Radical Pietism

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Radical Pietism , also called Radikalpietismus, separatism / separatist Pietism, extra-church / church-critical or consequent Pietism (from around the middle of the 1670s), was a church-critical movement within Pietism . Most radical pietists were convinced that true Christianity could only be lived outside the constituted church . Therefore, they did not take part in the services and communion celebrations of the state church . Many refused to baptize and confirm their children and kept them away from school. In addition, a large number of the radical Pietists were critical of sexuality / marriage, the taking of the oath and military service . Radical Pietists often advocated teachings that differed from the official church dogmas. Women could play an important role, especially in connection with visions or prophecies.


Although the terms “radical pietism” or “radical pietism” have established themselves, they are not entirely without problems. As long as no other designation is convincingly established, Hans Schneider recommends that the designation be retained despite the conceptual vagueness and associated evaluations.

First of all, it should be noted that “radical pietism” was not used by any group as a self-designation (like “Pietism”, at least initially, was also an external name). In the term there is already a judgment that it is something radical. In addition, there is the problem that the term "radical" is very vague because it can mean at least three different levels of meaning:

  • deeply rooted, original, genuine, full
  • extreme to violent
  • particularly consistent

Martin Brecht considers these meanings to be so vague that they are inaccurate and useless for him; instead he suggests speaking of “extra-church pietism”. This can be determined in more detail by its two main variants, which can also occur as a mixed form:

  1. Separatist Pietism (in contrast to the church as an institution)
  2. Heterodox Pietism (as opposed to ecclesiastical dogmas or confessions)

These terms, too, are from the ecclesiastical perspective (deviation from the Church and its teachings), but they avoid the connotations that the adjective "radical" could incorrectly associate with the phenomena of extra-ecclesiastical pietism.

If the prejudiced word “radical” is interpreted in the sense of “subversive”, then there is a misunderstanding because the “radical Pietists” had little or no interest in violent changes in politics and society. Less pejorative terms would be “decisive” or “consistent Pietists” or “pious church reformers”.

As "reverse separatism" is called the practice that one z. B. as a pietistic pastor in one's own parish more and more excludes people who do not correspond to one's own ideas of rebirth and sanctification. As a result, a pietistic church came into being over time, instead of the pastor going into separation with pietistic like-minded people. The early Francke and some of his followers can be cited as examples. Francke himself did not go into the separation, but he sowed the seeds for it through his perfectionist teachings (striving for sanctification).

Research history

The term “radical Pietism” goes back - including its derogatory, pejorative connotation - to Albrecht Ritschl in the 1880s. Emanuel Hirsch , Schneider and Wallmann assume two branches, one of which was founded by Philipp Jakob Spener and the other by Johann Jakob Schütz .

Wallmann takes a threefold characterization of radical pietism (narrow definition of pietism):

  1. Convention for the Gathering of the Pious
  2. new eschatology : "Hope for better times"
  3. biblical piety: tota scriptura

Over time, however, it was recognized that these criteria do not apply to every person (e.g. Eberhard Ludwig Gruber , who is critical of all forms of communities - including conventicles -, Charles Hector de Saint George Marquis de Marsay , where one see no hope of better times, or the inspired who ranked the living prophetic word higher than the Bible). Schneider therefore suggests the following criteria for identifying radical pietism:

  1. heterodoxy
  2. separatism
  3. Non-conformity (protest behavior; refusal rituals: no participation in worship and / or communion)

Above all, the determination of the relationship between individual radical pietists and the Lutheran or Reformed church , the view of the church and self- image play a role. And for a few radical pietists, nonconformity applies only to a limited extent, especially doctors, pastors and government officials who have lived in partial conformity with society.

Schantz makes a further differentiation by setting up four categories:

  1. spiritualistic-alchemical model
  2. millennialist model
  3. Conventicle model
  4. Cult model


The movement emerged with Pietism in the late 17th century . With the appearance of the Pietist movement within the Lutheran and Reformed churches in Germany, mystical-spiritualist circles also increasingly appeared on the surface. They influenced Pietism, particularly its radical wing, but are to be distinguished from it. Pietists or radical pietists are only those people whose biography belongs in the narrower context of the pietistic movement.

