The Doge's Palace ( Italian Palazzo Ducale ) in Venice was the seat of the Doge and the government and judicial organs of the Republic of Venice since the 9th century . The palace was the government and administrative center of the republic and at the same time an impressive symbol of the size and power of the Venetian Maritime Republic .
In the early days of the republic, the popular assembly, the arrengo , met here to elect the doge by acclamation . After the arrengo was overthrown , the Doge's Palace was the meeting place of the Grand Council, from which the members of all government organs were recruited. The oldest part of today's Doge's Palace is the one facing the water.
The palace is one of the most secular buildings of the Gothic and a gloss of Venetian architecture. The self-portrayal and propaganda of the Republic of Venice can also be seen in the interior decoration with stucco , gilded carvings, historical paintings and allegories . Here the great painters of Venice have handed down the past glory and glory of the lagoon city to posterity.
It is said that in 811 the Doge Agnello Particiaco moved his seat from Malamocco ( Methamaucum ) to Civitas Rivo Alto , where he owned a piece of land. What this first Venetian Doge residence looked like and where it was exactly is unknown. The Doge can be safely locate a little later: The Doge Giustiniano Particiaco stipulated in his will that his wife Felicity is to be a church for the relics of St. Mark built next to the Dogenhaus and set stones for the construction of Equilio ( Jesolo ) and Torcello available , probably from the demolition of buildings there. Under the brother and successor Giustiniano Particiaco, the Doge Giovanni I. Particiaco , the work began and was completed around 836. Since then, the square with St. Mark's Church and Doge's residence has been the political and religious center of the lagoon.
There are no historical documents or images that explain what the first buildings looked like here, whether it was one building or several in an open or closed area. In old writings, the Doge's residence is usually only mentioned incidentally in the sense of a location. During excavations in the second half of the 19th century, medieval foundations and pieces of wall were found that were interpreted by the editor of the newspaper Il Cittadino , Roberto Galli, as the remains of a fort surrounded by a moat, which many historians then adopted as established knowledge. There is also a drawing that is often depicted of how the Dogenkastell should have looked, to which it was objected, however, that in the Byzantine rule, to which Venice belonged at that time, in the 10th century there were no square forts with towers at every corner as shown . Such buildings are only proven around 100 years later by the Normans.
During the uprising of 976 against the Doge Pietro IV. Candiano , the castle and the previous building of St. Mark's Church fell victim to a fire.
The palace of Sebastiano Zianos
A first Doge's palace, which deserves this name, was built under the government of Doge Sebastiano Ziani (1172–1178) and at his expense. The building had three wings that encompassed an inner courtyard. The east wing with a direct connection to the palace chapel at that time housed the Doge's rooms, the Palace of Justice adjoined today's Piazzetta , the south wing to the Bacino San Marco contained u. a. the assembly room where the Great Council met.
With the so-called serrata of 1297, which led to a regulation of access authorization to the Grand Council valid until 1797, the number of members rose from 400 to 1200 within a few decades. Due to this increase, an expansion of the conference room was considered, as the meetings had to take place in the arsenal due to lack of space . The Quarantia, the court of justice that supervised access to the Grand Council during this period, proposed on May 8, 1296 that the hall be expanded for the assembly of the Grand Council. On December 17, 1340, it was decided to build a new meeting room.
The Gothic Palace
From 1340 onwards, under the rule of Doge Bartolomeo Gradenigo, the palace began to be completely remodeled so that it finally took on its present form.
It started with the south wing on the Bacino. The design for the new building, the architect of which cannot be identified with certainty, was completed around 1343 when Andrea Dandolo ascended the Doge's throne. According to a resolution of 1344, the hall was to be moved to the first floor of the south wing. Because of the outbreak of the plague, the renovation dragged on until 1365, when it was finally completed with Guariento di Arpos Coronation of the Virgin Mary at the front of the hall. From now on the great council met again in the Doge's Palace.
