Heinrich Kretschmayr

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Heinrich Kretschmayr (born July 15, 1870 in Bruck an der Leitha , Lower Austria , † July 21, 1939 in Vienna ) was an Austrian historian and archivist . The focus of his work was the history of Venice and the history of the Austrian authorities.

life and work

Heinrich Kretschmayr visited the Stiftsgymnasium Seitenstetten , then he studied at the University of Vienna and in 1892 with a thesis on the Venetian Senator Lodovico Gritti Dr. phil. PhD. This work was suggested by his teacher Alphons Huber . In 1893 he joined the Institute for Austrian Historical Research , where he passed the state examination in 1895. Through his institute housework , initiated by Heinrich von Zeißberg , Vice Chancellor Georg Sigmund Held , Kretschmayr came to the history of authorities.

From 1896 he was employed as a concept intern in the archive of the Ministry of the Interior . The following year he was appointed draftsman . There he dealt with the Regesta Habsburgica . In 1898 he completed his habilitation in Middle and Modern History at the University of Vienna, where he was appointed Associate Professor in 1907 . As early as 1904 he succeeded Thomas Fellner, who died early, as director of the said archive and also took over his work on the history of the Austrian state administration , which he was responsible for publishing from 1907. In 1908 he became a member of the Archives Council founded in 1894, which was located at the Ministry of the Interior . It is thanks to Kretschmayr that the provenance principle was implemented . He also played an important role in the retention of large parts of the archives in Vienna after 1918, when the multi-ethnic state was divided.

In 1920 Kretschmayr was appointed Ministerialrat . He became head of the newly created archives office, in 1928 chairman of the archives advisory board, which advised the archives office. In 1923, the tasks were transferred to the Department of Supreme Archive Management, which was headed by Kretschmayr. In 1925, the year of his retirement, he received a full professor. From 1921 he was a corresponding member of the Austrian Academy of Sciences .

With his three-volume work on the history of Venice, he achieved "international fame". The first volume appeared in 1905. The publication of the second volume was severely delayed by the First World War, so that it was not printed until 1920. His preparatory work for the 3rd volume was destroyed by fire in 1927, so that the work could not be completed until 1933, after a total of 28 years.

Kretschmayr committed himself to National Socialism in 1938 . In the Statistical Yearbook for Austria 1938 he wrote the article Historical Introduction: From the Ostmark - to the Ostmark , in which he described Adolf Hitler as the “liberator of his homeland”. According to Kretschmayr, it was "a [r] small group of politicians [...] who opposed the unification of the empire with the independence of Austria and wanted to maintain this policy against a steadily growing majority by all means of violence."

Publications (selection)

  • Heinrichs Kretschmayr's story of Venice , in 3 volumes (Gotha 1905, 1920, 1934) is still the most comprehensive presentation on the subject in German and has been reprinted several times: 2. Reprint of the Gotha 1920 and Aalen 1986 edition; Reprint of the 1st and 2nd volume oO no year (2010); Reprint of volumes 1–3, Paderborn 2012; Reprint of the 2nd volume o. O. o. J. (2012) The original editions are:
    • Volume 1: Until the death of Enrico Dandolo (= General History of States , 1, 35), Gotha 1905.
    • Volume 2: The blossom (= General History of States , 1, 35, 2), Gotha 1920.
    • Volume 3: The decline (= General History of States 1, 35, 3), Stuttgart 1934.
  • The German Reichsvicekanzleramt , in: Archive for Austrian History. 84, 1898, 381-502.
  • Archival contributions to the history of Lower Austrian cities and markets , in: Yearbook for Regional Studies of Lower Austria. New series volume 1, Association for Regional Studies of Lower Austria, 1902, pp. 313–355 ( PDF on ZOBODAT ).
  • The Austrian Central Administration 1491-1918 , 1st department, 3 volumes, 1907 (with Thomas Fellner, † 1904), 2nd department, 3 volumes, 1925-1938 (with Joseph Kallbrunner, Friedrich Walter and M. Winkler); Reprint undated, undated 2012.
  • Ludovico Gritti. A monograph , in: Archive for Austrian History. 83, 1897, pp. 1-106.
  • Maria Theresia , 1925, Staackmann-Verlag, Leipzig 1939, 1943.
  • The Turks before Vienna. Voices and reports from 1683 (= Die Kleine Bücherei. 220). Langen, Müller, Munich 1938.
  • History of Austria , Austrian Federal Publishing House for Education, Science and Art, Vienna / Leipzig 1936, 2nd edition 1937, 3rd edition 1938.
  • Prinz Eugen. Letters, reports and voices. Selected by Heinrich Kretschmayr (= Die Kleine Bücherei. 231). Langen, Müller, Munich 1940.


Web links

Wikisource: Heinrich Kretschmayr  - Sources and full texts


  1. ^ Michael Hochedlinger: Austrian archive history. From the late Middle Ages to the end of the paper age , Böhlau, 2013, p. 136.
  2. Eric R. Dursteler : Introduction: A Brief Survey of the Histories of Venice , in: Eric R. Dursteler (Ed.): A Companion to Venetian History, 1400-1797 (= Brill's companions to European History, 4), Brill, Leiden 2013, pp. 1–24, here: p. 13.
  3. ^ Gudrun Exner with the collaboration of Peter Schimany: Population statistics and population science in Austria 1938 to 1955 , Böhlau, Vienna / Cologne / Weimar 2007, p. 95 f.
  4. With contemporary illus. Marias and her family; with register of persons and objects. Dedicated to the National Socialist Heinrich von Srbik "zum 60th Geb." The edition contains 71 pages of hard-to-grasp documents in the appendix on pp. 229–299, mostly memorabilia from Mary.