiasm, partly rejection, where one saw the Lutheran doctrine of justification in danger. In 1670 a private convent was founded, the collegium pietatis ( house group ), which initially met in his study, but was moved to the Barfüßerkirche in 1682 after the influx had increased. However, founding members like Johann Jacob Schütz turned away and separated from the Lutheran Church.
In 1675 his main work Pia desideria or a heartfelt desire for godly improvement of the true Evangelical Church appears together with some simple-minded Christian proposals , initially as a preface to a Gospel postil by Johann Arndt , but soon as a separate print due to the high demand. In addition to various collections of sermons, Spener published important theological writings, The General Divine Science of All Believers and Righteous Theologians (1680) and The Evangelical Justice (1684).
Dresden period 1686–1691
In 1686 Spener became senior court preacher in Dresden and thus held one of the most prestigious offices in German Lutheranism at the time. There he no longer established a collegia pietatis , but instead focused more on catechetical exercises. During this time it came to the friendship with August Hermann Francke , with whose work in Leipzig of pietism 1687 alone recognizable to stand out from the Lutheran orthodoxy demarcating theological and church-political movement grew within the Lutheran Church. Spener became their most influential patron, spokesman and sponsor in Dresden and even more so in Berlin.
Berlin period 1691–1705
Due to irreconcilable differences with Elector Johann Georg III. In 1691 Spener gladly accepted an appointment as provost and consistorial councilor at the Nikolaikirche in Berlin . Even though he stopped holding edification meetings himself, he remained a strong advocate of pietism. With several extensive pamphlets he defended the concerns of Pietism against theological attacks of Lutheran orthodoxy. When the Reform University in Halle an der Saale was founded , he advocated the appointment of professors who were pietistic and critical of orthodoxy. a. of his friend and student August Hermann Francke. He also made use of his influence for pietism in filling pastoral positions in Brandenburg (for example, in 1699 he also gave the funeral speech for Astmann, a pastor of the Berlin Nikolaikirche who had advocated pietism in Diespeck and Bayreuth from 1688 ).
In the last years of his life he published parts of his extensive correspondence as Theological Concerns (1700 ff.). Further parts of his correspondence were published posthumously as Consilia et iudicia theologica (1709; Latin letters) and as Last Theological Concerns (1711) by his follower Carl Hildebrand von Canstein .
Spener died on February 5, 1705 in Berlin. His burial took place in the Nikolaikirche. The funeral sermon was held by Conrad Gottfried Blanckenberg , who had served as his adjunct from 1700 and succeeded him as provost and pastor of the Nikolaikirche.
With Susanne Erhard (also Ehrhardt ; 1644–1705), a daughter of the Strasbourg patrician Johann Jacob Erhard (1609–1670), he had eleven children, including:
- Susanna Catharina (1665–1726), wife of Adam Rechenberg since 1686 ,
- Johann Jacob (1669–1692),
- Philipp Reinhard (1673-1732),
- Christian Maximilian (1678-1714),
- Jakob Carl (1684-1730).
Spener's most influential work Pia desideria or a heartfelt desire for a godly improvement in the true Evangelical Church, including some simple-minded Christian proposals , was published in 1675, first as a preface to a new edition of Johann Arndt's Gospel postil , and also as a separate print in September 8th. It was here that he developed his reform program, which became the guiding principle for Pietism. The starting point was a relentless complaint about abuses in the Lutheran Church. In the second part he explains that a “better condition” of the church can be expected here on earth within a short time; he justified the outstanding conversion of the Jews ( Rom 11.25f LUT ) and the promised downfall of the Roman church ( Rev 18.1ff LUT ). In the third part, he makes six individual suggestions, including the promotion of Bible reading, also in the congregation's own meetings (according to 1 Cor 14:26 LUT ), the strengthening of the spiritual priesthood of all believers , a new focus on the Christian life and a turning away from of interdenominational polemics. The writing met with a great response and ensured that Spener's suggestions were taken up in many places.
