Today he is assigned to Mannerism , which he himself has significantly influenced. His name Il Tintoretto or Tintorello ( "the Färberlein") is derived from his father's craft, the silk - dyer was. As was only discovered in 2004, his father's last name was Comin. Because of the heroic defense of a city gate of Padua , he and his brother were given the honorary name Robusti in 1509 .
Tintoretto's date of birth is not known exactly, and a baptismal entry has not been received. There are, however, various assumptions: In the death register of May 31, 1594, it is said that he died “at the age of 75 years and 8 months” (“ ... morto knife Jacopo Robusti detto Tintoretto de età de anni 75 e mesi 8 ”) which would result in a birthday in September or early October 1518. In contrast, Krischel believes, based on various documents, that Tintoretto was not born until 1519 , possibly in April or May.
Jacopo was the oldest son in the family. His father came from Brescia, nothing is known about his mother. Jacopo remained in contact all his life with his brother Domenico, who, according to Anton Francesco Doni , lived in Mantua from 1552 as a musician at the Gonzaga court. According to contemporary statements, Jacopo could also play several instruments himself.
Jacopo was a small person who, because of his presumably fiery, mocking or somewhat biting character, was also called “peppercorns” (“ granelo de pevere ”) by his friends . Nothing is known about his training, Carlo Ridolfi claimed in 1642 that Jacopo had allegedly entered the workshop of Titian , who, however, had thrown him out of jealousy after 10 days. Later, Titian is said to have tried all his life to hinder Tintoretto's development. Other possible teachers of Tintorettos are Bonifazio Veronese , Paris Bordone and Andrea Meldola, called Schiavone , in the literature . Tintoretto is said to have admired the latter for his “beautiful way of coloring”. The mannerist Pordenone probably also had an important influence on the young painter.
An early document of his life dates back to 1537, when Tintoretto rented an “apartment and workshop” in Venice in the San Cassiano parish for 20 ducats . From this time on he worked as an independent master and opened his own workshop in Venice on May 22, 1539 at Campo San Cassiano.
In his youth he painted various, only fragmentarily preserved fresco decorations, including in the Ca 'Soranzo and probably also in the villa of the lawyer Marco Mantova Benavides in Padua (based on a letter from April 1541).
At the end of 1544 Pietro Aretino ordered two mythological ceiling paintings from him, including a representation of Apollo and Marsyas ( Wadsworth Atheneum , Hartford). When Tintoretto was finished in January 1545, the poet thanked him for the "beautiful and lively" pictures, but also expressed astonishment and somewhat irritated about the extraordinary speed of Jacopo, which he was repeatedly accused of throughout his life.
Tintoretto's Last Supper from 1547 is an early masterpiece for the Church of San Marcuola , which formally still corresponds to tradition with the vertically placed tablet, but the picture is also characterized by a dramatic excitement of the disciples after Jesus revealed to them that one of them had him betrayed. Tintoretto was to paint several more pictures of the Last Supper in his life, three of them for the Venetian churches of San Trovaso , San Polo and San Giorgio Maggiore . His great ingenuity is shown in the fact that each of these evening meals is very individual and individual, but in all later versions he placed the table across the room and thus used the dynamic of an oblique perspective.
Jacopo pursued his artistic goals with great ardor, and in 1548, still at the very beginning of his career, he caused a real scandal with the work St. Mark saves a slave from martyrdom . The picture tells an old legend: A Germanic slave who has been converted to Christianity manages to resist torture with the help of St. Mark . Unusually, Jacopo painted Saint Mark, the great patron saint of Venice, “standing” on his head (actually flying). Some contemporaries felt this to be an outrage. Other details, too, such as the foreshortening of arms and bodies, daring perspective views, the dramatic excitement of the figures, which in their plasticity betray the study of Michelangelo , were all deliberately designed to attract attention. Indeed, interest in the work of the talented young painter with the unusual ideas began to grow. In a letter from April 1548, the poet Pietro Aretino (1492–1556) expressly praised this work. Even Giorgio Vasari , who was by no means a particular friend of Tintoretto's painting, later praised the “exceptional charm” of the St. Mark's miracle and the “beautiful foreshortening”.
Tintoretto was a sought-after portraitist and, according to Ridolfi, one of the first works that he exhibited in public was a self-portrait and a nocturnal portrait of his brother playing a lyre , both of which are said to have aroused great admiration (Ridolfi, 1648, p. 16). Around the time of his miracle , at the end of the 1540s, he was allowed to portray the Doge Francesco Donà . Not much later he received the first major, official commissions from the Venetian state, around 1551 for the procuraties and in 1553 for the excommunication of Friedrich Barbarossa by Pope Alexander III . In the Doge's Palace , which was destroyed in the great fire of 1577, just like his Battle of Lepanto, created between 1572 and 1574, and a Last Judgment . With the election of Girolamo Priuli as Doge in 1559, Tintoretto became the official portraitist of the Serenissima , succeeding Titian.