The roots and the emergence of radical pietism are complex: on the one hand there are the ideas of the mystical spiritualism of the 16th and 17th centuries and its sources, on the other hand it is the radical reception of Johann Arndt's writings , the mystical-spiritualist in his works Has processed sources. Furthermore, radical Pietists took up ideas of the radical Reformation Anabaptist movement through personal contact with Anabaptists and the reception of Anabaptist literature. Likewise, the Collegia pietatis ( conventicle ), initiated by Philipp Jakob Spener and Theodor Undereyck, had a tendency towards radicalization. The gathering of the pious within the church could end in the separation of these pious from the church and the world. The ideas of the Reformed theologian Jean de Labadie , who parted with the Reformed Church with his followers, could become a model here.


In the 17th century

Already after Theodor Undereyck's departure from Mülheim an der Ruhr , where he worked from 1660 to 1668 as pastor of the Reformed congregation in the sense of Pietism, there was a separation of pious circles. These were inspired by the Dutch labadism.

An example of a separation from the Reformed Church is provided by Pastor Samuel Nethenus , who, although he did not hold heterodox views, became intolerable for them due to his radical discipline of the Lord's Supper, which he tried to enforce in his congregations.

Similar to Reformed Pietism, Pietism, inspired by Philipp Jakob Spener, fared in the Lutheran churches. Even while Spener was active in Frankfurt am Main , the Frankfurt lawyer Johann Jakob Schütz (1640–1690), who was friends with Spener, increasingly turned away from the church, took up mystical-spiritualistic thoughts and eventually became a leader of early radical Pietism. The same applies to Johanna Eleonora von Merlau , who later became Johann Wilhelm Petersen's wife , who had also had her own conventicle in Frankfurt am Main since 1676 in addition to the Collegium pietatis Speners.

After the pietistic awakening in Leipzig around August Hermann Francke and its suppression by the ecclesiastical and secular authorities in 1689/90, pietism and its radical wing entered a new stage. The repressive measures, the numerous pamphlets for and against the cause of pietism and the authoritarian anti-pietist edicts contributed to radicalization within the pietist movement. There were also ecstatic, prophetic, and visionary appearances in her.

The Petersen couple propagated chiliasm and universal reconciliation within Pietism. The similarities with the English Philadelphians under Jane Leade were made fruitful by them. The Petersen couple became a communication hub for radical pietists.

In the last years of the 17th century, the expectation of an eschatological turnaround in the year 1700 rose within radical Pietism. Spectacular impeachments of radical pietist pastors ( Johann Henrich Reitz , Philipp Jakob Dilthey, Heinrich Horch ), the persecution of like-minded people and the resignation of Gottfried Arnold In 1698 these expectations increased.

In 1700 there was an apocalyptic frenzy among many radical Pietists, which ended in actions intended to prepare the Millennial Kingdom of Peace. The "church revolution " came about in the Lutheran county of Solms Laubach , in which the radical Pietists tried to enforce their views publicly. The two reformed Wittgenstein counties Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein became a further center . A " Melchizedek Priesthood" was established there with blessings and the bestowal of new biblical names at ecstatic meetings. The attempts to establish a Philadelphian spiritual church, which was supposed to replace the “dead church domains”, failed, but the hopes for it remained within the radical Pietism.

In the first half of the 18th century

Eschatological expectations could flare up again at any time in radical pietism. Political events or developments within the movement could trigger this. Wandering prophets such as Johann Tennhardt , Johann Georg Rosenbach , Johann Maximilian Daut and Christian Anton Römeling repeatedly specified their end-time expectations on the basis of current political events and were thus very well received.