In 1404 the side to the Bacino was completed. Further extensions and modifications were made during the long reign of Francesco Foscari . The Doge had the stables located on the piazzetta demolished and from 1424 the facade to the piazzetta was rebuilt based on the pattern of the south wing. The extension was continued exactly after the completed part, of which four arcades had already been completed, so that today it looks like it was created from a single construction phase. With the construction of the Porta della Carta , which began in 1438 , a representative access to the palace courtyard was created, and at the same time the architectural connection to St. Mark's Basilica visualized the close ideal and functional connection between palace and church as the Doge's palace chapel.
In a third construction phase, the new east wing was added with the facade to the Rio di Palazzo , which was destroyed in a fire in 1483.
Fires and reconstruction
The Doge's Palace was struck by a devastating fire in 1483, then again in 1547 and 1577.
The conservative character of the republic is evident in the fact that the palace was rebuilt according to the old plans and the “modern” construction plan of Palladio and Giovan Antonio Rusconi was discarded. The facade has been preserved or has been restored. The interior, however, was redesigned according to the changing taste of the time.
After the end of the republic
After the end of the republic, French and Austrian rule and finally the takeover by the newly founded Italian state, the palace was the seat of various institutions and offices. From 1811 to 1904 the Biblioteca Marciana was housed there. Towards the end of the 19th century, the palace threatened to become dilapidated. The Italian state then ordered a complete restoration. On this occasion 13 original columns with their capitals from the portico of the 13th century were replaced by copies and kept inside the palace. They formed the basis for the Museo dell 'Opera di Palazzo , which is now also housed in the Doge's Palace.
The offices located in the palace, with the exception of the Soprarintendenza per i Beni Ambientali e Architettonici di Venezia e Laguna , which is still located there today, were relocated and moved to other locations. In 1923 the Italian state handed over the administration of the complex to the city of Venice. The palace has now been opened to the public as a museum.
The Doge's Palace has been one of the Venetian City Museums ( Musei Civici Veneziani) since 1996 .
The architecture of the Doge's Palace
The building complex
From the outside, the Doge's Palace appears today as a conglomerate of components that were realized between the middle of the 14th century and the middle of the 15th century. The south wing of the Molo was built between 1340 and 1400, and in 1404 the lavish steno window was completed. Between 1424 and 1457, the wing of the Piazzetta was built under Francesco Foscari , and the Porta della Carta between 1438 and 1442, also under Foscari .
The east wing to the Rio del Palazzo had to be rebuilt after the fire of 1483 according to the plans of Rizzo , but was not finally completed until the early 17th century under the Doge Leonardo Donà . Between 1563 and 1614, the new prisons ( Prigione Nuove ) were built on the other side of the Rio del Palazzo , which from 1603 were connected to the north wing and the courts located there by the Ponte dei sospiri .
All components rest on foundations of tree trunks and Istrian stone, are made of bricks and, with the exception of a small part on the Rio del Palazzo, are completely clad with marble and colored marble incrustations or made of hewn Istrian stone and marble. The south and west fronts appear as three-story buildings, while the east wing is four-story.
In the north, the complex borders directly on St. Mark's Basilica with an area of 71 m or 75.5 m × 100 m . In the east, the Bridge of Sighs connects the palace with the prison, in the west the Porta della Carta , which leads to the inner courtyard, connects the palace with St. Mark's Basilica. The generous urban structure of St. Mark's Basilica, Doge's Palace, Piazza San Marco , Piazzetta , Logetta and library , which is still impressive today, is the result of determined and far-sighted urban planning by the Venetian authorities, who knew how to create functioning spaces suitable for all sectors of public life in their republic.
The architecture of the Doge's Palace is unique in the history of Western architecture and is immediately recognizable in those subsequent buildings that copy it. The architecture of the Venetian Gothic differs significantly from that of northern Europe. In Venice, the unstable building ground alone set limits to the striving for heights of the Northern European Gothic, and in principle almost all Gothic churches and secular buildings in Italy lack the heights of a French Gothic.
Orientalizing elements such as the crenellated crown, which is inspired by the battlements of North African Mamluk mosques, blend into the dominant Gothic forms . The unusual pink and white diamond decor on the upper floor is a Seljuq motif borrowed from Eastern Turkey or Iran , and the keel arches of the loggias are also modeled on Islamic art .