Collegia pietatis and ecclesiola in ecclesia
At the center of Spener's research are the conventicles established under his influence - non-divine assemblies for the personal edification of the faithful. Over time, the shape, meaning and designation change here: initially Spener speaks of an exercitium pietatis , in July 1675 he mentions the term ecclesiola in ecclesia (little church in the church) in a letter and only since 1677 does he speak of the collegia pietatis (pious assemblies).
Appearance of the conventicle until 1675
Since the summer of 1670, a small group of men met in Spener's study for personal edification ( exercitium pietatis , exercise of piety). They did this out of personal drive and not on Spener's initiative. In October 1669 Spener had preached about Sunday sanctification and mentioned similar piety exercises in this context, but this can hardly have become the motivation for these men. Spener's initially cautious reaction to the desire to found such circles would be incomprehensible if this suggestion were based solely on his own sermon.
Rather, the impulse came from outside. Similar conventicles had already existed in other places; B. to the reformed Jean de Labadie . A separation occurred in the vicinity, and Spener wanted to avoid that in any case. It was only for this reason that he took up the thread and invited these men around Johann Jakob Schütz to his parsonage and made his own presence a condition. This development is probably due to the influence of Schütz, who brought these ideas from Labadie's writings.
The meetings took place twice a week after the prayer hour. It was a closed circle of edification and "sacred friendship". Spener said a prayer and read from books of edification. Afterwards there was a free exchange with clear rules: no disputes without reference to piety, only for edification, not talking about the absent and only mentioning grievances in general.
The circle grew from initially five men to around 20 men at the end of 1670. By 1675 there were already more than 50 participants. The idea of “holy friendship” could no longer be realized. This was the first of four changes up to the appearance of the Pia desideria . It had become necessary to counter the suspicion of separatism. Only in this way could the ban on the Collegia be averted. Now everyone could participate. Schütz, however, had turned away and found a new home with the Saalhof pietists.
The second change was the opening of the circle to non-academics and women, and later also to Catholics and Reformed people.
The third change concerned the reading. The edification literature was quickly read. At least since 1674 one read in the Bible. This had the shape of a conventicle, as it was to find its way into the pia desideria .
However, the change in meaning weighs most heavily - regardless of the change in shape, although this change in shape was the objective prerequisite, but not the cause. Originally the exercitium pietatis was a pure edification event. With the appearance of the Pia desideria , the conventicles served a higher purpose, namely as the main instrument of the reforms sought. Spener saw a viable vehicle in these popular gatherings.
He legitimizes this by recourse to the example of the apostolic assembly according to 1 Cor. 14: an assembly that is not shaped by the leadership of an individual, but by the participation of many individually gifted people. The later legitimation through Luther's third form of the mass is, however, a mistake. With the third form of mass, Luther meant “for those who seriously want to be Christians”, a service with the presentation of the sacraments, ie not a side event. Nor did Luther himself associate this form with the Bible passage 1 Cor. 14. This connection can be explained by a pagination error . Spener used the Altenburg Luther edition. In the register, under 1 Cor 14, Luther's preface to the mass is incorrectly referred to. The recourse to this biblical passage in connection with the conventicles can be traced back to the reading of Labadies, possibly mediated by Schütz.
Spener only used the term Collegia pietatis since 1677. In terms of content, however, he still means the collection of the "pious" around the Bible and prayer - the original form of today's house groups . It is precisely this special shape that has evolved in the following years. Due to the growing number of participants, the event moved to the Barfüßerkirche in Frankfurt. These collegias were created in many places . They were not always looked after directly by pastors. One can therefore differentiate between the collegia in the narrower and the broader sense.
