Constitution of the Republic of Venice

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Coat of arms of the Republic of Venice

The constitution of the Republic of Venice was essentially completed with the so-called closure of the Grand Council ( serrata ) in 1297. With the serrata , most of the population was permanently excluded from participating in power and an oligarchic rule of a closed circle of noble families was installed (see: patriciate of Venice ) .

Until the end of the Republic in 1797, the main features of the system of government remained in place, but over the centuries it was supplemented by the establishment of numerous sub-authorities with changing and not always precisely defined responsibilities. The driving forces behind the development of the constitution were the prevention of a hereditary monarchy and the establishment of a balance of power between the influential noble families and the individual government organs. All state offices that were connected with competencies were only granted for a short time, conversely the state organs appointed for life, such as the doge and the procurators, had hardly any competences and were moreover strictly controlled. The organs equipped with power competencies controlled each other and were also monitored by the Council of Ten. The decisions and decrees of the organs were checked for their legality by the three Avogadori di commun . Church officials were not allowed to hold state offices in the republic. What was remarkable in comparison to the constitutions of modern republics was the poorly sharp separation between legislative and executive , and the boundary between judicial and legislative branches was just as fluid . The spheres of activity were deliberately not delimited, but legislative, executive and judicial power somehow exercised by each of the magistrates.

The institutions changed and developed throughout the history of Venice. The principle of careful balancing of power and mutual control of the various bodies was always observed; Historians consider this principle to be the cause of the unique stability of this state in troubled Europe.

The early institutions have been little researched due to a lack of documents; extensive written sources only existed from the early 13th century. Since then, the constitution and domestic and foreign policy have been richly documented with documents and a wide variety of written sources. There are only a few gaps. In terms of density and wealth, the sources can only be compared with that of the Vatican .

The great council

Between 1132 and 1148 the sole rule of the Doge was opposed to a body from which the Grand Council developed. In 1297 there was the serrata , the so-called closure of the Great Council . This initiated a development as a result of which access to the Grand Council with the right to actively and passively elect the Doge and government offices was restricted to a fixed number of families. These were entered with their male descendants in the later so-called Golden Book since 1506 . The members of the great council, the maggior consiglio , belonged to it for life. The Grand Council was not actually a legislature , but it had to be heard on all bills.


Since the 13th century, the male family members of the noble families specified in the serrata , who were at least 20 years old, belonged to the Grand Council , later the age was increased to 25 years. Illegitimate sons were excluded by law from 1376. Since 1315 a record was kept of the affiliation.

New admissions to the council were rare; After the Chioggia War of 1378–1381 against Genoa , 30 new families were accepted, the so-called case nuove ("new houses") in contrast to the old tribunician families, the case vecchie ("old houses"). A last major addition took place in the context of the Turkish wars of the 17th century with the addition of the case novissime (“newest houses”). Admission was possible in individual cases, usually with payment of considerable sums. By 1200, with little more than 40 members, the Grand Council grew to over 2,700 members in 1527.

Membership could also be awarded to non-Venetians on an honorary basis.

Rights and obligations

The Grand Council appointed the Venetian authorities and determined their competencies. He could make laws. He elected the Doge, the political councilors, the Grand Chancellor ( Cancelliere grande ) and the heads of authorities. The high officials ( baili and podestà , ambassadors) abroad and on the Terraferma were appointed by the Grand Council, as was the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy and the galley commanders . There was no compulsory attendance, which was fundamentally not possible due to the business activities of the Nobili and their foreign offices and functions. The most important right of the council was the decision about war and peace.

The members of the council were not allowed to accept fiefs , lands, salaries or gifts. Ambassadors were allowed to accept gifts, but had to deliver them to the state.

The doge

Titian : The Doge Andrea Gritti

Head of the republic was the doge . The name Doge is derived from the Latin dux (leader, general, prince), the title for the commander of a border province of the Roman Empire . After its end, parts of northern Italy and Veneto remained in the possession of Byzantium . Veneto was part of the Ravenna Exarchate , and the Doge was the local deputy of the Byzantine governor. In the course of the conquest of Northern Italy by the Lombard Empire , Venice took on the strategic position of an outpost of Byzantium. In this precarious position, the Venetians achieved an extension of their rights and a gradual emancipation from Byzantium. According to tradition, Orso Ipato is the first Doge of Venice to be freely elected by the popular assembly ( arrengo ).