The preference for colored architectural decorations and multi-colored building materials has its roots in the lagoon city's old ties to Byzantine art . It is a fundamental characteristic of Venetian architecture and characterizes the “fairytale” magic of the Doge's Palace, which generations of Venice travelers have succumbed to.
The capitals of the Filippo Calendario
The leading architect and sculptor in Venice in the 14th century was Filippo Calendario , an artistically outstanding personality who is only being appreciated in recent research. He was executed as a co-conspirator of Doge Marino Faliero in 1355.
One of the large corner capitals on the upper floor shows the fall of Adam and Eve and the tree of knowledge with the snake. The finely carved facial features of these figures appear again and again in numerous repetitions on the smaller capitals. The more recent style criticism and the latest results of research on the construction of the palace confirm the old chronicles that the sculptural decoration was essentially made between 1340, the start of construction, and 1355, the execution of the then sculptor and proto of the Doge's Palace, Filippo Calendario . Another important capital at the corner of the Doge's Palace (facing the Ponte della Paglia) shows Noah's drunkenness . Noah , shown as an old man, seems to stumble, he spills wine from a bowl. His son Shem covers his nakedness with a cloth and raises a protective hand. Noah's other son Ham seems pitiless and draws attention to the embarrassing situation.
Capitals of the lower row of columns: The subjects shown here are representations as they were common in the outer zones of cathedrals and mansion buildings at that time, for example monthly representations with the corresponding works, signs of the zodiac , the seven liberal arts , scenes from the ancient and New Testament and from city history etc.
The level of the surrounding soil has increased several times over the past centuries. Therefore, the bases of the pillars can no longer be seen and the proportions have changed slightly.
Red columns for the death sentences
On the square side of the palace you can see two adjacent columns on the first floor, which are much more red in color than the others. The death sentences were pronounced between them. Accordingly, not far from there is a symbolic representation of justice in the form of a circle above a column: the Justitia with the sword and the scroll between two lions, also a work by Filippo Calendario.
The Porta della Carta
The Porta della Carta, the “Gate of Paper”, is the passage to the cortile , the inner courtyard of the Doge's Palace. With the portal, the gap between St. Mark's Basilica and the palace was closed. There is no reliable source for the origin of the name, but various attempts to explain it. Statements by the government are said to have been posted on the official carte at this point; according to another thesis, citizens could submit petitions to the city government here.
The Porta della Carta was built and decorated between 1438 and 1442 by the Venetian master builders Giovanni and Bartolomeo Bon . It is typical of the conservative character of the Serenissima that the portal was almost completely executed in the forms of the late Gothic, even if in some areas it already takes up features of the art of the Renaissance. The large coffered entrance gate itself with its antique framing is based on modern Florentine architecture. In contrast, the overall structure of the gate with the two buttresses crowned by pinnacles that flank the portal, the wide pointed arched windows adorned with tracery and the curved, pointed tympanum are designed in the forms of the late Gothic .
With the rich sculptural decoration of the portal, the self-image and political claims of the republic are depicted. In the four niches of the buttresses, under delicate canopies decorated with bas-reliefs and floral ornaments, the cardinal virtues bravery ( fortitudo ), temperance ( temperantia ), prudentia ( prudentia ) and love ( caritas ); Rulers virtues which the republic claims for itself. The sculptures are by Antonio Bregno , a sculptor from a northern Italian stonemason family who worked on many important buildings in Venice.
The broad base of the following three-part tracery window forms the stage for the picture of Doge Francesco Foscari , who kneels in full regalia in front of the winged St. Mark's Lion. Every visitor to the palace and the Doge himself, who had to pass through the Porta della Carta twice on the occasion of his many andates , the solemn Doge processions , are shown that the Doge is only the servant of the Republic, embodied by the Lion of St. and is not their ruler. Antique putti on both sides of the tracery window present Foscari's coat of arms. Saint Mark then appears in person as a bust in the tondo above the top of the tracery window in order to demonstrate at this exposed point under whose protection the republic is. The gate is crowned by Justitia with sword and scales, whose throne is modeled on the lion throne of Solomon , the embodiment of the wise and just judge. The personification of justice here indicates the just and wise government of the Serenissima.