The relationship of the Collegia pietatis to the ecclesiola in ecclesia
Since July 1675 - that is, in the period between the Pia desideria as a postil preface and the separate printing - Spener also used the expression ecclesiola in ecclesia . In the preface to the separate print Spener - consciously or unconsciously - avoids this term, but describes it in terms of content. It seems as if the ecclesiola was the principle inherent in the pia desideria from the start , whereas the collegia pietatis are only a concrete form of realization. Ecclesiola is therefore only a generic term that can also find other forms of realization. The underlying principle is the gathering and strengthening of the pious - a church reform from the inside out.
Markus Matthias also knows how to distinguish the Collegia pietatis from the ecclesiola , but he does give the latter its own specific form. She is the above. narrower form in the private circle. Individuals are to be built here so that they in turn can attract outsiders. The ecclesiolae would thus be geared towards new acquisition, whereas the collegia would only be aimed at edification. However, on closer inspection, this distinction cannot stand up.
It is correct that these conventicles went through a change even before they were mentioned in the Pia desideria as an instrument for church reform (and thus also for winning new believers). They had taken shape before the idea of reform and were a welcome instrument for implementing it. The external form developed further, the inner concern of the ecclesiola was retained.
Other forms of ecclesiola
During his time in Dresden, Spener did not realize any more Collegia pietatis . In his farewell speech in Frankfurt, he admitted that this had not achieved his goal. More and more emphasis shifted to the catechism exercises as another form of realization of the ecclesiola . Public and home reading of the Bible was proposed as a further concretization, as was already suggested in the Pia desideria . A distinction must be made between quantitative and qualitative Bible reading: Quantitatively, all Christians (not just house fathers) of all walks of life should be able to read the entire Bible. Qualitatively, everyone should be able to perceive the texts in context and apply them to their own life. The shift from teaching to life is considered a characteristic of Pietism .
Even if Spener, apart from his early days in Strasbourg, held no academic positions, he was also of great influence as a professional theologian. His theology can be reconstructed not only from his specialist theological publications, but also from his sermons and letters.
Spener managed to combine the concerns of Martin Luther and Johann Arndt in the doctrine of justification . He always underlined Luther's definition of the justification of sinner as an event in which the righteousness of Christ is bestowed upon man by grace alone and appropriated by him through faith. With Arndt, basically also with Luther himself, however, he also lamented an abuse of the doctrine of justification without good works. Rather than relying on the fact that their right faith would definitely bring them salvation, Christians should recognize that genuine faith necessarily bears fruit. One of the grievances denounced in the Pia desideria was above all the lack of a living faith, combined with the imagination of being a believer, although the fruits of faith were missing.
Spener's central concepts alongside justification are rebirth and renewal. The new birth consists in a qualitative transformation of the human being through the encounter with God's grace. Spener has distanced himself from spiritualistic ideas of an essential deification, but taught that the born again no longer do sin. What has to follow the rebirth as a pure grace event is the renewal, a process of growth and gradual perfection that man has to shape. These impulses from Spener were mainly taken up by August Hermann Francke. However, Spener stuck to the basic Reformation knowledge and defended the Lutheran doctrine of justification against the Roman Catholic doctrine in the version of Tridentine. For the sake of the certainty of salvation, every thought of merit must be warded off.
Characteristic of Spener is what he himself called “Hope for Better Times”, which he developed in the middle section of the Pia desideria . Against the expectation of the near end of the world with all its horrors, represented by Luther and Lutheran orthodoxy, he set the certainty "that God had promised some better condition of his churches here on earth". Against millenarianism is bordered Spener though, and identified the expected of him more glorious state of the church does not expressly with that in the Book of Revelation predicted millennium ; but he reckoned with the same characteristics as the chiliasts, namely with a general conversion of the Jews (according to Rom 11.25f LUT ) and the downfall of the Roman church. This eschastological and yet at the same time inner-worldly expectation of the future is held responsible by many researchers for the dynamism and the worldly spirit of Pietism.