After the following doges had been elected, sometimes in disorderly meetings, after the incumbent was evicted or murdered by force or in the context of brutal gender struggles for the supremacy of a family and there had been repeated outbreaks of violence between the nobility and the city population, it came under the doge Sebastiano Ziani on a first comprehensive constitutional reform. In addition to the constitution of the Grand Council, the Small Council and the Council of Forty, an electoral code was passed according to which the doge was no longer elected by the arrengo , but by electors.

The electoral process

The electoral process introduced at the beginning of the 13th century was not changed in its main features until the end of the republic.

However, it got more complicated and sophisticated over time. While in 1172 twelve electors were sufficient for the election of the 39th Doge, Sebastiano Ziani , a forty-member electoral college was needed to elect his successor. The concern of the families that one of them could seize power and establish a family dynasty following the example of other Italian cities led to a complicated procedure aimed at preventing election manipulation. The electoral system itself was a mixture of a random decision by lot and a public, free and carefully worked out consultation and decision-making.

Eligible were members of the Grand Council, each of whom deposited a lottery ball in an urn. A ten year old boy ( ballottino ) was selected on St. Mark's Square and drew 30 balls from the urn.

  • 30 balls were reduced to 9 by lot. These 9 chose 40.
  • 40 were reduced to 12 by lot. These 12 chose 25.
  • 25 were reduced to 9 by lot. These 9 chose 45.
  • 45 were reduced to 11 by lot. Those 11 chose 41.
  • The 41 nominated the Doge for assembly approval (after Frederic C. Lane.)

The quorum for the election of the Doge was 25 votes. After the election, the ballottino was part of the Doge's retinue.

Rights and Duties of the Doge

The Doge Francesco Foscari, in the hand of St. Mark's banner kneeling before St. Mark's lion, the symbol of the city's patron saint San Marco, while a personification of the Venetian Republic

While the Doge was an unlimited ruler in the early days of the Republic, the Doge's disempowerment began at the beginning of the 11th century, and at the end of the 13th century he was only a representative of the state. The numerous doge pictures in Venice, which depict him on his knees before St. Mark, are symbolic of his position in the republic. In the 14th century, Petrarch called the Doge the slave of the republic . With the disempowerment went hand in hand with the increase in the splendid and fairytale staging of office and office holder.

The doge was elected for life, was not allowed to refuse or abdicate. He could be removed at any time by resolution. His residence and seat of government was the Doge's Palace . He presided over all the constitutional organs of the republic, and he was able to make applications for the enactment of laws. As head of the state he was the commander-in-chief of the navy , but the serenissima signoria , or the Great Council , decided on war and peace .

The promissions

The promissione ducale was an oath that contained the official powers and duties of the doge. All do's and don'ts that were imposed on him were listed here in great detail. As a warning, the promissione was read to him every year, from 1595 every two months. Since 1192, the first traditional Venetian electoral surrender , the promissioni for each doge have been newly formulated and practically continuously tightened by a specially appointed commission, the Correttori alle promissione ducale . The doge had to quote extracts from them when he was elected, swear to them, and was only then crowned. In this way one reacted to the freedom that every doge knew how to create despite promissione .

The Tron, recto: Profile of Doge Niccolò Tron
Ducat from 1400, recto: The Doge Michele Steno kneels in front of St. Mark

He was only allowed to make decisions with the consent of the dog counselors ( consiglieri ). He was not allowed to convene a popular assembly, ie he could not secure the partisanship of the people in conflicts with his councilors. Since 1457 he was not allowed to talk to strangers alone, and since 1545 he was not allowed to read letters addressed to him without the presence of a Doge adviser. He had to dress splendidly at his own expense, while when traveling he had to wear the clothes of a Venetian patrician. Coats of arms and pictures of the Doge were only allowed to be placed inside the Doge's Palace, but this was not always strictly adhered to. It was forbidden to mint coins with the doge's portrait - following the pattern of Roman coins. The one-time attempt by Doge Niccolò Tron to coin the Tron was never repeated. The doge had to be represented on coins on his knees in front of the lion of St. Mark.