In 1547 he changed his apartment and moved to the Cannaregio district of Venice. His parish church Madonna dell'Orto was located in this district , with which he maintained an intensive cooperation. From there in 1548 he received the order to paint the organ wings with the temple aisle of Mary and later (around 1560) he painted the 14 meter high canvases of the Adoration of the Golden Calf and the Last Judgment for the apse of the church - all three count to his masterpieces. On the Last Judgment he painted the bowls of the soul scales held by the Archangel Michael , in which the souls of the deceased are usually weighed, empty. One possible interpretation is that it is not the weight of human action but only divine grace that redeems human beings: " Sola gratia, sola fide, sola scriptura " (= grace alone, faith alone, scripture alone).
In the late 1540s and -50s he also worked for the Venetian churches of San Marcuola , San Rocco , Santa Maria del Giglio , San Marziale , San Michele and for the Scuola della Trinità. Some of the resulting paintings and altarpieces are now in various museums (including the Accademia, Venice).
In 1554 Tintoretto dissolved a studio community with Giovanni Galizzi that had proven itself over many years. From now on he looked for his own assistants, including Antonio Aliense, Andrea Vicentino , as well as the Dutch Paolo Fiammingo , Marten de Vos and Lodovico Pozzoserrato (actually: Lodewijk Toeput).
In the same year, Tintoretto's daughter Maria or Marietta was born out of wedlock from a relationship with a German woman. Marietta followed in her father's footsteps and also became a well-known painter, called "La Tintoretta". Jacopo probably married Faustina Episcopi, whose father was a kind of secretary to the procurator Giulio Contarini, in the late 1550s . He and his wife had eight other children: Domenico, Marco, Gierolima, Zuan Battista, Ottavio, Lucrezia Sara Monica, Ottavia and Laura (* after 1584), born in November 1560. His sons Domenico and Marco Tintoretto also became painters and, like Marietta, helped their father in the workshop, especially with works from his later phase.
Jacopo had a difficult relationship, determined by jealousy, with his painter colleague Paolo Veronese (1528–1588).
From 1562 to 1566, Tintoretto created three pictures as a continuation of his Miracle of St. Mark for the Scuola di San Marco, including The Salvation of the Corpse of St. Mark ; they were commissioned by the doctor and philosopher Tommaso Rangone (today in the Accademia Venice and in the Pinacoteca di Brera , Milan). Other important works of the 1560s were the Wedding of Cana for the Crociferi (1561; today in Santa Maria della Salute ), and altar paintings for the Venetian churches San Trovaso (today partly in the National Gallery , London), San Severo ( Crucifixion , today Accademia, Venice) and San Cassiano (1565–68; Resurrection of Christ , Crucifixion , Christ in Limbus ).
In 1566 he was admitted to the academy. Two years earlier he had started a cycle at the Scuola di San Rocco , which he was supposed to work on with interruptions over 20 years, from 1564 to 1587, and which, with over 60 individual images, is considered his main work. The first picture of St. Rochus in glory , he had painted within a few weeks and given it to the Rochus Brotherhood on June 22, 1564 - with this trick he eliminated all other competitors, namely Paolo Veronese, Federico Zuccari , Giuseppe Salviati and Andrea Schiavone, despite violent protests from his opponents . The picture adorns the ceiling of the Sala dell'Albergo, whose other pictures he also painted for free. Shortly afterwards he became a member of the Rochus Brotherhood. Until 1567 he created a cycle of passion on the walls of the hall, with a richly moving, large crucifixion 12 m wide as the climax. For this picture he received 250 ducats . It is one of his most admired works and was disseminated through numerous writings and engravings (including by Agostino Carracci ).
Tintoretto also later painted several pictures of the painting cycles for the Scuola di San Rocco for free or only calculated the colors, including the erection of the brazen serpent , the collection of manna and Moses knocking water out of the rock (1575–1577) for the ceiling of the sala Superior. At his own suggestion, he received from the Rochus Brotherhood a lifelong pension of 100 ducats a year in return for three new pictures a year from November 1577, which was still much cheaper than if he had paid for each individual picture.
The fact that he was commissioned to design mosaics in St. Mark's Basilica in 1568 shows how much he was now valued .
