|Lisbon earthquake and subsequent tsunami is the city almost totally destroyed.|
|Battle of Monongahela , the French and Indians defeat a superior British army.||Giacomo Casanova is imprisoned in the lead chambers in the Doge's Palace in Venice .|
|Great Displacement of the Acadians in Canada begins.|
|1755 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1203/04 (turn of the year July)|
|Ethiopian calendar||1747/48 (turn of the year 11/12 September)|
|Bengali solar calendar||1160/61 (beginning of April 14th or 15th)|
|Buddhist calendar||2298/99 (southern Buddhism); 2297/98 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||74th (75th) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||1117/18 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||4088/89 (October 2/3)|
|Iranian calendar||1133/34 (around March 21)|
|Islamic calendar||1168/69 (New Year 6/7 October)|
|Jewish calendar||5515/16 (September 5-6)|
|Coptic calendar||1471/72 (September 11-12)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 2065/66 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 2066/67 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1811/12 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
European colonies in North America
- June 16 : British units conquer the French Fort Beauséjour after around two weeks of siege in the French and Indian War .
- July 9th : A force consisting mainly of Indians allied with the French inflicts a devastating defeat on a British army advancing on the French Fort Duquesne , today's Pittsburgh , in the battle of Monongahela and thus temporarily ends the British attempts to gain access to the valley of the Ohio River . Both British commander Edward Braddock and French commander Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu are killed in the battle, which is considered a classic example of leadership failure. The main reason for the heavy defeat of the British is the amateurish preparation and execution of the expedition, the use of inexperienced soldiers and the stubborn adherence to the linear order of combat prescribed by the regulations, but completely unsuitable for the colonial war.
- September 8th : In the Battle of Lake George , a British militia army under William Johnson defeat allied French and Indian units and establish themselves in the Great Lakes area .
- November 24th : During the first Gnadenhütten massacre , the Moravian Brethren in Gnadenhütten , Pennsylvania , is attacked by Indians allied with the French. All the missionaries living there and the Christian so-called Moravian Indians are killed by them.
- Great Britain decides to deport all French residents of Acadia who do not want to take an oath on the British crown. The Great Displacement of the Acadians in Canada begins.
- In the British colony of Georgia enters Slave Law in force, largely at the Negro Act of South Carolina -based.
Pasquale Paoli returns to Corsica and successfully fights the ruling Republic of Genoa , which is expelled from the interior and enclosed in a few port cities. With the constitution he drafted , he rules the island from the capital, Corte . One of his companions is Carlo Buonaparte .
Iyasu II , negus of Ethiopia from the Solomon dynasty , dies on June 26 under unknown circumstances, possibly of poisoning. He is succeeded by his son Joas I. Since he is only a few months old at this point in time, his grandmother Mentewab leads the reign of the empire which Iyasu has left financially ruined and which also suffers from regional conflicts.
- In the fight against the Mon , Alaungpaya conquered the city of Dagon , gave it the name Yangon and made it the new capital of the Burmese Empire .
- June 20 : Elector George II retroactively grants the Münden faience factory the concession for a porcelain fabrique for fake porcelain .
- September 19 : The Stralsund faience factory is founded by the businessman Joachim Ulrich Giese.
- The Bank Leu is the State Bank of Zurich city-state founded. The future mayor Johann Jacob Leu also played a key role in the founding .
- The Roman brewery in Bergheim is founded.
- The master watchmaker Jean-Marc Vacheron opens a workshop in Geneva .
- A magazine called the Edinburgh Review appears for the first time in Edinburgh .
- The Imperial , a gold coin worth 10 rubles , was minted for the first time in Russia under Tsarina Elisabeth .
science and technology
Teaching and Research
- January 25 : The Lomonosov University in Moscow is founded by a decree by Elizabeth I at the suggestion of the polymath and writer Michail Lomonossow by Ivan Shuvalov .
- At the suggestion of Johann Joseph von Trautson, Maria Theresa founds the Caesareo-Regium Viennense observatory . Maximilian Hell becomes the first director of the university observatory in Vienna .
- February 13 : The first edition of the Mitchell Card is issued. It is still used today to resolve disputes over the border between Canada and the United States .
- April 15 : Nine years after starting work on it, the English scholar and writer Samuel Johnson publishes the Dictionary of the English Language . It is still considered to be one of the most influential dictionaries in the history of the English language .