After his death, the official business of the Doge was checked by a commission (from 1501 the Inquisitori sul doge defunto ). If irregularities or even unlawful enrichment were found, the family had to pay for the damage that the republic had suffered.

The regulations of rights and duties were also drastic for the life of the dogaressa and the Doge family as a whole, especially for the Doge sons. Like the Doge, they were closely monitored and attempts were made to keep them out of key positions by means of edicts. Since 1659 they were also excluded from almost all church offices. From 1229 onwards they were not allowed to accept or give presents, or marry the daughters of foreign rulers. On November 29, 1342, again on May 13, 1523, the Doge and the Dogaressa were prohibited from any private business activity.

Despite all the restrictions, the influence of the Doge should not be underestimated. Elected for life, present at all meetings, he knew all the high-ranking and influential people who, in particular, the Venetian rotation process, repeatedly came to changing offices, and who determined the policy of the serenissima and guaranteed continuity.

The dog counselors

Doge advisers, called sapientes or savi , later also called consiglieri or preordinati , are documented for the first time under the Doge Domenico Flabanico . They were not appointed by the Doge, but rather elected by a local body about which there are no early sources. They were independent of the Doge. During the dispute between the commune and the Doges from the middle of the 12th century, the Savi succeeded in continuously expanding their sphere of influence. Even under Jacopo Tiepolo , all documents and important correspondence had to be presented to them. From now on, six dog counselors were elected by the Grand Council, each from one of the six sestieri . The Minor Council, the so-called Consiglio Minore, was made up of them and the Doge himself . From 1380 they were also called savi grandi to distinguish them from the increasing number of newly appointed Savi who were responsible for special tasks. The term of office was quite short, with the beginning of the Small Council as a permanent institution it was initially twelve months and later eighteen months. Re-election was only possible in the election period after next.

The Little Council - The Signoria

The date of origin of the consiglio minore , the small council, cannot be precisely dated. Initially only active as an advisory body for the Doge, it soon developed into a powerful state body. Since 1462, the Small Council, like the city governments of other northern Italian cities, has been known as the signoria .

Eligible were members of the Grand Council who were at least 25 years old, later 35 years old. At the beginning of the 18th century, the minimum age was set at 40 and the maximum age at 60. The main function of the Signoria was - together with the Doge - that of a head of state. The Doge's acts were only valid with the simultaneous signature of 4 or 6 members of the Signoria. Legal texts were signed with dux et consiliariis . If the Doge died or if he was prevented from taking office for any reason, the Signoria took over his duties. The chairman then took over the external representation of the republic.

The members of the Signoria could convene the Grand Council at any time and introduce bills, had the right to participate in all meetings of all councils, and made decisions about foreign policy. However, the powers of the Signoria did not remain constant over the centuries; rather, other bodies such as the Senate or the College succeeded time and again in expanding their competencies to the detriment of the Signoria. Here, too, the motivation was to prevent a concentrated power within a state organ.

The dog counselors were severely restricted in their freedom of movement. Only one person at a time, and in exceptional cases two, were allowed to leave the city with the consent of the others; four advisers were always present in Venice. During their tenure, they were not allowed to do business, accept gifts, obtain financial benefits, and swear an oath to act impartially. The administration of the Signoria was controlled by the Avogadori.

The Senate

Senate room, photo Carlo Naya

In the 1830s the Great Council elected a committee, the Consiglio dei pregadi , to which a large part of its tasks was subsequently delegated. Although this name was still in use until the end of the republic, the term Senate prevailed for this body. Apparently the Senate formed a joint body with the Council of Forty ( quarantia ) in its beginnings , but in government practice two separate councils developed with their own tasks and rights: the Quarantia became a supreme court, the Senate took over the tasks of the The Grand Council, which laid down the main features of domestic and foreign policy, was a legislative body, supreme administrative body and administrative court in selected areas.