While in the radical pietism of the 17th century, with the exception of the Labadists, there were no firmly established forms of community that went beyond the conventicle or alliances of action, permanent communities were formed with the inspired and the Schwarzenau Anabaptists in the 18th century . Most of the radical pietists, however, rejected organizational structures and compulsory teaching bases because of their spiritualism. The Inspired published their own songbook, the Davidic Psaltery . Another community formation was the partnership of the mother Eva , which, however, was not tolerated even in religiously tolerant gentlemen because of their deviating sexual behavior. On the Lower Rhine, the Zion Church in Ronsdorf established its own radically Pietist community. The centers of radical Pietism in Germany were in the Hessian Wetterau , in the two Wittgenstein counties Sayn-Wittgenstein-Berleburg and Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein, on the Lower Rhine , in the county of Isenburg-Büdingen and in the Duchy of Württemberg . Here, many radical Pietists were granted tolerance or even protection. The limits were reached, however, when the authorities were attacked (the words of repentance and threats of the inspired), the church order was endangered (by the "rebaptisms" of the new Baptists) or the way of life aroused public nuisance (society of mother Eve). This left the radical Pietists affected only with emigration . The Netherlands and at the Danish state owned Altona were havens. Furthermore, the emigration to the new world came more and more into focus, especially to the Quaker state of Pennsylvania . The Schwarzenau New Baptist movement, also known as Tunkers, which was close to the Anabaptists, emigrated to North America, where the Church of the Brethren still exists today . The inspired did not emigrate to the New World until the beginning of the 19th century, where they founded settlements such as the Amana Colonies , some of which have maintained their religious tradition to this day.

Wherever Pietism gained a foothold outside of the German Empire, its radical representatives could also be found, and disputes between (radical) Pietism and ecclesiastical and secular authorities broke out. The Lutheran dominions of Denmark, Schleswig-Holstein , Norway, Sweden, Finland, the Reformed Netherlands and Switzerland should be mentioned here.

A close communication network between the followers of radical pietism contributed to the spread of radical pietist ideas, as did an abundance of heterodox pamphlets and books of edification. Sun founded Johann Samuel Carl a Philadelphian magazine entitled "Spiritual Fama" , which found an enthusiastic audience in radical circles. It existed from 1730 to 1744. There were also several radical Pietist Bible editions with commentaries of heterodox orientation, of which the Berleburg Bible was the most powerful.

After 1740 the controversy over radical Pietism decreased, other problems within society, the church and theology came to the fore. Radical Pietism continued to exist, but it became a marginal phenomenon that seldom came to the fore.

Further development of radical pietism

In Württemberg, radical pietistic ideas had a strong influence on many theologians who never left the church for their entire life, such as Johann Albrecht Bengel , Friedrich Christoph Oetinger , Philipp Matthäus Hahn , Christian Gottlob Pregizer or the lay preacher Johann Michael Hahn , whose following grew up to collects today in the Michael Hahn communities . The same applies to the followers of Christian Gottlob Pregizer in the Pregizer communities . Despite some radically pietistic strands of tradition that they preserve, they are usually members of their respective Protestant regional church.

In the early 19th century, radical Pietists (“separatists”) emigrated from Germany and founded communitarian settlements in the United States and in Transcaucasia . The Württemberg separatist leader Johann Georg Rapp (1757-1847), a linen weaver from Iptingen , built the settlements Harmony (Pennsylvania) (1804-1814), New Harmony (Indiana) (1814-1824) and Economy (Pennsylvania) (since 1824). In the pietistic settlements of America founded by Rapp, private property was completely abolished, and since 1807 sexual asceticism, even among married couples, was so strongly promoted that few children were born. In 1906 the Harmony Society in America was officially dissolved.

In the last decade of the 18th century, apocalyptic hopes flared up again within Pietism. In the wake of Bengel, Johann Heinrich Jung-Stilling became a propagandist for an emigration to the east with his literary work, where it was assumed that the pious were saved from the tribulations of the end times. This led to the emigration of pietist groups to Bessarabia , the Crimea , the Volga region and the Caucasus . In Georgia , the villages of Katharinenfeld (today Bolnissi ), Marienfeld (today Sartischala ), Elisabethtal (today Asureti ), Alexandersdorf and Petersdorf emerged. In Azerbaijan they founded Helenendorf (today Göygöl ), Annenfeld , Grünfeld, Eichenfeld and Traubenfeld . Others, however, dreamed of emigrating to Palestine. As a result of a great wave of emigration in 1817, the establishment of the Korntal Brethren was approved in 1819 to prevent further emigration of the Pietists.

The Catholic Allgäu awakening movement is also influenced by (radical) Pietism. Because of his chiliastic hopes, the former Catholic priest Ignaz Lindl - he had converted to the Nazarene congregation founded by Johann Jakob Wirz in Basel - persuaded some of his supporters to emigrate to Bessarabia, where they founded the Sarata settlement . At the beginning the common property prevailed here. In 1945 the Bessarabian community was expelled and its members joined the Nazarene community in Egenhausen (Black Forest), which only died out around 2000.