In 1574 Jacopo Tintoretto bought a house in the San Marziale district , in the Fondamenta dei Mori, where he and his family lived until his death. This house is still preserved today.
After the aforementioned fire in the Doge's Palace (1577), he received prestigious commissions for a cycle in the Sala del Anticollegio (1578), painted votive pictures in the Sala del Collegio (1580s) and finally, from 1588 to 1592, one of his most famous works, the giant paradise (7 × 22 m) on the wall of the Sala del Maggior Consiglio, which is still the largest canvas painting in the world today. Numerous employees helped him with the work on the hundreds of figures, including his son Domenico and Palma il Giovane .
In the meantime, Tintoretto was internationally established and painted a series of eight military paintings for the Duke of Mantua , Guglielmo Gonzaga , from 1578, the so-called Gonzaga cycle (Italian: Fasti gonzagheschi ; today Alte Pinakothek , Munich). On the one hand, it consists of four paintings about the four marquis of Mantua , which were completed in 1579, and four other pictures about the two dukes Federico II Gonzaga and Francesco III. Gonzaga , which were completed in May 1580. As an exception, Tintoretto left Venice with his wife Faustina in 1580 to personally install the last four of these paintings in the Ducal Palace in Mantua.
At around the same time he created four mythological paintings for Emperor Rudolph II , including the exquisite Creation of the Milky Way , which is now in the National Gallery in London (Fig. Below).
In the last years of his life he suffered two severe strokes of fate: his daughter Marietta died in 1590 and his son Zuan Battista in 1593.
After 15 days of fever, Tintoretto died on May 31 in Venice. His grave is in the Madonna dell'Orto church, which houses a number of important works by him.
Shortly before his death on May 30, 1594, Jacopo had named his son Domenico as his successor in his will. After Domenico and Marco Robusti also died, their sister Ottavia inherited the workshop as the main heir and, on the instructions of her brothers, married the German-born painter Sebastian Casser (1545), who had been trained in the Tintoretto workshop.
Tintoretto's house in the Cannaregio district of Venice
Tintoretto's tomb in the Madonna dell'Orto church
Tintoretto and the Reformation?
Jacopo Tintoretto took his first steps as an artist in an unusually turbulent time. By Martin Luther theses in 1517 in Wittenberg the old order of spiritual and temporal power had been shaken. As early as 1520, Luther's writings met with great interest in Venice; an atmosphere of contrasts arose here in which Tintoretto lived and worked.
The art historian Alexander Linke pointed out that in Tintoretto's immediate neighborhood in Cannaregio there lived a whole circle of nobles who were intensively concerned with the questions of the Reformation, including Cardinal Gasparo Contarini and his family. In addition to churches, monasteries and the brotherhoods of Venice, this group of people also belonged to Tintoretto's patrons and patrons. Roland Krischel, curator of a Tintoretto exhibition in Cologne, pointed out that the painter owned a translation of the Bible by Santi Marmochino, "... which was translated particularly close to the original texts and later placed on the index," which is therefore a criminal offense was. He immortalized this Bible on his altarpiece Resurrection of Mary , which is now in the Upper Parish in Bamberg , where it can be clearly recognized and identified on the lower edge of the picture, on the steps of an altar.
In general, however, Tintoretto's religious images draw from a traditional Roman Catholic theme pool; Whether and to what extent he leaned towards Reformation ideas cannot therefore be determined from his paintings.
Together with Titian and Veronese, Tintoretto is one of the most important painters in Venice in the 16th century. He painted religious pictures, mythological and allegorical subjects, portraits and battle paintings . Some of his works are very large in size, according to the spaces for which they were made. Throughout his entire work he was able to bring his themes clearly into focus and to depict scenes that were already well known and some of which he painted several times (such as the Last Supper ) in new ways. "His trademarks were new, innovative, extravagant and highly dramatic picture compositions". In doing so, it attracts the viewer's attention. Tintoretto was also known as a very quick painter who - according to the tradition of a mocking contemporary witness - “delivered the finished picture while the competitors were still working on their designs.” This repeatedly earned him criticism, especially from Francesco Sansovino (1561) and Giorgio Vasari (1568), who reproached him for the fact that Tintoretto “left designs that were hardly made from the roughest possible”.
According to Ridolfi (1642) was Tintoretto's motto "the Disegno of Michelangelo and the color of Titian" ( " il disegno di Michelangelo e'l colorito di Tiziano "), supposedly he is said to have written on the wall of his workshop. Despite a strong influence from Michelangelo's works, which he presumably only knew through engravings and models, Tintoretto was a typical Venetian painter who preferred coloring to drawing ( disegno ). Vasari, who was influenced by the completely different view of central Italian painting in Florence and Rome , particularly accused Tintoretto of often creating his pictures directly on the canvas without any preliminary drawings and “more by chance and boldness than by drawing and intent “Work. This criticism was not always unjustified; some of his works actually seem almost sketchy or unfinished, while others are very carefully thought out and planned.