Tintoretto: Marcantonio Barbaro, Senator of the Republic of Venice, 1593

Only members of the Grand Council who had proven themselves in other state offices could become senators. The Presidium of the Senate was the Doge Advisor and the Doge.

The number of senators changed frequently during the course of Venetian history, as did the number of committees and heads of sub-authorities who were ex officio members of the Senate. In the 16th century the Senate consisted of around 300 people. In contrast to the other councils, the Senate established the custom of leaving senators in office after an electoral term, so senators could definitely remain in their offices for years. However, there were always restrictions on the number of people who came from the same family.

Since the 15th century, the Senate was practically the highest administrative body of the republic. While the Grand Council continued to be responsible for legislation in general, the Senate could issue administrative regulations and standards for the individual authorities. He supervised the monetary and financial affairs of the republic, important economic areas such as salt production, supervised the administration and the fortification of the terraferma. Other tasks were the supervision of the military and the appointment of the most important military commanders, the supervision of water supply and the health system of the city. If necessary, three-member committees, called collegio , have been set up for specific problems .

Senators could be re-elected any number of times, thus forming an element of constancy in the republic's foreign policy. Another constant in the history of the Senate is its variability, namely in terms of the number of members, access rights, competencies and the increase and decrease of its power and influence.

The college

Francesco Guardi : Sala del Collegio in the Doge's Palace, 1770/75

The Collegio dei Savi , the Council of Wise Men, was founded around 1380. It was a kind of cabinet that prepared the meetings and decrees of the Great Council. The members were initially only elected when necessary and for a short time in order to relieve the Senate of acute problems. The five savi agli ordini , even savi grandi called were given far-reaching powers and for the Stato da Mar jurisdiction. The savi took turns in the chair every week. In the 15th century their number was increased to 6 members. In 1420 five Savi di Terraferma were finally appointed to the five savi grandi , who were responsible for all matters of the Venetian mainland, the Terraferma . However, the skills of the savi overlapped with other authorities responsible for the fleet and the colonies. The electoral term was short, in exceptional cases up to twelve months. Re-election was only possible in the election period after next. The doge was a permanent member of the now eleven members.

The Council of Forty

The first quarantia was elected by the Grand Council in 1179. The council functioned as a supreme court. In his early days he was mainly concerned with mediating power struggles within the Grand Council. The first far-reaching political achievement was the adoption of the serrata .

The electoral term was one year and re-election was possible. The minimum age was 25 years. As a rule, only candidates who had already held important state offices were elected. Although the council was an organ of the jurisdiction, its members were still entitled to vote in the Grand Council, thus also part of the legislature; In this body too, the division between the powers was fluid. Another task of the council was the supervision of the Zecca and the state finances. The court sessions were held in the presence of the Doge and the Doge counselors. However, they were only allowed to speak with the approval of the Quarantia.

At the beginning of the 14th century, the function of the Quarantia as a court of appeal in civil and criminal matters had established itself. Decisions of the quarantia were final, only death sentences had to be confirmed by the Signoria and the Doge. Due to the increase in legal cases towards the end of the 15th century, the court was expanded to three departments: The Quarantia criminal , whose chairmen remained members of the Signoria at the same time, were supplemented by two other, less influential councilors of the forty, the Quarantia civil vecchia and the Quarantia civil nuova , who were responsible for civil matters. These courts, too, were subsequently expanded to include additional special departments and lower instances for minor cases due to overload.

The Council of Ten

The Consiglio dei dieci , a state security and police authority, was set up on the occasion of the Baiamonte Tiepolo conspiracy of 1310 and for the subsequent legal proceedings against the conspirators. Like other Venetian councils, the body was only intended to be a temporary institution, but was then extended several times, but with changing competencies and tasks. In 1335 it became a permanent institution after confirmation by the Grand Council. Its duties were not precisely defined. As a result, throughout its existence there has always been a tendency to extend rights, while competences have been curtailed, withdrawn or transferred by other bodies, ie the history of the council is characterized by constant struggles over the delimitation and allocation of competences of the individual councils.