A circle of separatists around a group in Rottenacker founded the settlement Zoar (Ohio) in 1817 . There was no private property here - the introduction of common property in 1819 was suggested by Johannes Breimaier (1776–1834) - but sexual asceticism only lasted for a few years. The Zoar Society was dissolved in 1898.

The settlements of the Württemberg radical pietists in the United States were cited by Friedrich Engels as a model of a communist society and can be seen as an essential inspiration for the communist manifesto .

On the Lower Rhine, in the second decade of the 18th century, with the center in Mülheim an der Ruhr, adjacent church convents emerged. The leader was Wilhelm Hoffmann (1676–1746), who exhibited an indifferent attitude towards church teaching and church order. His views are strongly permeated with quietistic mysticism . Gerhard Tersteegen became his most important colleague and, after his death, the spiritual leader of the neighboring convents . His inheritance was taken up by his church and made fruitful for church piety. Tersteegen himself stayed away from his church's Last Supper, but was not an advocate of separation.

Effects of radical pietism in the 17th and early 18th centuries


In intellectual history, radical pietism had a strong impact.

For the churches, radical Pietism meant an alleged destabilization. He problematized the external church and its dogmas in a powerful way. Emanuel Hirsch sums up its effects aptly:

"Softening of dogmatic rigor, contempt for theological teaching, free attitude to the confessions, interpretation of Scripture from the spiritual experience and revelation that alone unlocks it, solution of the path of salvation from the external historical knowledge of the gospel, limitation or further interpretation of eternal hell and damnation . "

The interweaving of state and church was problematized by radical pietism as well as the popular church. The confessional boundaries no longer applied to him. With their individualism and their rejection of the obligation to confess, the radical Pietists paved the way for the Enlightenment and can therefore be counted among the (radical) early Enlightenment. Pietism in general, and radical Pietism in particular, has contributed significantly to the development of the individual personality.

For the ecclesiastical Pietists, too, the influence of the radical representatives of the common pietist movement should not be underestimated. A very tight network of relationships and common ideas connected both parts of a movement. Some of the “radical” Pietists who were driven out and excluded emigrated abroad. B. to America. This can be interpreted as a loss (for Germany) or a gain (for America) in religious plurality - because especially those who took religion particularly seriously and were particularly committed have been lost.


Radical Pietism has made a very important contribution to literary history. The abundance of printed works and their distribution was enormous. Radical Pietist authors are among the best sellers of the 18th century. Less educated groups were encouraged to read and even to write their own publications in which they reported on their guided tours and experiences.


In terms of social policy, they introduced the ideas of religious, literary and social tolerance . They did not allow class boundaries to apply. In radical Pietism, women held a prominent position in many places and were even able to perform on an equal footing with men in religious terms. It corresponded to the self-image of the radical pietists to keep in contact with like-minded people across all borders, since they saw themselves as the “true church of Christ”.

Important representatives and main influences of radical pietism

Most important people

Radical Pietists and Their Main Influences
Spiritualistic-alchemical model Millennialist model Conventicle model Cult model
best examples Gottfried Arnold (1666–1714) - was the pioneer of a modern, critical church history research (main work Impartial Church and Heretic History )

Johann Konrad Dippel - (Posthumous Complete Edition: Opened Path to Peace with God and All Creatures. Berleburg 1747. 3 volumes)

Johann Wilhelm Petersen (1649–1727) and his wife Johanna Eleonora von Merlau (1644–1724) Johann Jakob Schütz - leader of the Frankfurt separatists, the "Saalhofpietists"

Johann Henrich Reitz (1665–1720) - (main work History of the re-drilling )

Johann Friedrich Rock - leader of the inspired

Schwarzenau new baptists: Alexander Mack - leader of the Schwarzenau new baptists
Main influences Kaspar Schwenckfeld

Johann Arndt - (main work: Four books on true Christianity )

Jakob Böhme - (main work: The Dawn in the Rise )

Valentin Weigel

Christian Hoburg - polemicized against the denominations' claim to truth (main work The Unknown Christ )