From the 1540s onwards, Tintoretto developed his own maniera (i.e. his style) based on Mannerism with its elongated body proportions and unfamiliar perspectives of space. He checked the more complicated poses of his depicted people on the living model. He is also known for his deep perspectives, which have become increasingly daring over time.
His color palette changed from initially bright, colorful tones in his early works to increasingly broken colors in his later works. Nevertheless, depending on the occasion and the client, it could also vary and strike lighter, lighter tones that occasionally remind of Veronese, as in the creation of the Milky Way in 1575 (National Gallery, London). If he did not make an explicit style copy, however, Tintoretto's characters are characterized by a certain humble humanity that seems a bit more popular or bourgeois than Veronese's refined aristocratic culture.
Tintoretto's painting technique and color palette contain a highly developed chiaroscuro , and especially in his maturity and later days he sometimes painted whole figures with a dry brush as sparkling light reflections or veils of light. Examples of this are The Recovery of the Body of St. Mark (1562, Accademia, Venice) and the depictions of St. Mary Magdalene and St. Mary of Egypt in the Sala Terrena in the Scuola di San Rocco. Together with a feverish, restless brushstroke and imaginative, dramatic scenes, this gives his art something mystical - visionary that foreshadows El Greco , who may have been his pupil, or at least he was influenced by him. Tintoretto obtained inspiration for his architecture, which is reminiscent of stage sets, for example in the painting The Washing of Feet from 1548/49 from the theaters of Venice. Some of his topics dealt with fringe groups of society: slaves ( slave miracle also titled miracle of St. Mark , 1547/48) or the sick ( healing of plague sufferers , 1548/49).
In addition to multi-figure, turbulently moving scenes, he was also capable of intimate moments, as in the painting Venus , Vulcanus and Cupid from 1555, where the child is given the breast.
His richly moving, dynamic compositions of great expressiveness prepared the painting of the Baroque .
Finding the body of St. Mark , around 1562, Pinacoteca di Brera , Milan
Saint Roch in Prison , 1567, San Rocco Church , Venice
Raising Lazarus from the dead , 1576, in St. Katharinen in Lübeck
Entombment of Christ , 1594, San Giorgio Maggiore , Venice
Jacopo and Domenico Tintoretto, Palma il Giovane u. a .: Paradise (detail), 1588–94, Doge's Palace , Venice
Of the works of his early days, in which he was close to Titian , the fall of man and the death of Abel (in the Academy in Venice ), Venus , Mars and Cupid (in the Palazzo Pitti in Florence), the altar panel with a representation of St. Mark with the hll. Bartholomew and Jerome in the St. Mark's Cathedral in Korčula (Croatia).
A large part of Tintoretto's work is still in Venice, the above-mentioned cycle of over 60 paintings by Tintoretto's hand, which is considered a particularly personal testimony to his art, is to be emphasized. Tintoretto's paintings in the Doge's Palace , including the colossal paradise , were mostly created in collaboration with his workshop (see above). Significant works by Tintoretto can also be found in some Venetian churches, although some of them are now hanging in various museums.
Numerous other paintings by him can be found in the galleries of Venice, Paris , London , Dresden , Berlin , Vienna , Madrid , Florence , Bucharest and other cities.
The following list is a selection of important works by Tintoretto, without claiming to be exhaustive.
- Cycle of more than 60 paintings in the Scuola Grande di San Rocco , including
- St. Rochus in Glory , 1564
- great crucifixion , 1565
- Christ before Pilate , 1566/67
- Coronation of Thorns , 1566/67
- Establishment of the Brazen Serpent , 1575–1577
- Collection of Manna , 1575–1577
- Moses knocks water out of the rock , 1575–1577
- Adoration of the Shepherds , 1578–81
- Baptism of Jesus , 1578–81
- Last Supper , 1578–81
- Prayer on the Mount of Olives , 1578–81
- Resurrection of Christ , 1578–81
- Flight into Egypt , 1582–87
- St. Mary Magdalene and Egyptian Mary , 1582–87
- several paintings in the Church of San Rocco , including St. Rochus heals the plague sufferers (1549) and St. Rochus in prison (1567)
- several paintings in Santa Maria dell'Orto , including Presentation of the Virgin in the Temple (1552/53), the Last Judgment (1560–1562) and the Adoration of the Calf (1563)
- Assumption of Mary , 1555, Santa Maria Assunta
- Presentation of Jesus in the temple , 1542, Santa Maria dei Carmini
- Wedding at Cana , 1561, Santa Maria della Salute
- Crucifixion , Jesus in Limbo and Resurrection , San Cassiano
- Last Supper and Entombment of Christ , San Giorgio Maggiore , 1594
- Baptism of Christ , San Silvestro
- Baptism of Christ , San Pietro Martire, Murano (Venice)
Doge's Palace , Venice
- mythological images in the Sala dell'Anticollegio, u. a. Bacchus, Venus and Ariadne , 1576/77
- Mystical wedding of St. Catherine , 1576
- Battle of Zara
- The Doge Nicolò da Ponte asks the Virgin for protection , 1584
- The dead Christ with the Doges Pietro Lando and Marcantonio Trevisan , 1580s
- Paradise , 1588–1592 (together with Domenico Tintoretto, Palma il Giovane et al.)