The full members of the council were elected by the Grand Council. The minimum age was 40 years, the term of office was one year, re-election only possible in the year after next. Only one member of a family could be a member at a time. The office was an unpaid honorary office; the members were encouraged to lead a withdrawn life during their term of office and were obliged to maintain absolute silence.

The council itself had twenty members: in addition to the ten regular members, there were the Doge and the six Doge advisors, as well as the three capi of the Quarantia criminal . The meetings took place from the middle of the 16th century in the Sala del Consiglio dei Dieci , depending on the case during the day, at night, publicly or in secret. The councilors' official attire was black, in contrast to the usual red or scarlet color of the other councils. In order to maintain the independence of the council, there was a separate fund ( fondi segreti ), from which z. B. the informers were paid, which was administered by a camerlengo and controlled by two cash auditors.

If necessary, a Zonta with a changing number of members was added to the council, which became a permanent institution from 1529.

The council was assisted by six staff members ( Fanti dei Cai ) who prepared the proceedings and brought the accused before the court, and four secretaries. A military escort guaranteed the protection of the members.


The task of the council was to guarantee the security and freedom of the citizens from attacks by violent political criminals and to secure the welfare of the state. The council protected the citizens of Venice from attacks by individual nobili, but its main task was to prevent the rule of a family or an individual and to maintain the internal cohesion of the ruling class.

Because of its small number of members and the abundance of its powers, the council became the most powerful institution in Venice, ruled the republic in practice, and thus competed with the Grand Council and the Senate, which felt their rights were threatened. In 1458 the powers of the ten were redefined by resolution of the Grand Council. He was responsible for political crimes (high treason, conspiracy, espionage, etc.), for crimes of the nobles, for counterfeiting, for charges of homosexuality , for the supervision of the Doge Chancellery and the brotherhoods as well as for the foreigners in Venice, especially for the ambassadors foreign states. In addition, the Ten conducted secret negotiations with foreign powers, e.g. B. the acquisition of Cyprus and questions of existential external threat.

The State Inquisitors

The Venetian State Inquisition goes back to the uprising of Baiamonte Tiepolo in 1310. To carry out the proceedings against the conspirators, a ten-member college of judges had been elected, as well as two inquisitors who had the function of investigative judges . From 1320 the inquisitors were elected from among the former chairmen of the Council of Ten. They were used on a case-by-case basis; they were not endowed with special powers.

Only in the course of the growing threat to the republic from the Ottoman Empire in the 16th century, when the republic was harmed during peace negotiations with the Ottomans through the betrayal of secrets by Venetian government officials, in which senators were probably also involved, did the office of Inquisitori di Stato become upgraded.

Called i tre babì , the three bogeys , by the Venetians , this organ of the dieci became one of the most powerful and most feared authorities in the republic. The body consisted of two members elected by secret ballot by the Council of Ten and a Doge advisor. Unlike in the case of the other constitutional organs, sources on the proceedings of the inquisitors are sparse. They acted in cases of high treason, betrayal of state secrets, espionage, insulting the government, and they followed up suspicious contacts with foreigners. From 1583 they maintained paid informers who occasionally even received state pensions. A leniency program also appears to have been in place by granting traitors immunity . Since 1584 they had the right to torture , they could order corporal punishment, from 1605 they could impose the death penalty .

In the middle of the 17th century, when the republic was only a faint reflection of the once so radiant serenissima , the increasing number of punishments and prosecutions of the ten and their inquisitors assumed almost paranoid features, and the term act of state endangering was extended indefinitely. The risk of abuse of their legal fullness was minimized in the usual way in Venice, in that the term of office was limited to a maximum of one year, all resolutions, judgments and measures could only be passed unanimously and former members could then easily be cited as defendants in court.

The state inquisitors' authority existed until the end of the republic.

