Aphrodite ( ancient Greek Ἀφροδίτη ; classical pronunciation: / apʰrodíːtɛː / ; Koine : / aɸroðíti / ; modern-philological pronunciation: / afrodíːtɛː / ) is the goddess of love , beauty and sensual desire and one of the canonical twelve Olympic deities according to Greek mythology . In particular, she was revered as the patroness of sexuality and procreation , which ensured both the continuity of nature and the continuity of human communities. Its counterpart in Roman mythology is Venus .
The etymology of the name of the goddess, as well as the origin of her cult, is controversial to this day. Since ancient times, the first part of the word has been brought together with the Greek aphrós ( ὁ ἀφρός "foam (of the sea)") and commented on by the attribute aphrogenḗs, aphrogéneia (ἀφρογενής, ἀφρογένεια "the foam-born"), although the etymology of the second part of the word remained largely obscure . Since the late 19th century, therefore, Indo-Europeanists and Graecists have questioned a Greek derivation for the god's name and instead suspected an oriental origin. However, Martin Litchfield West rejected the direct derivation proposed by Fritz Hommel from the Semitic theonym ʿAštart (from the Greek Ἀστάρτα, Ἀστάρτη ) and replaced it with a derivation - purely speculative by his own admission - from an unproven ʿAštart epithet " prāz " those of the villages ”, which would have been pronounced in the Cypriot - Canaanite dialect * [ʿaproðiːt] .
In 1911 Ernst Maaß presented an etymology that traces the name back to aphrós and a derivation of the verb déatο ( δέατο “seemed, had the appearance”, reconstructed infinitive * δέασθαι ; cf. δῆλος “apparently, clearly”). The name of the goddess would therefore mean "she who radiates in the foam (of the sea)". Michael Janda also subscribed to this interpretation . In addition, Janda, who also considers the Phoenician ʿAštart to have a secondary influence on the mythological ideas about the Greek Aphrodite, sees Aphrodite in agreement with Deborah Boedeker and George E. Dunkel as the Greek equivalent of the Indian goddess of the dawn Uṣas , with whom she alongside several epithets - including that of a "daughter of heaven" ( Indo-European * diṷós dhugh 2 tēr [r] > Greek Διός θυγάτηρ Diós thygátēr "Zeus daughter ") and that of the "gladly (or kindly) smiling" (Greek φιλομμειδής also philommeidḗs ) - seductive demeanor parts.
In addition, the myth of Aphrodite rising from the sea foam, which is associated with other epithets of the goddess such as Euploía ( Εὐπλοία "the good seafaring") and Pontía ( Ποντία "the one from the sea"), can be linked to the image of the rising every morning from the Ocean Connect Eos (which is also the phonetic equivalent of the Vedic Uṣas). Dunkel reminded us that new gods often emerged through the independence of older epithets. Accordingly, the Greek goddesses Eos and Aphrodite would have emerged from the splitting of an original Indo-European goddess of the dawn ( * H 2 ausōs ), from which the Vedic Uṣas also descends. The connection between Aphrodite and the island of Cyprus in the east of the Greek world can also be explained by this genealogy, which refers to the goddess of the dawn.
According to Hesiod , she is the daughter of Uranus . His son Kronos , on the advice of his mother Gaia , cut off his genitals with a sickle blow and "threw them behind him" into the sea . The blood and seeds mixed with the sea, which foamed all around and gave birth to Aphrodite, who according to Hesiod first went ashore on Kythera , then on the coast of Cyprus. There, according to the Homeric Hymns, the hearing adorned her before she was presented to the immortals. According to Pausanias and Nonnos of Panopolis , it was the goddess Thalassa (Θάλασσα "the sea") who received the seed. After she was admitted to Olympus, she became the adopted daughter of Zeus.
In addition, there are other myths about the descent of the goddess, for example in Homer's case she is the daughter of Zeus and Dione , daughter of Zeus also in the Homeric hymns . Another, admittedly late source, names her together with the Erinyes and Moirs as the daughter of Kronos. Hyginus Mythographus adapts the birth myth of the Syrian Semiramis and writes that it hatched from an egg that had rolled ashore by fish and hatched by pigeons.