Accademia , Venice
- Recovery of the corpse of St. Mark , 1562 (formerly for the Church of San Marco)
- Madonna dei Camerlenghi , ca.1567
- Resurrection of Christ
- Portrait of a 25-year-old nobleman , 1545, Royal Collection
- The Muses , around 1578, Windsor Castle
- The Siege of Asola (L'assedio di Asola ) , 1544–1545, National Museum (Poznan)
- The Annunciation , oil on canvas, 124 × 100 cm, Muzeul Național de Artă al României (National Art Museum of Romania), Bucharest
- Star Madonna , National Gallery of Art , Washington DC
- Madonna and Child and Family of Doges Alvise Mocenigo , c.1575, National Gallery of Art, Washington DC
- Baptism of Christ , Cleveland Museum of Art , Cleveland, Ohio
- Nativity , Museo Nacional de Bellas Artes , Buenos Aires
Uffizi Gallery , Florence
- Portrait of a Bearded Man , 1546
- Portrait of the sculptor Jacopo Sansovino , 1560–1570
Museo di Castelvecchio, Verona
- The nine muses
Palazzo dei Musei, Modena
- Madonna with Child and Saints , 1547–49
Kunsthistorisches Museum , Vienna
- Susanna in the bath , around 1555/1556
- Flagellation of Christ
- Portrait of Lorenzo Soranzo
- Man with white beard
- Old man and boy , ca.1565
- Portrait of a Man in Gold-Decorated Armor , 1553
Louvre , Paris
- Susanna in the bath , around 1550–60
- Paradise (first sketch for the painting in the Doge's Palace; 143 × 362 cm), 1580s
- Self-portrait , 1587/88
Prado , Madrid
- Baptism of christ
- The washing of the feet , 1548–49 (formerly San Marcuola , Venice)
- Judith and Holofernes
- Portrait of Marco Grimani
National Gallery , London
- Formation of the Milky Way
Hermitage , St. Petersburg
- St. George with the dragon , around 1544
- Birth of Johannes d. Baptist , ca.1554
- Vulkan surprises Venus and Mars, Alte Pinakothek , Munich
- Jesus with Maria and Marthe , 1580s, Alte Pinakothek, Munich
- Gonzaga cycle (eight paintings), 1579–80, (originally for the Palazzo Ducale, Mantua), today: Alte Pinakothek, Munich
- Mary with the child and the evangelists Markus and Lukas , before 1570, Gemäldegalerie , Berlin
- Ladies' concert , Old Masters Picture Gallery , Dresden
- Saint Michael fights the dragon , 1592, Gemäldegalerie Alte Meister, Dresden
- Paolo Tiepolo , 1523–1585, around 1578, Oberfinanzdirektion Cologne, now in the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud Cologne.
- Crucifixion , 1585, Haug Abbey Parish Church , Würzburg
- Raising of Lazarus , 1576, Lübeck St. Catherine's Church (Church Museum of Lübeck)
During Tintoretto's lifetime, Vasari was one of his most violent critics, he described him as "dissolute, strange, quickly determined and the greatest mind that has ever devoted himself to this art" and he said Tintoretto's large paintings in the apse to Madonna dell'Orto, would be just a "joke".
For Francesco Sansovino , Tintoretto was already one of the “sights of the city” of Venice in 1561, he praised his creativity and that he was “all spirit, all skill”.
The Tintoretto biographer Henry Thode compared the painter and his style with the composer Richard Wagner : he found that Tintoretto achieved just as deep an emotional understanding of the whole in his pictures as Wagner did in his operas.
Jean-Paul Sartre analyzed the work The Miracle of St. Markus (1548) in detail in his article Saint Marc et son double. Le Séquestré de Venise .