The Avogardori di Commun

The main task of this authority was to ensure that the laws of the individual organs and office holders were observed. The avogadori could object to any decision by a state organ, including the Doge or the Council of Ten. They monitored access to the Great Council and kept lists of those authorized to enter. They had access to all meetings of the state bodies and had the right to make proposals, but not to vote.

The origin of this authority goes back to the 12th century. It was initially used in disputes between individual citizens and the tax authorities of the republic. In the event of unlawful enrichment by a citizen, she could file charges, so she had the task of investigating taxes. In the 14th century their jurisdiction was expanded and they assumed the role of attorney general . They also acted as treasurers for the administration, sealed tax coffers, and collected the fines imposed by the Council of Ten.

The number leveled off at three over time. If necessary, however, additional - extraordinary - avogadori could be selected.

The procurators

Tiepolo : Procurator of San Marco

The reason for the creation of the office of procurator was the wish of Doge Domenico I. Contarini for relief in the financing, construction and further design of St. Mark's Basilica . Under Jacopo Tiepolo and Renier Zen their number was increased to three, under Francesco Foscari finally to nine. Three of the procurators, the procuratori di sopra, were responsible for San Marco , the Campanile and for the administration of the property of San Marco. For the three districts this side of the Grand Canal were procuratori di ultra , rest for three to procuratori di citra responsible. Part of her work included guardianship and asset management for widows and orphans and guardianship for the mentally ill as well as the execution of wills. They had their official seat in the procuraties . They received ample income from renting out the apartments and offices there and from the income from transport fees from the Levant trade.

All procurators had large private fortunes: the office itself was purely honorary, but financial generosity was expected. The office was a representation office, it was valid for life and was not endowed with any powers. However, it was associated with great prestige and was seen as a stepping stone to the Doge's office. Between 1070 and 1650, 40 out of 74 Doges were procurators.

The Dogenkanzlei

The first Dogenkanzlei was established at the beginning of the 13th century, the first Grand Chancellor was there in 1268. The Grand Chancellor was the administrative director of the republic. As the only high official he came from the middle class. He was elected for life by the Grand Council, took part in all meetings of the political organs, was thus informed about all details of domestic and foreign policy, knew all state secrets, but had neither the right to speak nor to vote. By choosing for life, the continuity of the Venetian administration was guaranteed. Between 1297 and the end of the republic in 1797 there were only 45 grand chancellors. In order to prevent the concentration of power and influence in one family here, as a rule, two successive chancellors were not allowed to come from the same family. The other high officials in the departments of the Dogenkanzlei also came from the bourgeoisie and had long, often lifelong terms in office. The law firm prepared the legal texts, checked whether the pending decrees complied with the applicable laws, and kept and archived the files. Members of the Dogenkanzlei occasionally accompanied the diplomats on missions abroad as advisors and experts.

The chancellery was the only official institution through which the bourgeoisie participated in power.

Evaluation in the past and present

The constitutional order of the Republic of Venice has been admired time and again by state theorists and state reformers because of the internal peace within the republic and the unique stability of the state in a fragmented and power struggle in Italy.

Shaped by a deeply pessimistic view of mankind, the certainty of the forces inherent in mankind of destruction and self-destruction, and filled with distrust of all those who hold power, a sophisticated system of power distribution and power control should achieve permanence and inner peace. The idea of ​​progress and human improvement through education, born in the Enlightenment , was alien to the Venetians.

The unequal participation of the citizens in power corresponded to an understanding of the fundamental and unquestioned inequality of the people in general. However, even those excluded from power were granted a high degree of freedom and attacks by state organs were punished. The prerequisite for these freedoms was that they were not misused to destroy the state system. The consequence of these freedoms was the economic prosperity of large sections of the population and the citizens' identification with their state, which was rarely questioned.

Stability and the centuries-old rank of the small island republic in the concert of the European powers have been achieved through a finely tuned balance between the forces involved, the allocation of real power only for a short time and the rigorous prevention of personal power from an individual. At the same time, everyone involved in the exercise of power was required to dedicate all personal, financial and time resources to the benefit of the republic.