Immanuel Kant wrote the General Natural History and Theory of Heaven , which he published anonymously. According to Kant, our solar system is a miniature version of observable fixed star systems , such as our Milky Way system and other galaxies. This is how solar systems and galaxies periodically arise and disappear from a primordial nebula , with the individual planets condensing independently. In the third part of the book, From the Inhabitants of the Stars , Kant develops a theory of extraterrestrial life. After that, the existence of living things on other planets in our solar system is very likely. In addition, Kant formulates a law of distance to the sun, according to which the mental abilities of living beings increase the further away they live from the sun. According to this, living beings on Jupiter are spiritually far superior to humans, while Mercury inhabitants are intellectually clearly inferior to those on earth. From a spiritual superiority also follows a moral superiority, which is why from a spiritual and moral perspective man is no longer to be regarded as the “crown of creation”.
- The first work by Johann Joachim Winckelmann , The Thoughts on the Imitation of Greek Works in Painting and Sculpture, appears in Dresden in an edition of almost 50 copies.
- Jean-Jacques Rousseau 's Treatise on the Origin and Fundamentals of Inequality among Men is published in French by the Geneva publisher Marc-Michel Rey in Amsterdam.
- The construction of Benrath Palace in Düsseldorf begins under the direction of Nicolas de Pigage on behalf of Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz .
Music and theater
- January 6th : The opera seria Montezuma by Carl Heinrich Graun based on the libretto by Frederick the Great is premiered at the Royal Court Opera in Berlin.
- January 20 : The premiere of the opera Ezio by Johann Adolph Hasse takes place at the Royal Court Theater in Dresden . It is already Hasse's second opera of this name based on the libretto by Pietro Metastasio and is one of the most spectacular and elaborate productions at the Dresden court and at that time as a whole. In the same year Carl Heinrich Graun also set Metastasio's libretto to music . His work will be premiered on March 16 in Berlin.
- June 15 : The world premiere of the opera Il Don Chisciotte by Ignaz Holzbauer takes place in Schwetzingen .
- July 10 : The premiere of the first German civil tragedy Miss Sara Sampson by Gotthold Ephraim Lessing takes place in the parade house in Frankfurt.
- August 30 : The world premiere of the opera Enea nel Lazio by Niccolò Jommelli takes place in Stuttgart.
- The poet Christian Fürchtegott Gellert creates the Christmas carol This is the day that God made . Gellert puts the melody Vom Himmel hoch, that's where I come from Martin Luther .
- July 26th : Giacomo Casanova is imprisoned in the lead chambers of the Doge's Palace in Venice for "insulting the holy religion" . Fifteen months later, he manages the spectacular escape .
- Johann Georg Müchler and Friedrich Gabriel Resewitz found the learned coffee house association in Berlin .
- Friedrich Nicolai founds the literary circle of friends of the Berlin Enlightenment , of which Gotthold Ephraim Lessing is a member.
- February 22nd : With the bull Beatus Andreas , Pope Benedict XIV allows the worship of Anderl von Rinn, who was murdered by Jews according to a ritual murder legend .
- July 26 : Pope Benedict XIV publishes the first compact Eastern Church encyclical with the encyclical Allatae sunt .
- German immigrants found the Zion Church of the City of Baltimore .
- November 1 : Lisbon earthquake of 1755 : Lisbon is from an earthquake and a subsequent tsunami destroyed 2.3. 30,000 to 100,000 people are killed in Lisbon alone, the entire southern Iberian Peninsula and north-west Africa are affected, as are the Azores, Madeira and the Cape Verde Islands. The quake is registered all over Europe as far as Finland and sometimes causes severe damage in England, Switzerland, the Holy Roman Empire and up to Sweden. As a result of the quake, the Portuguese King José I developed an uncontrollable fear of living within four solid walls and had a tent city built for his court in the hills of Ajuda at the gates of Lisbon, where he would reside until his death . The reconstruction of Lisbon is organized by Sebastião José de Carvalho e Mello .