In 2012, the Scuderie del Quirinale in Rome (a former stables near the Quirinal Palace , now an art and exhibition hall) presented an exhibition of around 50 works by Tintoretto. It was the first retrospective since 1937 in the Venetian Ca 'Pesaro .
- Tintoretto. Scuderie del Quirinale , Rome, February 25, 2012 - June 10, 2012.
Tintoretto - A Star was born. Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud , Cologne, October 6, 2017 - January 28, 2018; then as:
- Tintoret. Naissance d'un génie. Musée du Luxembourg , Paris, March 7, 2018 - July 1, 2018.
Tintoretto 1519-1594. Palazzo Ducale (Doge's Palace), Venice, September 7, 2018 - January 6, 2019, large exhibition on the occasion of the 500th anniversary of Tintoretto; then as:
- Tintoretto: Artist of Renaissance Venice. The National Gallery of Art , Washington DC., March 24, 2019 - July 7, 2019.
- chronological -
- Carlo Ridolfi : Vita di Jacopo Robusti detto il Tintoretto, cittadino Veneziano . Venezia 1648, reprint from Le maraviglie dell'arte ovvero le vite degli illustri pittori Veneti e dello Stato , Cartallier, Padova 1837. online edition , pp 171-258, Digitalisat the Heidelberg University Library , doi: 10.11588 / diglit.33474 .
- Tintoretto . In: Meyers Konversations-Lexikon . 4th edition. Volume 15, Verlag des Bibliographisches Institut, Leipzig / Vienna 1885–1892, p. 718.
- Erich von der Bercken : The paintings of Jacopo Tintoretto . Munich 1942
- Roberto Longhi : Venetian Painting. Florence 1975.
- Theodor Hetzer : Venetian painting from its beginnings to Tintoretto's death. Stuttgart 1985.
- Ulrich Willmes: Studies at the Scuola di San Rocco in Venice. Scaneg publishing house, Munich 1985.
- Ruxandra Jotzu, Ioana Beldiman: From Cranach to Monet. European masterpieces from the National Art Museum Bucharest. Exhibition catalog. Sinclair House , Bad Homburg vor der Höhe; Von-der-Heydt-Museum , Wuppertal 1993, ISBN 3-89202-021-3 , pp. 46-49.
- Tintoretto. In: Lexicon of Art. Volume 11, Sem - Tot, Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, ISBN 978-3-451-20671-9 , pp. 345-351.
- Heiner Wittmann : Sartre and art. The portrait studies from Tintoretto to Flaubert. Gunter Narr Verlag, Tübingen 1996, ISBN 978-3-8233-5167-2 , dissertation from the University of Bonn .
- Roland Krischel: Travel experiences of Jacopo Tintoretto. In: Wallraf-Richartz-Jahrbuch , 57 (1996), pp. 133–159, JSTOR 24661629 , subject to registration.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century. In: Venice - Art and Architecture . (2 volumes in a cassette.) Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne 1997, ISBN 978-3-89508-592-5 , pp. 394-457.
- Tom Nichols: Tintoretto. Tradition and Identity. Reaction Books, London 1999, ISBN 978-1-86189-043-6 , limited preview in Google Book Search.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande by San Rocco. Edizioni Storti, Venice 1983/88/99, ISBN 88-7666-021-6 .
- Roland Krischel: Jacopo Robusti, called Tintoretto: 1519–1594. Könemann, Cologne 2000, ISBN 3-8290-1638-7 .
- Tintoretto. The Gonzaga cycle. Hatje Cantz, Ostfildern-Ruit 2000, ISBN 978-3-7757-0887-6 , table of contents.
- Helga Wäß: “The Robbery of the Sabine Women” by the Gradenigo family. Latest research on Tintoretto's early work. A homage to the founding fathers of Venice in an unknown Venetian painting from the period after 1539. Schnell & Steiner, Passau 2000, ISBN 3-7954-1338-9 , table of contents .
- Astrid Zenkert: Tintoretto in the Scuola di San Rocco, ensemble and effect. Ernst Wasmuth Verlag, Tübingen 2003, ISBN 3-8030-1918-4 .
- Vittorio Sgarbi , Giovanni Morello: Tintoretto . Exhibition catalog from Scuderie del Quirinale. Skira, Milan 2012, ISBN 978-88-572-1355-2 .
- Roland Krischel (Ed.): Tintoretto: A Star was born. Exhibition catalog from the Wallraf-Richartz-Museum . Hirmer Verlag, Munich 2017, ISBN 978-3-7774-2942-7 , table of contents.