Effect and reception
Spener's impact extended well beyond his death. Above all, the activation of the “ lay people ” through discussion groups decisively determined the further history of Protestantism. Thanks to personal supporters such as August Hermann Francke, Paul Anton , Joachim Justus Breithaupt , Carl Hildebrand von Canstein, Johann Reinhard Hedinger , Günter Heyler , Franz Julius Lütkens and Johann Heinrich May , he was able to continue the reform program of church pietism in some German territories as well as in Denmark Establish time. For a long time he also exerted great influence on radical Pietists such as Johann Jakob Schütz , Johann Wilhelm Petersen and Johanna Eleonora Petersen . Gottfried Arnold , who had become a pietist under his influence and had temporarily gone into separatism, he was able to bring back to a church office. The founder of the Herrnhuter Brothers Congregation , Nikolaus Ludwig von Zinzendorf , whose grandparents Nicol and Henriette Catharina von Gersdorff were close confidants of Spener, consciously took his theological approach as a guide.
Above all, with his revival of Luther's demand for a “ priesthood of all believers ” and his “hope of better times” aimed at changing the world, Spener also had an impact on the Enlightenment. Because his theology pushed for the practical shaping of the world, he strengthened the ethical orientation of modern Protestantism. Johannes Wallmann , one of the most important Spener researchers, has therefore called him the "father of new Protestantism ".
Spener's extensive literature has only been scientifically developed since the 1970s. An extensive reprint edition published by Erich Beyreuther since 1979 was completed in 2015 by Dietrich Blaufuß. An as yet unfinished historical-critical edition of Philipp Jakobs Spener's letters, the first volume of which appeared in 1992, was initially the responsibility of Johannes Wallmann and, since 2003, of Udo Sträter . From the annotated edition of the work announced by Kurt Aland shortly after the Second World War, only two volumes have so far been published.
Streets in Frankfurt am Main, Dresden and Berlin, among others, as well as many community halls and other houses under Protestant sponsorship are named after Spener.
Work and letter editions
- Philipp Jakob Spener: Writings | Correspondence. Edited by Erich Beyreuther, Dietrich Blaufuß. Olms, Hildesheim 1979–2015 (reprint edition, 16 volumes in 38 sub-volumes; publisher's brochure ).
- Philipp Jakob Spener: Letters from the Frankfurt time. 1666-1686. Edited by Johannes Wallmann. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 1992 ff. (So far six of eight planned volumes).
- Philipp Jakob Spener: Letters from the time in Dresden. 1686-1691. Edited by Udo Sträter and Johannes Wallmann. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2003–2017 (four volumes).
- Philipp Jakob Spener: Correspondence with August Hermann Francke. 1689-1704. Edited by Johannes Wallmann and Udo Sträter. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2006.
- Philipp Jakob Spener: Correspondence with Adam Rechenberg. Edited by Udo Sträter in Zus.-Arb. with Claudia Neumann. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2019.
- The works of Philipp Jakob Spener. Study edition . Edited by Kurt Aland and Beate Köster. Brunnen, Gießen 1996ff (Vol. 1 in two half-volumes 1996/2000; Vol. 2 2004).
- Philipp Jacob Spener: The beginnings of Pietism in his letters. Edited by Markus Matthias. Evangelical Publishing House, Leipzig 2015.
Important individual works
Pia Desideria: Or heartfelt desire / For God-pleasing improvement in the true Evangelical Churches / sampt some simple-minded Christian suggestions from Philipp Jacob Spener; Sampt addressed Zweyer Christian Theologorum about it / and to several up-edification most useful concerns . Zunner; Fritgen, Frankfurt (Main) 1676, digitized and full text in the German text archive
- Pia desideria - return to the future . Brunnen Verlag, Giessen 5 1995, ISBN 3-7655-9065-7 (modernized edition).
- Pia Desideria or heartfelt desire for godly reform in the true Evangelical Churches. Brunnen Verlag, Gießen 2005 (historical-critical edition based on the text of the study edition by Aland / Köster).