The representative effect of the gate system was once underlined by a colored frame and rich gilding, of which only faint traces are preserved today.
The Arco Foscari
Towards the inner courtyard, the Porta della Carta is connected to the Arco Foscari or Androne Foscari . In terms of architectural history, the complex shows the change from Gothic to Renaissance. Buon, Antonio Bregno and Antonio Rizzo are accepted as architects in research. The corridor-like , six-bay hallway covered with groin vaults leads directly to the representative Scala dei Giganti , a politically important place for the state ceremony of the enthronement of a newly elected Doge.
The facade opposite the Scala shows a triumphal arch architecture in the style of the Renaissance . The three-part facade is divided into two storeys and finished off with an octagonal stone roof. On the top of the roof stands the figure of the apostle Mark, who is pointing with a gesture of blessing to the stairs opposite where the doge is crowned. Until it was destroyed by French soldiers, a sculpture of Doge Cristoforo Moro stood on his knees in front of the Lion of St. Mark above the portal on the second floor . The Arco had been completed under his reign. The arch of the basement is flanked by two sculptures by Rizzo, Adam and Eve, the originals of which are now in the Doge's Palace.
The side facing the courtyard was clad in marble in the 17th century and equipped with a clock.
The Scala dei Giganti
The Scala dei Giganti is the last of what used to be four stairs that led from the inner courtyard to the upper floor. You can use it to get to the Doge's former rooms. The lion stands on two projecting consoles above the entrance arch. It is flanked by the coat of arms of Agostino Barbarigo . Under his government, the staircase was built from 1484 by the builder Antonio Rizzo .
The "staircase of the giants" takes its name from two colossal sculptures depicting the Roman gods Mars and Neptune . Mars, the god of war (on land), and Neptune, the god of the sea, clearly indicate the military strength of Venice. The sculptor Jacopo Sansovino created the sculptures in 1567, three years before his death.
The inner courtyard was freely accessible to the people of Venice. It was used for official acts, meetings, celebrations and tournaments, and once a year there was a bull hunt. The coronation ceremony of the Doges has taken place here since 1485.
The courtyard has been paved with slabs of trachyte and Istrian stone since 1773 , with which the original brick floor was replaced. Below the pavement are the two large cisterns that supplied the palace and the population with water. The two fountain basins were created in 1554 and 1559 by the bronze casters Alfonso Albergheti and Niccolò dei Conti and bear the coats of arms of the clients Francesco Venier and Lorenzo Priuli .
Several staircases lead to the various wings with the rooms of the Doge and the offices and courts that have their seat there.
To the south you leave the inner courtyard through the Porta del Frumento , the wheat gate .
To the left of the main courtyard next to the Scala dei Giganti is the small square of the senators ( cortile or cortiletto dei Senatori ), where they met before the meetings. From here comfortable stairs led directly to their offices.
Cappella San Nicolò
In 1505 Spavento was commissioned to build a chapel for the Doge. The small church of San Nicolò rises in the corner of the courtyard. Spavento adapted the facade of the church to the already completed palace facade. The frieze adorned with garlands and tondi is seamlessly continued in the frieze of the palace. A delicate balustrade completes the facade and is also the railing of a small roof garden that was accessible from the Doge's apartment.
San Nicolò cannot be visited at the moment.
The pictures of the numerous interior rooms convey a common feature of the individual halls of the palace in addition to their similar shape, namely a great effort to artistic design. The upper part of the walls and above all the ceilings are provided with an immense pomp. Great emphasis was placed on the ornamental design of the frames under the ceiling, in which pictures of Venice's leading artists were often placed, who primarily dealt thematically with the glorification of the city.
Ambassadors and guests waited in the Anticollegio before the audience.
The Grand Council Hall (Sala del Maggior Consiglio) is 54 meters long and is the largest hall in the Doge's Palace, with windows overlooking both the courtyard and the lagoon. It is the largest unsupported hall in Europe. Around 1,000 nobles who had the right to vote for the doge gathered here. The full width of the back wall is taken up by Jacopo Tintoretto's painting "Paradise" from 1588 to 1594. It was painted after a fire in 1577 destroyed the previous paintings by Bellini, Carpaccio and Titian. It was started by Paolo Veronese and, after his death, was completed by Tintoretto in four years. When it was presented, it was the largest painting in the world and is still considered the second largest oil painting in the world. Jacobo Tintoretto's son Domenico painted the 76 doge paintings. The portrait, covered with a black cloth, is reminiscent of Doge Marino Falier, who was beheaded for treason.