Statue of the foam-born Aphrodite from the second century BC BC
( Metropolitan Museum of Art , New York City)
Activity and character
With Homer she appears as the protector of sexual love (especially with the seduction of Helena through Paris), next to that as the embodiment of beauty and consequently the winner in the beauty contest with Hera and Athena in Paris, but also as advocate of marriage. Irritated to anger, however, she can withdraw her gifts just as quickly. Her preferred attributes in Homer are "the golden one" ( χρυσείη ) as well as the already mentioned Diós thygátēr ( Διός θυγάτηρ " daughter of Zeus") and the philommeidḗs reserved for her ( φιλομμειδής " sweet smiling one"). She owes her irresistible charm to a magical belt , the kestòs himàs poikílos ( κεστὸς ἱμὰς ποικίλος “ brightly embroidered belt”), which she occasionally lends upon request, including to Hera, the mother of the gods. Her husband, the blacksmith god Hephaestus , had made it for her from gold and precious stones. The fifth of the Homeric hymns (5, 1–6) vividly describes the character of a general goddess of fertility :
Μοῦσά μοι ἔννεπε ἔργα πολυχρύσου Ἀφροδίτης,
Κύπριδος, τε θεοῖσιν ἐπὶ γλυκὺν ἵμερον .eta ὦρσε
καί .tau 'φῦλα καταθνητῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐδαμάσσατο
οἰωνούς τε διιπετέας καὶ θηρία πάντα,
ἠμὲν ὅσ' ἤπειρος πολλὰ τρέφει ἠδ 'ὅσα πόντος ·
πᾶσιν δ' ἔργα μέμηλεν ἐυστεφάνου Κυθερείης.
Muse, tell me the works of the golden Aphrodite,
mistress of Cyprus; Sweet desire awakens the gods,
overwhelms mortal human families,
the birds high in the air, the flocks of animals, all together,
may they nourish the continent, may they nourish the oceans countless:
each vies for the graces of the beautifully crowned Kytherea.
Their entourage includes Eros , Himeros ( Ἵμερος “desire”) and Peitho ( Πειθώ , the deified “ art of persuasion”), as well as the Charites ( Χάριτες ). According to the Iliad, these have woven an "ambrosial peplos " (unfortunately hardly protective) for the goddess . In the Odyssey , Aphrodite even dances in the “wistful dance of the Charites” ( Χαρίτων χορὸν ἱμερόεντα ). The cult of Aphrodite Akidalia in Orchomenos also commemorates this community , where, according to myth, she bathes in a spring together with the Charites.
Aphrodite and Eros, idol from the fourth century BC BC, Corinthia
Aphrodite statue of the Capitoline type with Eros figure, Roman copy of the second century AD ( Louvre )
The three Charites,
fresco from Pompeii
Aphrodite is married to Hephaestus , the god of fire and blacksmithing, whom she betrays, however, with mortals and immortals. Notorious is her long relationship with the god of war Ares , from which Eros , Harmonia , Phobos , Deimos and Anteros arose - as Demodokos sang in his burlesque song among the Phaiacs . According to Homer, the two were right in the act of Hephaestus in flagrante discovered and caught in a net. When the blacksmith god presented them to the other gods, the proverbial Homeric laughter arose among them .
From Aphrodite's love affair with the Trojan Anchises went Aeneas (Greek. Aeneas) indicates hero in the Trojan War , then to the mythical ancestors of the Romans should belong and from whose son allegedly the Julian clan, to which Julius Caesar belonged sprang . In addition, she gave birth to Dionysus the Priapus and the Hermes the Hermaphroditos .
She also has the beautiful Adonis as her lover. She hides it (as a seed) in a box and gives it to Persephone , enthroned in the underworld - the bosom of the earth ; she wants to keep him forever. Only after Zeus' arbitration does she give it back to Aphrodite for two thirds of the year. During the hunt, Adonis is killed by the jealous Ares in the form of a boar .
The judgment of Paris
According to legend, Aphrodite is said to have triggered the Trojan War when, along with Hera and Athene , she asked Paris, the Trojan prince, to judge which of them was the most beautiful. Every goddess tried to bribe him, and the Trojan decided on Aphrodite, because she had promised him the most beautiful woman in the world. This event is known as the judgment of Paris and, due to the resulting robbery of Helen, is considered the mythological trigger for the Greek march against Troy . During the ten-year siege, together with Ares, she supported Troy as best she could, but Hera and Athena stood on the side of the Greeks.