Jane Leade and English Philadelphians

Thomas Beverley

Joseph Mede and Heinrich Alsted

Jean de Labadie - Separatist within the Reformed Church, founder of the "Labadists"

Anna Maria von Schürmann

Madame Guyon

Pierre Poiret

Theodor Undereyck

Johann Georg Gichtel - editor of the first complete edition of the works of Jakob Boehme; pleaded for sexual asceticism, which is practiced in some communities to this day (Angel Brothers or Gichtelians ; last remains in Hesse and in the Bergisches Land)
Core aspects Inner renewal and rebirth , Christian perfection, invisible church of the spirit, language of transformation from spiritual alchemy

often maintaining Lutheran worship and the sacraments

Criticism of conflicts in Reformation churches, expectation of the new Philadelphian age of Christian unity and peace

often maintaining Lutheran worship and the sacraments

Priesthood of all believers, emphasis on prophecy and the role of women, “low level” organization

separatist, condemnation of worship and practice of Reformed churches

Priesthood of all believers, emphasis on the role of women, higher level organization

separatist, condemnation of worship and practice of Reformed churches

other examples Ernst Christoph Hochmann von Hochenau

Charles Hector de St George Marquis de Marsay and his "married sister" Clara von Callenberg

Johann Tennhardt

Christoph Seebach

Konrad Bröske

Heinrich Horch

Samuel King

Johann Christian Lange

Ludwig Christoph Schefer

Gerhard Tersteegen

Buttlarsche Rotte

Johann Friedrich Haug

Johann Otto Glüsing

Inspired: Eberhard Ludwig Gruber - leader of the inspired - and Johann Adam Gruber

Georg Conrad Beissel

Peter Becker

Christopher Sauer

Peter Miller

Anna Nitschmann

Other representatives

  • Johann Jacob Haug - most important initiator of the Berleburg Bible, a Bible edition with commentaries that was generally read in radical Pietism
  • Johann Daniel Müller - concert director in Frankfurt am Main in the vicinity of the young Goethe, then as the founder of the unification church "Revelation of Christ" author of at least 27 books, including Elias with the Alcoran Mahomeds

Other people and writers who significantly influenced radical pietism

Current Radical Pietist Churches

See also


  • Hans Schneider : The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Tape. 1, 1993, pp. 391-437. ( Standard work )
  • Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, 1995, pp. 107-197. ( Standard work )
  • Martin Brecht , Klaus Deppermann , Hartmut Lehmann , Ulrich Gäbler (eds.): History of Pietism. Vol. 1-4, 1993-2004. ( Standard work on the history of Pietism . In the articles one finds the effects of radical Pietism in the individual strands of Pietism, its spread in the individual countries and rulers as well as its historical significance.)
  • Wolfgang Breul , Marcus Meier, Lothar Vogel (eds.): The radical Pietism. Research Perspectives. AGP 55. Göttingen 2010. (Provides the current state of research into radical Pietism); partly online at google books
  • Claus Bernet : Between quietism and radical pietism: The German Quaker settlement Friedensthal. 1792-1814. Birmingham 2004.
  • Reinhard Breymayer : A radical pietist around the young Goethe. The Frankfurt concert director Johann Daniel Müller alias Elias / Elias Artista (1716 to after 1786). In: Pietism and Modern Times. Volume 9, 1983. Göttingen (1984), pp. 180-237.
  • Johannes Burkardt, Bernd Hey (ed.): From Wittgenstein into the world. Radical piety and religious tolerance. (Contributions to the Westphalian Church History 35). Bielefeld 2009.
  • Johannes Burkardt, Michael Knieriem : The Society of Childhood Jesus Comrades at Hayn Castle. From the estate of von Fleischbein and correspondence from de Marsay, Prueschenk von Lindenhofen and Tersteegen 1734 to 1742. Hanover 2002.
  • Andreas Deppermann: Johann Jakob Schütz and the beginnings of Pietism. Tübingen 2002.
  • Emanuel Hirsch : History of the modern Protestant theology. Vol. 2, 1964.
  • Barbara Hoffmann: Radical Pietism around 1700. The dispute over the right to a new society. Frankfurt am Main 1996.
  • Andreas Kroh, Ulf Lückel: Wittgensteiner Pietism in Portraits. A contribution to the history of radical pietism in Wittgenstein. Bruchsal 2003.
  • Marcus Meier: The Schwarzenau new baptists. Genesis of a church formation between Pietism and Anabaptism. Göttingen 2008.
  • Hans Schneider: Collected essays I. The radical Pietism. Edited by Wolfgang Breul and Lothar Vogel. Works on the history of the church and theology 36. Leipzig 2011.
  • Ulf-Michael Schneider: Prophets of the Goethe era. Language, literature and impact of the inspired. (Palaestra 297). Goettingen 1995.
  • Hans-Jürgen Schrader : Literature Production and Book Market of Radical Pietism: Johann Henrich Reitz '"Historie der Wiedergebohrnen" and their historical context. (Palaestra 283). Goettingen 1989.
  • Hans-Jürgen Schrader : Literature and Language of Pietism. Selected studies. With a foreword by Bishop Petra Bosse-Huber . Edited by Markus Matthias and Ulf-Michael Schneider. (Works on the history of Pietism 63). Göttingen 2019, ISBN 978-3-525-57083-8 .
  • Douglas H. Shantz: Between Sardis and Philadelphia: the Life and World of Pietist Court Preacher Conrad Broeske. Leiden 2008.
  • Willi Temme: Crisis of the body. The society of the mother Eva (Buttlarsche Rotte) and the radical Pietism around 1700. (Works on the history of Pietism 35). Goettingen 1998.