The Grand Council did not represent the original violence of Venice. It was initially the "general assembly" of all free men. But the nobility grew in power. He ensured that the General Assembly had not been convened since the 13th century and instead installed the “Grand Council” as the central body of power. He passed all laws and elected other constitutional organs from among his number. He determined u. a. the composition of the so-called Council of 40 and the Senate , which proposed the laws, held jurisdiction, and controlled trade and finance. He formed the "Council of the Doge", in which a nobleman from each of the six city districts ( Sestieri ) sat and who, together with the three chairmen of the "Council of 40" and the Doge, formed the actual government of the republic, the " Signoria ". These committees all had their special meeting rooms in the Doge's Palace, through which tourists can walk one behind the other.
The Venice system of government is difficult to describe in all its intricacies. The literary information on the respective power relations between the individual institutions of the republic are therefore not only confusing, but also contradictory. The question of which institution had which power at what time often cannot be answered clearly or can only be decided on a case-by-case basis.
A prominent part of the Doge's Palace of literary importance is the prison, which is spread over two buildings - both parts are connected by the Bridge of Sighs. In the Doge's Palace itself there were some extremely damp prison cells on the ground floor, the infamous 19 “Pozzi”, and further up the six or seven Piombi, the so-called lead chambers directly under the lead-covered roof - hence the name.
The cells in the Doge's Palace were intended exclusively for state prisoners and high traitors . There were separate prisons in the city for the usual penal system.
The lead chambers
Under the roof covered with lead, above the Sala dei Inquisitori , lay the infamous Piombi . They were intended only for the prisoners of the Council of Ten and the State Inquisitors. The only six or seven cells in total have become world famous thanks to their most famous inmate, Giacomo Casanova (1725–1798), who vividly described the living conditions in his narrow and low cell in the story of my escape . Ventilated only through a small lattice window in the door, the heat under the lead roof quickly became unbearable. The inmates each had to pay for the furniture and meals themselves.
In 1531 the Grand Council decided to restore the wing facing the Rio del Palazzo. In this context, a new prison was built on the ground floor for the prisoners who came under the jurisdiction of the Council of Ten. The wing was directly connected to the office of the three Capi dei Dieci by a staircase .
The dungeon called I Pozzi (Italian: the wells ) is made of Istrian stone blocks, contains 19 cells, which are arranged along a corridor along the outer walls and in a double central cell block. Doors and air shafts only open onto the corridors. The cells are each marked on the architrave above the doors with a mirror-inverted carved Roman numeral. The cells were completely clad in wood and furnished with a bed made of stone blocks and wooden planks. Because of their location in the basement, the cells, especially at Acqua alta , were often under water with the exception of the stone beds.
The new prisons
Because the number of cells in the Doge's Palace itself was always too short, a new state prison, the prigioni nuove, was planned from 1563 . Designed and executed by Antonio da Ponte and Antonio Contin, connected to the palace by the Ponte dei sospiri (the so-called "Bridge of Sighs") completed in 1603 , the building was completed in 1610 and fully functional. The offices of the Signori di notte al criminal were housed in the rooms facing the Rio . The "Gentlemen of the Night" were security police responsible for the city's public security, conducting initial interrogations in the event of arrests, monitoring or performing torture. The prison cells themselves were arranged in a courtyard on three floors, around which a corridor for the guards ran. The conditions of detention were a marked improvement compared to the old prisons and the usual prison rooms of the time. The individual cells were taller and larger than in the pozzi and piombi , they were dry and, because of the larger hatches to the corridor, better lit with daylight.
The Bridge of Sighs, as the bridge was called since the 19th century, owes its name to the last sighs that the delinquents wept after the daylight for a long time, if not forever. It is divided into two separate corridors along its entire length by a wall. This prevented the detainees being interviewed from making eye contact with each other.