- Marsel Grosso: Robusti, Jacopo, detto Tintoretto. In: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani , Volume 88, 2017, online at treccani.it , (Italian, accessed March 22, 2020).
- Tintoretto and the new Venice. (Alternative title: Tintoretto .) Documentary, Germany, Italy, 2019, 52:32 min., Written and directed: Erminio Perocco, production: Kublai Film, V! Dee, Zeta Group, Gebrüder Beetz Filmproduktion, ZDF , first broadcast: December 8th 2019 on arte, summary by ARD , preview by Beetz Filmproduktion, 1:06 min .; Preview of Kublai Film, 1:39 min.
- Tintoretto: Artist of Renaissance Venice-Gallery Walk-through. Exhibition tour, USA, 2019, 4:43 min., Production: National Gallery of Art , Internet publication: June 4, 2019, online video , (English).
- Tintoretto 1519–1594 | Palazzo Ducale. Exhibition tour, Italy, 2018, 4:33 min., Production: Illumina Film, Musei Civici Venezia (MUVE), Internet publication: December 3, 2018, online video , (English, Italian).
- Works by Jacopo Tintoretto at Zeno.org .
- Pictures and biography of Jacopo Tintoretto. In: art-drawing.ru (Russian)
- Alexandra Matzner: biography of Jacopo Tintoretto (1518 / 19–1594). In: ArtInWords.de , October 5, 2017
- Monika Buschey : May 31, 1594 - anniversary of the death of the Italian painter Tintoretto. In: WDR , ZeitZeichen , May 31, 2014, 14:12 min.
- Alexandra Matzner: Biography of Jacopo Tintoretto (1518 / 19–1594). In: ArtInWords.de , October 5, 2017.
- Marsel Grosso: Robusti, Jacopo, detto Tintoretto , in: Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani , Volume 88, 2017, freely available online at treccani.it , (Italian, accessed March 22, 2020).
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande of San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999, p. 10
- Spanish curator uncovers true name of Tintoretto. In: CBC , News | Arts & Entertainment, January 21, 2007, accessed December 10, 2019.
- Carlo Bernari and Pierluigi de Vecchi (eds.): L'opera completa del Tintoretto , in: Classici dell'Arte , Rizzoli, 1970/2000, ISBN 978-88-17-27336-7 , p. 83.
- Roland Krischel: Jacopo Tintoretto, 1519–1594 , Könemann, Cologne 2000, ISBN 978-3-8290-2876-9 , p. 6.
- Alexander Linke (art historian) quoted in Kirsten Serup-Bilfeldt: On the 500th birthday of the painter Jacopo Tintoretto. In: DLF , April 25, 2018.
- Tintoretto. In: Lexicon of Art. Volume 11, Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 345-351, here: p. 346.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, 394–457, here: p. 425.
- Thorsten Droste: Venice: The city in the lagoon - churches and palaces, gondolas and carnival. (Art Guide), Dumont, Cologne 1996, ISBN 978-3-7701-3582-0 , p. 226.
- Tintoretto. In: Lexicon of Art. Volume 11, Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 345-351, here: p. 351.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, 394-457, here: p. 416.
- Tintoretto. In: Lexicon of Art. Volume 11, Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 345-351, here: p. 348.
- Tintoretto. In: Lexicon of Art. Volume 11, Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 345-351, here: p. 349.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, pp. 394–457, here: pp. 420–421 and 427.
- Kirsten Serup-Bilfeldt: On the 500th birthday of the painter Jacopo Tintoretto. In: DLF , April 25, 2018.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande by San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999, pp. 10-11.
- Tintoretto. In: Lexicon of Art. Volume 11, Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 345-351, here: pp. 348-349.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande of San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999, pp. 13 and 15.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, 394–457, here: pp. 424–425 and 427–429.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande of San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999, pp. 28–33, here: 29–32.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande of San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999, p. 41.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande of San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999, pp. 41 and 105.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, 394–457, here: p. 445.
- Summary: Tintoretto - The Gonzaga cycle. In: Hatje Cantz Verlag , accessed December 10, 2019.
- This was his only clearly documented stay outside of Venice. Tintoretto. In: Lexicon of Art. Volume 11, Karl Müller Verlag, Erlangen 1994, pp. 345-351, here: p. 349
- Photos: The grave of Tintoretto. In: knerger.de .
The Robusti's wills give an insight into family tensions. The eldest daughter Marietta was only allowed to marry the goldsmith Marco (d ') Augusta after considerable resistance from her father. He had to promise to live and work in the father-in-law's house.