For Württemberg there is a monographic overview on Radical Pietism with additional literature:

  • Eberhard Fritz: Radical Pietism in Württemberg. Religious ideals in conflict with social realities. (Sources and research on the church history of Württemberg 18). Epfendorf 2003.

The following has been published as a supplement to this dissertation:

  • Eberhard Fritz: Separatists in Württemberg and in neighboring territories. A biographical directory. (Southwest German sources on family research, Volume 3). Stuttgart 2005.

Individual evidence

  1. a b c d e Martin Brecht: The radical Pietism - the problem of a historical category . In: Wolfgang Breul et al. (Ed.): The radical Pietism. Research Perspectives . 2010, p. 11-18 .
  2. a b c d e Hartmut Lehmann: The long-term consequences of the ecclesiastical exclusion of radical Pietism . In: Wolfgang Breul et al. (Ed.): The radical Pietism . 2010, p. 45-55 .
  3. a b c d e f g Douglas H. Schantz: Radical German Pietism in Europe and North America . In: An Introduction to German Pietism . 2013, p. 147-178 .
  4. a b c Hans Schneider: Review and Outlook . In: Wolfgang Breul et al. (Ed.): The radical Pietism. Research Perspectives. 2010, pp. 451-467.
  5. Veronika Albrecht-Birkner, Udo Sträter: The radical Pietism of early August Hermann Francke . In: Breul et al. (Ed.): The radical Pietism . 2010, p. 57-84 .
  6. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, p. 392.
  7. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 393-394.
  8. ^ Johann Friedrich Gerhard Goeters : The Reformed Pietism in Germany. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 249f. and Hans Schneider: Radical Pietism in the 17th Century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, p. 399.
  9. ^ Johann Friedrich Gerhard Goeters: The Reformed Pietism in Germany. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 268f. and Hans Schneider: Radical Pietism in the 17th Century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, p. 399.
  10. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 399f.
  11. Martin Brecht: Philipp Jakob Spener: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 333-338
  12. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 400f.
  13. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 402-406.
  14. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, pp. 406-417.
  15. ^ Hans Schneider: Apocalyptic Expectations in Radical Pietism. In: Hans Schneider: Collected essays I. S. 378–393.
  16. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, p. 107.
  17. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, pp. 108f.
  18. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, pp. 130f.
  19. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, pp. 123f.
  20. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, p. 109.
  21. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, pp. 135-138, 145-152.
  22. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, pp. 162-164.
  23. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, 160-162.
  24. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, p. 110.
  25. http://www.sozialistische-klassiker.org/Engels/FE25.html
  26. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 18th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 2, pp. 167-169.
  27. Hirsch: History of the modern Protestant theology. P. 233
  28. Martin Mulsow: Modernism from the Underground , 2018.
  29. ^ Hans Schneider: The radical Pietism in the 17th century. In: History of Pietism. Volume 1, p. 398.