Kretschmayr draws the following conclusion: It was, one might say, the rule of law in this constitution. What serves to preserve the state, announced the Senate, is preferable to any law .

Machiavelli , a staunch supporter of the republic as a form of government, compared it to Rome. In Rome the people ruled, the Senate advised, the consuls carried out. In Venice the council rules, the senate advises, the Signorie carries out. Girolamo Savonarola saw Venice as a model for his efforts to introduce a republican constitution in Florence . It would be the greatest happiness for Florence if she rose to the wisdom of those [Venice]. Venice itself made its form of government - successfully - an object of cult and propaganda in the 16th century . Volker Reinhardt , a historian of our time, writes that the attraction of old Venice always shows itself "when progress turns out to be a border crossing to inhumanity or other models of statehood seem to have had their day."


  • Oliver Thomas Domzalski: Political careers and power distribution in the Venetian nobility. (1646-1797). (= Centro Tedesco di Studi Veneziani. Studi 14). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1996, ISBN 3-7995-2714-1 .
  • Kurt Heller: Venice. Law, culture and life in the republic. 697-1797. Böhlau, Vienna et al. 1999, ISBN 3-205-99042-0 .
  • Volker Hunecke: The Venetian nobility at the end of the republic. 1646-1797. Demographics, family, household. (= Library of the German Historical Institute in Rome. 83). Niemeyer, Tübingen 1995, ISBN 3-484-82083-7 .
  • Heinrich Kretschmayr : History of Venice. 3 volumes. Perthes, Gotha (reprint: Wissenschaftliche Buchgesellschaft, Darmstadt 1964; 2nd reprint of the Gotha 1920 Aalen 1986 edition, reprint of the 1st and 2nd volume oO o. J. (2010));
    • Volume 1: Until the death of Enrico Dandolo. 1905 ( General history of states. 1, 35, 1)
    • Volume 2: The Blossom. 1920 ( General history of states. 1, 35, 2)
    • Volume 3: The decline. 1934 ( General History of States. 1, 35, 3).
  • Frederic C. Lane : Maritime Republic of Venice. Prestel, Munich 1980, ISBN 3-7913-0406-2 .
  • Reinhard Lebe : When Markus came to Venice - Venetian history under the sign of the lion of Mark. Deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart 1987, ISBN 3-421-06344-3 .
  • Andrea Da Mosto : L'archivio di stato di Venezia. Indice generale, storico, descrittivo ed analitico. Roma 1937 (the complete work online) : Organi costituzionali e principali dignità dello stato (html version) (contains an extensive list of sources).
  • Gerhard Rösch : The Venetian nobility up to the closure of the Great Council. On the genesis of a leadership class. (= Kiel historical studies. 33). Thorbecke, Sigmaringen 1989, ISBN 3-7995-5933-7 . (Also: Kiel, Univ., Habil.-Schr., 1986)
  • Alvise Zorzi : Venice. The history of the lion republic. German by Sylvia Höfer. Claassen, Düsseldorf 1985, ISBN 3-546-49974-3 . (several German-language editions; original edition: La Repubblica del Leone. Storia di Venezia. Rusconi, Milano 1979)

Individual evidence

  1. Kretschmayr [1920] 1960, p. 92.
  2. Heller 1999, p. 99.
  3. quoted from Heller 1999, p. 127.
  4. ^ Kurt Heller: Law, Culture and Life in the Republic 697–1797. Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 1999, pp. 136–157.
  5. German: "Doge and Advisor" . Heller 199, p. 191.
  6. German = "Council of those prayed"
  7. Heller 1999, p. 286.
  8. Heller p. 315.
  9. Heller p. 327.
  10. Heller 1999, pp. 213-214.
  11. Kretschmayr Vol. 2, 1964, p. 132.
  12. quoted from Kretschmayr, Vol. 2. 1964, p. 130.
  13. Kretschmayr. Vol. 2, 1964, p. 131.
  14. Reinhardt, Volker: The Venice system. In: Back then. Vol. 39, No. 11. 2007, p. 31.
  15. Reinhardt 2007, p. 31.