- The inner and spiritual peace or the peace of God / So may the same with us / as ours with and in God / together with his means of conveyance and hindrances . Zunner, Frankfurt (Main) 1686, digitized and full text in the German text archive
- Thorough defense of his innocence and the wrongly accused so-called Pietists, against Mr. D. Valentini Alberti, prof. publ. to Leipzig praefat. vindic. exeget. Joel 2 . Ernst, Stargardt 1696, digitized version of the SLUB Dresden via EOD
- Theological concerns and other written responses to spiritual / especially uplifting matters set up at different times / and for prolonged persistence of Christian friends brought into some order / and given out . Orphanage, Halle (Saale)
- Spener's Catechism Declaration . Missionsverlag, Bielefeld 1984, ISBN 3-929602-02-4 .
- Veronika Albrecht-Birkner (ed.): Hope for better times. Philipp Jacob Spener and the history of Pietism. Publishing house of the Francke Foundations, Halle / Saale 2005, ISBN 3-931479-71-4 .
- Werner Bellardi: The preliminary stages of the Collegia pietatis with Philip Jacob Spener. Brunnen-Verlag, Giessen 1994, ISBN 3-7655-9388-5 .
- Ludwig Biewer : Philipp Jakob Spener as a heraldist. A small contribution to the 300th anniversary of the death of a great theologian. In: The Herald . Volume 16, 2005, Issue 17, p. 493 ff.
- Dietrich Blaufuß: Spener work. Source studies and investigations on Philipp Jacob Spener and the early effects of Lutheran Pietism. Second, improved and supplemented edition. Lang, Bern et al. 1980, ISBN 3-261-04761-5 .
- Martin Brecht : Philipp Jakob Spener, his program and its effects. In: History of Pietism. Vol. 1. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1993, pp. 281-389.
- Wolfgang Bromme: Not just pious wishes. Philipp Jacob Spener rediscovered. Spener-Verlag, Frankfurt / M. 2000, ISBN 3-930206-56-0 .
- Georg Gremels: The Ethics of Philipp Jacob Speners according to his evangelical duties. In: Hamburg Theological Studies . Volume 26, Hamburg 2002, ISBN 3-8258-5834-0 .
- Paul Grünberg : Philipp Jakob Spener. 3 volumes, Göttingen 1893/1905/1906. (Reprint: Hildesheim / New York 1988, ISBN 3-487-07934-8 )
- Hyeung-Eun Chi: Philipp Jacob Spener and his Pia desideria. The continuation of the reform proposals of the Pia desideria in his later writings. Lang, Frankfurt / M. 1997, ISBN 3-631-49393-2 .
- Albrecht Haizmann: edification as a pastoral task with Philipp Jakob Spener. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 1997, ISBN 3-525-62351-8 .
- Heike Krauter-Dierolf: The eschatology of Philipp Jakob Speners. The dispute with Lutheran orthodoxy about the “hope of better times” (= contributions to historical theology 131). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2005, ISBN 3-16-148577-7 .
- Werner Raupp : Art. Spener, Philipp Jacob (1635–1705) . In: The Dictionary of Eighteenth-Century German Philosophers . Edited by Heiner F. Klemme and Manfred Kuehn, Vol. 3, London / New York 2010, pp. 1106–1110.
- Paul Tschackert : Spener, Philipp Jakob . In: Allgemeine Deutsche Biographie (ADB). Volume 35, Duncker & Humblot, Leipzig 1893, pp. 102-115.
- Johannes Wallmann : Philipp Jakob Spener and the beginnings of Pietism (= contributions to historical theology 42). Mohr, Tübingen 1970. (2nd edition. 1986, ISBN 3-16-144979-7 )
- Johannes Wallmann: Pietism. Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, Göttingen 2005, ISBN 3-8252-2598-4 , pp. 66-102.