Architects and sculptors of the Doge's Palace
The title of the official site manager at the Doge's Palace was proto (Greek = first). The proto could be the construction manager as well as the architect responsible for a construction project.
- Enrico , active in Venice in 1344, Proto (?)
- Pietro Baseggio , builder, proto from 1340 to 1355
- Filippo Calendario (* before 1315–1355), sculptor and probably the first architect of the Doge's Palace, Proto
- Wing to the pier and the piazzetta, capitals on the south wing (?)
- Pierpaolo dalle Masegne († 1403), active in Venice since 1383
- Steno window
- Steno window
- Giovanni Bon or Buon (around 1355–1443), sculptor and architect
- Porta della Carta, 1438-1442
- Bartolomeo Bon or Buon, (1400 / 1410–1464 / 1467), sculptor and architect,
- Porta della Carta, sculpture by Francesco Foscari at the Porta della Carta
- Antonio Bregno , active in Venice 1424–1457, sculptor, since 1460 Proto
- Porta della Carta, Arco Foscari
- Antonio de Marco Gambello, architect, 1485 Proto
- Antonio Rizzo (around 1439 - around 1499), sculptor and architect, Proto until 1497
- Scala dei Giganti, sculptures of Adam and Eve at the Doge's Palace, renovation of the east wing from 1484
- Pietro Lombardo (around 1435–1515), sculptor and architect, Proto from 1499
- Marble fireplace in the Sala dei Scarlatti
- Tullio Lombardo , builder and sculptor, (* around 1455 † 1532)
- Reconstruction of the Dogenkanzlei
- Pietro Solari , 1497/1498 Proto as Rizzo's successor
- Giorgio Spavento († 1509), active in Venice since 1486; Proto of San Marco, architect and builder
- Draft of the palace facade to the Cortile dei Senatori and the church of San Niccolò , private chapel of the Doges
- Sculptures at the Scala dei Giganti; Scala d'oro
- Pietro Guberni , Proto, site manager of the Scala d'oro
Antonio da Ponte , (around 1512–1597), builder of the Rialto Bridge, Proto
- Construction manager of the Sala del Collegio (from 1574)
- Giovan Antonio Rusconi (1515 / 1520–1579), alongside Palladio appraiser for the new building
- Alessandro Vittoria (1525–1608), sculptor and medalist
- Statue of Justitia on the steno window, reliefs and stucco on the Scala d'oro
- Andrea Palladio , architect
- Portals at the Sala delle Quattro porte (attributed to),
- Architect of the Chiesetta and Antichiesetta for Senate and Doge
- Bartolomeo Monopola , active in Venice from 1597 to 1623, Proto;
- Portico, west and south facade in the courtyard of the Doge's Palace 1605/160, Porta dei Frumenti to the pier
- Antonio Contini († 1600), sculptor and architect, active in Venice since 1566
- Design of the Bridge of Sighs
- Andrea Tirali (1657–1737), builder, architect, proto
- Triumphal arch of Francesco Morosini in the Sala dello Scrutinio
- Thorsten Droste: Venice. DuMont art travel guide, Ostfildern, 2005, ISBN 3-7701-6068-1 . ( Google books )
- Helmut Dumler: Venice and the Doges. Artemis & Winkler, 2001, ISBN 3-538-07116-0 .
- Rainer Hoffmann: In heaven as on earth - The putti of Venice , Böhlau Verlag Cologne Weimar Vienna 2007, ISBN 978-3-412-20056-5
- Erich Hubala: Reclam's art guide Italy. Volume II, 1. Venice, Brenta - villas, Chioggia, Murano, Torcello, monuments and museums. 2nd Edition. Edited by Manfred Wundram. Stuttgart 1974.
- Erich Egg, Erich Hubala, Peter Tigler: Reclam Art Guide. South Tyrol, Trentino, Venezia Giulia, Friuli, Veneto. Art monuments and museums. Volume II / 2. 1981, ISBN 3-15-010007-0 .
- Huse, Norbert / Wolfgang Wolters: Venice. The art of the Renaissance. Architecture, sculpture, painting 1460–1590. 2nd Edition. Beck, Munich 1996, ISBN 3-406-41163-0 .