Marco was de facto and finally by the will of his mother, Faustina Robusti Episcopi, from June 5, 1612 also formally restricted in the disposition of his inheritance. She justified the restriction with the fact that he was not on the right track. The brothers appointed their sister Ottavia as the principal heir (wills of October 20, 1630 and September 15, 1635) with the stipulation that she should marry Sebastian Casser. Ottavia had married the respected Cittadino Giovanni Battista Caldoni in 1600 and was now widowed.
About her second wedding in 1639, in her will of October 8, 1645, she announced somewhat distantly, “I married Misier Sebastian Casser, ... painter in my house, on the instructions of my brothers Domenico and Marco, which Before her death they promised me that if I were of the opinion that Messer Sebastiano was doing well at painting, I would take him as my husband, so that the name of Ca 'Tentoretto would be preserved through his skills. ”
The wills were made Added to the reprint of 1648 in the edition by Carlo Ridolfi : Vite dei Tintoretto da Le maraviglie dell'arte overo Le vite degl'illustri pittori veneti e dello stato. Filippi, Venezia 1994, reprint from 1648, ISBN 978-88-6495-060-0 , pp. 127-140.
- Exhibition: Tintoretto - A star was born • Wallraf-Richartz-Museum & Fondation Corboud • October 6, 2017 to January 28, 2018. In: Museums Köln .
- Roland Krischel (curator) quoted in: Kirsten Serup-Bilfeldt: On the 500th birthday of the painter Jacopo Tintoretto. In: DLF , April 25, 2018.
- Quotation: "How far his Protestant inclinations actually go, we do not know". See: Kirsten Serup-Bilfeldt: For the 500th birthday of the painter Jacopo Tintoretto. In: DLF , April 25, 2018.
- Arne Karsten (historian) quoted in Kirsten Serup-Bilfeldt: On the 500th birthday of the painter Jacopo Tintoretto - sky -striker between Reformation and Renaissance. In: Deutschlandfunk ( DLF ), April 25, 2018.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, 394-457, here: p. 424.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, 394-457, here: p. 427.
- David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, pp. 394–457, here: p. 434.
- Rosand describes the latter two as “the pinnacle of Tintoretto's art”. David Rosand: The Venetian Painting in the 16th Century , in: Venice - Art and Architecture , Volume 1, Könemann, Cologne, 1997, 394-457, here: p. 427 and 457.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande of San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999, p. 11.
- Francesco Valcanover: Jacopo Tintoretto and the Scuola Grande of San Rocco , Storti Edizioni, Venezia, 1999.
The diplomat from Venice reveals his secret. In: FAZ of June 8, 2013, page 35, article excerpt.
The diplomat from Venice. Tintoretto's Portrait of Paolo Tiepolo. in: City of Cologne , 2013.
- Jean-Paul Sartre : “Saint Marc et son double” ,  essai de Sartre sur Tintoret, retrouvé, établi et présenté par Michel Sicard, en: Obliques , nº 24-25, , Sartre et les arts , édité par M. Sicard, Nyons 1981, p. 171 to 202; see. Heiner Wittmann : Bibliography: Sartre and Tintoretto. In: romanistik.info , May 21, 2018.
- Tintoretto exhibition (English). ( Memento of March 13, 2016 in the Internet Archive ). In: Scuderie del Quirinale , Rome, February 25 - June 10, 2012.
- Eva Clausen: The light of despair. In: Neue Zürcher Zeitung , April 11, 2012, exhibition report by the Scuderie del Quirinale , Rome, 2012.
- Exhibition: Tintoretto - A Star was Born. In: kultur-online.net , 2017.
- Tintoret. In: Musée du Luxembourg , 2018, with audio file , 46:30 min.
- Exhibition: Tintoretto 1519–1594. In: Dogenpalast , 2018, (English), accessed June 8, 2020.
- Exhibition: Tintoretto: Artist of Renaissance Venice. In: National Gallery of Art , 2019, (English), accessed June 8, 2020.
- Candida Syndikus (review): Helga Wäß: The robbery of the Sabine women of the Gradenigo family. In: sehepunkte , Issue 1 (2001), No. 1.
- Heiner Wittmann (review): Astrid Zenkert, Tintoretto in the Scuola di San Rocco, ensemble and effect. In: romanistik.info , June 4, 2006.
|ALTERNATIVE NAMES||Robusti, Jacopo (real name); Il Tintoretto (nickname)|
|BRIEF DESCRIPTION||Italian painter|
|DATE OF BIRTH||uncertain: 1518 or 1519|
|PLACE OF BIRTH||Venice|
|DATE OF DEATH||May 31, 1594|
|Place of death||Venice|