- Johannes Wallmann: Spener, Philipp Jakob . In: Religion Past and Present (RGG). 4th edition. Volume 7, Mohr-Siebeck, Tübingen 2004, Sp. 1564-1566.
- Johannes Wallmann: New German Biography (NDB). Volume 24, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin 2010, ISBN 978-3-428-11205-0 , pp. 659-661 ( version ). In:
- Dorothea Wendebourg (Ed.): Philipp Jakob Spener. Founder of Pietism and Protestant church father. Research balance after 300 years. (= Halle Researches 23). de Gruyter, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-484-84023-2 .
- Klaus-Gunther Wesseling : Philipp Jacob Spener. In: Biographisch-Bibliographisches Kirchenlexikon (BBKL). Volume 10, Bautz, Herzberg 1995, ISBN 3-88309-062-X , Sp. 909-939.
- Publications by and about Philipp Jacob Spener in VD 17 .
- Literature by and about Philipp Jacob Spener in the catalog of the German National Library
- Works by and about Philipp Jacob Spener in the German Digital Library
- Entry in the Frankfurt dictionary of persons
- Spen research center of the Saxon Academy of Sciences in Leipzig
- "Spener, Philipp Jacob". Hessian biography. (As of January 28, 2016). In: Landesgeschichtliches Informationssystem Hessen (LAGIS).
- Online edition of the heraldic Latin works of Spener in the CAMENA project
- Collection of links to Philipp Jacob Spener ( Memento from October 28, 2007 in the Internet Archive )
- Collection of texts by Spener on the website Faith Voice
- Max Döllner : History of the development of the city of Neustadt an der Aisch up to 1933. Ph. C. W. Schmidt, Neustadt a. d. Aisch 1950, OCLC 42823280 ; New edition to mark the 150th anniversary of the Ph. C. W. Schmidt publishing house, Neustadt an der Aisch 1828–1978. Ibid 1978, ISBN 3-87707-013-2 , p. 123.
- Horst Ulrich, Uwe Prell, Ernst Luuk: Nikolaikirche. In: Berlin Handbook. The lexicon of the federal capital. FAB-Verlag, Berlin 1992, ISBN 3-927551-27-9 , p. 887.
- Markus Matthias: Collegium pietatis and ecclesiola. In: Pietism and Modern Times . Volume 19, Göttingen 1993, pp. 46-59.
- Cf., also on the following, Martin Friedrich : Philipp Jakob Spener - Life, Work, Meaning. In: Dorothea Wendebourg (Ed.): Philipp Jakob Spener. Founder of Pietism and Protestant church father. Research balance after 300 years. (= Halle Researches 23). de Gruyter, Berlin 2007, ISBN 978-3-484-84023-2 , pp. 4-7.
- See Spener: The Evangelical Faith Justice. Frankfurt aM 1684 ( digitized version ); on this Johannes Wallmann: Philipp Jakob Speners examination of the Trident doctrine of justification. In: Ders .: Pietism Studies. Collected articles II. Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2008, pp. 182–202.
- Johannes Wallmann: Philipp Jakob Spener, the father of New Protestantism. In: ders., Pietism Studies (Collected Essays 2). Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen 2008, pp. 132-145 (first 1983); see. also the other: The father of New Protestantism. The proceeds of the commemoration on the 300th anniversary of Philipp Jakob Spen's death. In: Theologische Literaturzeitung 132, 2007, pp. 1033-1044.
- Presentation of the letter edition at Verlag Mohr Siebeck .
- Philipp Jacob Spener in the Ecumenical Lexicon of Saints
Senior of the Ministry of Preachers in Frankfurt am Main
|Johann Daniel Arcularius|
|Johann Andreas Lucius||
Court preacher in Dresden
|SURNAME||Spener, Philipp Jacob|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||German Protestant theologian, founder of Pietism|
|DATE OF BIRTH||January 13, 1635|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Rappoltsweiler , Alsace|
|DATE OF DEATH||February 5, 1705|
|Place of death||Berlin|