January to April
- January 1 : Christian August Thon , German lawyer, civil servant and politician († 1829 )
- January 7th : Stephen Groombridge , English astronomer and trader († 1832 )
- January 8 : Charlotte von Hezel , German writer, editor and journalist († 1817 )
- January 11 : Wilhelm Julius Ludwig von Schubert , German lawyer and government official († 1835 )
- January 17 : Peter I , regent of the Prince Diocese of Lübeck and the Duchy of Oldenburg and first Grand Duke of Oldenburg († 1829 )
- January 20 : Johannes Aloysius Martyni-Laguna , German private scholar († 1824 )
- January 28 : Samuel Thomas von Soemmerring , German physician, anthropologist, paleontologist and inventor († 1830 )
- February 12 : David Ross , American politician († 1800 )
- February 14 : Karl Ludwig von Baden († 1801 )
- February 15 : Jean-Nicolas Corvisart , French physician and personal physician to Napoleon Bonaparte († 1821 )
- February 15 : Ferdinand von Lüninck , Prussian Prince-Bishop of Corvey and Bishop of Münster († 1825 )
- February 16 : Friedrich Wilhelm Bülow von Dennewitz , Prussian general († 1816 )
- February 19 : Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten , Governor General of the Dutch East Indies († 1801 )
- February 21 : Carl Heinrich August von Lindenau , Prussian Lieutenant General († 1842 )
- February 24 : Karl von Müller-Friedberg , Swiss politician, diplomat and statesman († 1836 )
- March 6 : Jean-Pierre Claris de Florian , French poet († 1794 )
- March 11 : Nikolaus Ferdinand Auberlen , musician and composer from Württemberg († 1828 )
- March 13 : Caterina Cavalieri , Austrian opera singer, Mozart interpreter († 1801 )
- April 1 : Jean Anthelme Brillat-Savarin , French writer († 1826 )
- April 5 : Vincenc Mašek , Bohemian composer († 1831 )
- April 10 : Samuel Hahnemann , German doctor († 1843 )
- April 11th : James Parkinson , British doctor, pharmacist and paleontologist († 1824 )
- April 16 : Élisabeth Vigée-Lebrun , French painter († 1842 )
- April 17 : Louis Marie de Narbonne-Lara , French military and politician († 1813 )
- April 20 : John Armstrong , American officer, lawyer and politician († 1816 )
- April 21 : Maria Johanna von Aachen , German writer († 1845 )
- April 26 : William Matthews , American politician († around 1808)
- April 27 : Marc-Antoine Parseval , French mathematician († 1836 )
May to August
- May 1 : Brigida Banti , Italian opera singer († 1806 )
- May 1 : Theodor Christoph Grotrian , German Protestant clergyman, educator and publisher († 1829 )
- May 11 : Jean-Baptiste André Amar , French revolutionary († 1816 )
- May 12 : Giovanni Battista Viotti , Italian violinist and composer († 1824 )
- May 23 : Bernhard Christoph Faust , German doctor, founder of the theory of solar construction († 1842 )
- June 18 : Wilhelm Dietrich Hermann Flebbe , German civil servant († 1837 )
- June 24th : Anacharsis Cloots , French politician and revolutionary († 1794 )
- June 25 : Wilhelmine von Hessen-Darmstadt , Prussian noblewoman and first wife of Tsar Paul I (Russia) († 1776 )
- June 30 : Paul de Barras , French politician and member of the board of directors († 1829 )
- June 30th : Grigore IV. Ghica , Prince of Wallachia († 1834 )
- July 5 : Sarah Siddons , British actress († 1831 )
- July 6 : John Flaxman , British sculptor († 1826 )
- July 27 : Benjamin Howland , American politician († 1821 )
- July 27 : Johann Heinrich Wepler , German theologian and university professor († 1792 )
- August 1 : Antonio Capuzzi , Italian violinist and composer († 1818 )
- August 18 : Gottlob Heinrich von Lindenau , Saxon chamberlain, district forest master and manor owner († 1830 )
- August 21 : Christian Adolph Overbeck , German mayor and poet († 1821 )
- August 25 : Johann Philipp Högl , master stonemason of Vienna, head of the Viennese building works († 1805 )
- August 28 : Friedrich Wilhelm Ludwig von Beulwitz , German lawyer and Chancellor of Schwarzburg Rudolstadt († 1829 )
- August 29 : Jan Henryk Dąbrowski , Polish general († 1818 )
September to December
- September 4th : Hans Axel von Fersen , Swedish statesman and favorite of Queen Marie Antoinette († 1810 )