- Andrea Lermer: The Gothic Doge's Palace in Venice. Building history and sculpture program of the “Palatium Communis Veneciarum” . (= Art Studies, Volume 121). Munich 2005, ISBN 3-422-06500-8 .
- Giulio Lorenzetti: Venezia e il suo estuario, guida storico-artistica. Padova Erredici, 2002, p. 239.
- Giandomenico Romanelli. Mark E. Smith: Venice. Hirmer, 1997, ISBN 3-7774-7390-1 .
- Giandomenico Romanelli (Ed.): Venice. Art and architecture. 2 volumes. Ullmann / Tandem, 2005, ISBN 3-8331-1065-1 .
- Wolfgang Wolters: The picture decorations of the Doge's Palace. Wiesbaden 1963.
- Wolfgang Wolters: The Doge's Palace in Venice. Berlin / Munich 2010
- Alvise Zorzi: Venice. The history of the lion republic. Claassen, 1992, ISBN 3-546-00024-2 .
- There is an illustration from a later time in the Chronologia magna of Fra Paolino Veneto (Biblioteca Marciana Cod.lat.Z. 399, fol 12) that depicts the situation around the middle of the 12th century, and rather of one surrounded by a wall Area for which the name brolio has been handed down in 1143 , can be closed.
- Roberto Galli: Una novità nella storia e nell'arte. La scoperta del primo Palazzo Ducale di Venezia (anno 814). In Nuova Antologia 23/1889. See critical to Andrea Lermer: The Gothic "Doge's Palace" in Venice. Berlin / Munich 2005, p. 36 ff.
- In the more recent literature z. B. Michela Agazzi: Platea Sancti Marci . Venezia 1991, pp. 13, 84; Elena Bassi: Appunti per la storia del Palazzo Ducale di Venezia . In: Critica d'Arte 9/1962, p. 28ff; Anna Bortolozzi: Indagini sull'insediamento ducale veneziano fino al termine del XII secolo . In: Venezia Arti 11/1997, p. 5; Wladimiro Dorigo: Venezia origini . Volume 2 Milano 1983, pp. 535ff; Umberto Franzoi: Il Palazzo Ducale - architettura . In: ders., Terisio Pignatti, Wolfgang Wolters (ed.): Il Palazzo Ducale di Venezia . Treviso 1990, p. 12f.
- Lermer p. 40. The opinion that there was a Dogenkastell with four towers is based on the report of the chronicler Giovanni Diacono on the visit of Emperor Otto III. in Venice, after which the doge met with the emperor's followers in the palatium , while he had received the emperor, who had come to Venice incognito, in the turris orientalis . From the mention of an eastern tower, it was concluded that it, along with other towers, must have belonged to the Dogenkastell. However, this interpretation is not mandatory.
- Howard, Deborah: The Gothic Architecture in Venice . In: Venice. Art u. Architecture . Cologne 1997, p. 122.
- Gerhard Rösch : The Venetian nobility up to the closure of the Great Council . Sigmaringen 1989, pp. 91-98.
- Howard 1997. p. 128
- Venice. Art and architecture . Edited by Giandomenico Romanelli, Volume 1, Cologne 1997, p. 158.
- This term did not appear until the late 15th century. This gate was originally called porta grande , also porta del bando or porta dorata due to its gilding . Francesco Sansovino referred to it around 1556/57 as l'altra grande , but in his book Venetia città nobilissima et singolare (1581) as porta grande che si chiama hora alla Carta (Andrea Lermer: The Gothic “Doge's Palace” in Venice . Berlin / Munich 2005, p. 276)
- History of the Doge's Palace palazzoducale.visitmuve.it (Italian)
- Deborah Pincus: The Arco Foscari: The Building of a Triumphal Gateway in 15th c. Venice. New York et al. London 1976.
- Jacques Casanova de Seingalt: Histoire de ma fuite des prisons de la République de Venise qu'on appelle les Plombs. Ecrite a Dux en Boheme l'année 1787 . Leipzig 1788
- Wolfgang Wolters: The Doge's Palace in Venice . Berlin / Munich 2010, p. 172