- September 13 : Oliver Evans , American inventor († 1819 )
- September 15 : Werner Jasper Andreas von Moltke , Danish bailiff of the Faroe Islands († 1835 )
- September 17 : William Schaw Cathcart , British general and diplomat († 1843 )
- September 20 : Johann Nepomuk von Triva , Bavarian General and Minister of War († 1827 )
- September 24 : John Marshall , American lawyer and politician († 1835 )
- September 30th : Hieronymus Waldinger , Austrian veterinarian and university lecturer († 1821 )
- October 2 : Hannah Adams , American writer († 1831 )
- October 3 : Ildefons von Arx , Swiss monk and historian († 1833 )
- October 9 : Nonnosus Brand , Bavarian composer, organist and music teacher († 1793 )
- October 17 : Envold de Falsen , Danish-Norwegian poet lawyer († 1808 )
- October 17 : Johann Adam Goez , German writer and educator († 1840 )
- October 25 : François-Joseph Lefebvre , Marshal of France († 1820 )
- October 28 : Jacques Julien Houtou de Labillardière , French naturalist and traveler († 1834 )
- November 2 : Marie Antoinette , Austrian Archduchess, Queen of France and Navarre († 1793 )
- November 8 : William Stephens Smith , American politician († 1816 )
- November 8 : Dorothea Viehmann , German storyteller and source of the fairy tale collection of the Brothers Grimm († 1815 )
- November 9 : Franz Gallus Sündermahler , German lawyer and civil servant († 1840 )
- November 10 : Franz Anton Ries , German violinist († 1846 )
- November 12th : Gerhard von Scharnhorst , Prussian general († 1813 )
- November 13 : Christoph Ludwig Kämmerer , German naturalist († 1797 )
- November 16 : James Sheafe , American politician († 1829 )
- November 17th : Louis XVIII. , King of France and Navarre († 1824 )
- November 20 : Franz Josef Gassmann , Swiss printer and dealer, newspaper founder and editor († 1802 )
- December 24 : Claude-Emmanuel de Pastoret , French politician and writer († 1840 )
- December 27th : Anton , King of Saxony († 1836 )
- December 28 : Johann Christian Gottlieb Wernsdorf , German university professor and philosopher († 1822 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Koča Anđelković , Serbian militant leader, captain and freedom fighter († 1788 )
- Manoel Carlos de Andrade , Portuguese rider at the Riding School († 1817 )
- Francesco Apostoli , Italian writer († 1816 )
- Girolamo Pongelli , Swiss Somasker and translator († after 1789).
January to July
- January 11th : Joseph-Nicolas-Pancrace Royer , French composer, harpsichordist and singer (* around 1705 )
- 14 January : Julius Valentin van Gollenesse , Dutch governor of Ceylon (* 1691 )
- January 14 : Konrad Friedrich Ernst Bierling , German Lutheran theologian (* 1709 )
- January 18 : Johann Rudolph Engau , German legal scholar (* 1708 )
- January 27 : Sámal Pætursson Lamhauge , Løgmaður of the Faroe Islands (* 1676 )
- January 28 : André Falquet , Swiss merchant, merchant and member of the Geneva Council of Two Hundred (* 1681 )
- February 2 : Anselm Christoph von Bonin , Prussian officer, governor of Magdeburg (* 1685 )
- February 7th : Giovanni Gaetano Androi , Swiss plasterer (* unknown)
- February 8 : Niccolò Coscia , Italian cardinal and bishop (* 1682 )
- February 10 : Charles de Secondat, Baron de Montesquieu , French writer and state philosopher (* 1689 )
- February 11th : Scipione Maffei , Italian poet and scholar (* 1675 )
- February 15 : Eleonore von Schlieben , lady of honor of the Prussian Queen Elisabeth Christine (* 1720 )
- March 1 : Maria Anna Josepha Althann , Italian-Austrian noblewoman and patroness (* 1689 )
- March 2 : Louis de Rouvroy, Duke of Saint-Simon , French politician and writer (* 1675 )
- March 8 : Stepan Petrovich Krasheninnikov , Russian explorer and geographer (* 1711 )
- March 10 : Johann David Köhler , German historian, numismatist and heraldist (* 1684 )
- March 16 : Christian Albrecht von Ahlefeldt , German chamberlain and colonel under Charles XII. of Sweden (* 1693 )
- April 7th : Laurentius Blumentrost the Younger , Russian physician, personal physician to the Tsar (* 1692 )
- April 17th : Christian Nicolaus von Linger , Prussian general of the artillery (* 1669 )
- April 30th : Jean-Baptiste Oudry , French painter (* 1686 )
- April: Anastasia Robinson , English opera singer and Handel interpreter, Countess of Peterborough and Monmouth (* around 1695 )
- May 4th : Ignazio Visconti , Italian nobleman, general of the Societas Jesu (* 1682 )
- May 20 : Johann Georg Gmelin , German Siberian researcher and botanist (* 1709 )
- May 27 : Ulrich von Löwendal , German general and marshal of France (* 1700 )
- June 26th : Iyasu II , Negus negest of Ethiopia (* 1723 )
- June: George Ballard , English antiquarian and biographer (* 1706 )
- July 9 : Johann Gottlob Harrer , German composer and Thomaskantor (* 1703 )
- July 9 : Daniel Liénard de Beaujeu , French officer in New France (* 1711 )
- July 13 : Edward Braddock , British commander in chief of the troops in North America (* 1695 )
- July 17th : Marie Elisabeth von Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorf , abbess of the empire-direct and free world monastery Quedlinburg (* 1678 )
- June or July: Philipp Stamma , Syrian chess master (* around 1705 )
August to December
- August 5 : Salomon Deyling , German Protestant theologian (* 1677 )
- August 6th : August Ludwig , Prince of Anhalt-Köthen (* 1697 )
- August 6 : Johann Kaspar Wetzel , German Protestant theologian, hymnologist and hymn poet (* 1691 )
- August 14 : Jean-Jacques-Baptiste Anet , French violinist and composer (* 1676 )
- August 22 : Elias Hügel , German church builder, court stone mason (* 1681 )
- August: Annibale Antonini , Neapolitan Romance scholar, translator, grammarian and lexicographer (* 1702 )
- September 2 : Marie Zéphyrine , French princess (* 1750 )
- September 8 : Hendrick Theyanoguin , chief and orator of the Mohawk (* around 1691 )
- September 14th : Maria Celeste Crostarosa , Neapolitan nun and founder of the order (* 1696 )
- September 21 : Johan Cornelius Krieger , Danish architect and horticultural artist (* 1683 )
- September 22 : Bernard Stuart , Scottish Benedictine, architect, mathematician and clockmaker as well as court architect in Salzburg (* 1706 )
- September 30th : Francesco Durante , Neapolitan composer (* 1684 )
- October 1 : Louis Auguste II. De Bourbon , Duke of Maine and Prince of Dombes (* 1700 )
- October 4th : Samuel von Cocceji , President of the Prussian Court of Justice, Minister of Justice and Grand Chancellor, reformer of the Prussian judiciary (* 1679 )
- October 16 : Hans Moritz von Brühl , Real Privy Councilor, General of the Cavalry and Governor of the Deutschordensballei Thuringia (* 1693 )
- October 19 : Gebhard Christian Bastineller , German legal scholar (* 1689 )
- October 27 : Johann Michael Breunig , German composer (* 1699 )
- October 28 : Joseph Bodin de Boismortier , French flautist, harpsichordist and composer (* 1689 )
- probably November 1st : Francisco António de Almeida , Portuguese composer (* 1702 )
- November 6th : Franz Ulrich Ries , German Protestant theologian and university professor (* 1695 )
- November 25th : Johann Georg Pisendel , German violinist, composer and concert master (* 1687 )
- November 27 : Anastassija Trubezkaja , Russian princess and hereditary princess of Hesse-Homburg (* 1700 )
- November 30th : Johann Elias Bach , German composer (* 1705 )
- December 9th : Francisco José de Ovando , Spanish soldier, governor of Chile and later the Philippines (* 1693 )
- December 16 : Valentin Johann Beselin , German lawyer and First Mayor of Rostock (* 1693 )
- December 21 : Manuel de Sumaya , Mexican composer (* around 1678 )
- December 29th : Daniel Archinard , Swiss Huguenot preacher and pastor (* 1698 )
- December 29th : Gabrielle-Suzanne de Villeneuve , French writer (* 1685 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Rosa Bavarese , Bavarian electoral chamber singer (* 1705 )
- Kathog Rigdzin Chenpo Tshewang Norbu , clergyman of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism from the Kathog monastery in Eastern Tibet, genealogist (* 1698 )
- Johann Matthäus Oberschall , German sculptor (* 1688 )
- Johann Jakob Rischer , German architect (* 1662 )
- Joost van Sasse , Dutch engraver (* 1684 )
- Zhang Tingyu , Han Chinese politician in the Qing Dynasty (* 1672 )