Attic jug with the judgment of Paris, around 360 BC BC
( Getty Villa , Los Angeles)
The judgment of Paris on a Roman sarcophagus,
around 100 AD ( Museo Nazionale Romano )
The Judgment of Paris,
alabaster on wooden panel, around 1535 ( Bode Museum , Berlin)
Origin of the cult
Ancient writers such as Herodotus and Pausanias saw the origin of the cult of Aphrodite Urania in Phenicia and the Near East . Assyria and Phoenician Ascalon were highlighted as possible places of origin of the cult, and Paphos on Cyprus and the Ionian island of Kythera as early places of manifestation in the Greek world . On the other hand, Georg Ferdinand Dümmler, in his article for Paulys Realencyclopadie der classical antiquity , based on the investigation of the places of worship, assumed a Thessalian origin of the Aphrodite cult, which was initially Pelasgian after him .
In more recent times the Graecist Walter Burkert has pointed out numerous parallels between Aphrodite, the Mesopotamian Ištar and the Syrian ʿAštart . He traced the androgynous traits of the Aphrodite cult to male or masculine variants of their Middle Eastern counterparts (cf. Aphroditos , Hermaphroditos , Athtar ); so Ištar appeared by name as the bearded goddess of war. In contrast, Gabriella Pironti and Stephanie L. Budin have pointed out the rarity of the cults of an armed Aphrodite and the possibility of explaining these warlike traits from the universal character of the goddess of love or through association with the god of war Ares. Burkert saw the epithet of Urania in that of the "Queen of Heaven" ʿAštart. Burkert recognized other similarities between the cults of Aphrodite and ʿAštart in the sacrifice of pigeons and the offering of incense , in the connection with the sea and horticulture and in the existence of unclothed cult images. The assumption of a purely oriental origin of the goddess is contrary to the age of the monumental Temple of Aphrodite in Paphos, Cyprus, which dates back to the beginning of the Mycenaean settlement in the twelfth century BC. Goes back. The Phoenician colonization of Cyprus, in the course of which an Astarte sanctuary was built in Kition , is dated to the ninth century.
Temple prostitution was often seen as an indication of oriental influence . Herodotus tells of a custom of the Babylonians , which he himself describes as their "ugliest", but which is similar but also found "here and there" in Cyprus: every woman has to meet a suitor in the temple of the Assyrian goddess Mylitta once in her life Give up money, although the handsome and stately ones were finished faster than the ugly ones. Strabo recalls a temple service of consecrated hierarchs that had declined or even dried up in his time for the Sicilian mountain Eryx and in Corinth . An early graffito of the Astarte name has come down to us from Corinth , which makes a reception of the oriental cult customs probable. Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge remains skeptical about institutionalized “sacred prostitution” in the Greek world.
The Indo - European mythology based on linguistic elements that can be found consistently in the Indian Vedas and the epic literature of ancient Greece and occasionally other Indo-European languages , some elements of the Aphrodite myth inherited from the Indo-European religion and thus for an origin of the mythological Voting figure of the Indo-European goddess of the dawn. Particular emphasis was placed on the motif of the foam birth and the rise of the goddess out of the sea, which refer to the sunrise and also represent an influential motif of ancient (and modern) art history.
Aphrodite of the Capua type, Roman copy after a Hellenistic original of the third century BC BC ( National Archaeological Museum, Naples )
Statue of the so-called Venus-Genetrix type, first century BC Chr. ( Iris & B. Gerald Cantor Center for Visual Arts , Stanford)
The Venus of Arles , Roman copy, perhaps based on a praxitelic original, restored in the 17th century ( Louvre )
Symbols and attributes
The goddess is often associated with animals such as the dove , swallow , swan and sparrow , but also the buck , the turtle (the foot of the golden-ivory statue of Aphrodite Urania in Elis by the hand of Phidias rested on her ), the dolphin and the hare can be their symbol. Their symbol is also the mirror .
In particular, she is the goddess of flowers, trees and fruits, among which anemone , rose , cypress , linden , myrtle and apple are sacred to her. In addition to temples , she also had sacred groves . She was often depicted holding the apple won in the judgment of Paris . It is also represented by dost , pomegranate and poppy blossom . The pointed-leaved asparagus ( asparagus acutifolius ) also belonged to their wreath flowers . Many plants that have a psychoactive or erotic effect ( aphrodisiacs ), have an intense smell or whose shape is symbolic, were associated with Aphrodite and used at her festivals.
Nicknames and epics reading
Aphrodite Urania and Pandemos
According to Herodotus, it was specifically the cult of Aphrodite Urania ( Οὐρανία "the heavenly") who had come to Cyprus from the Syrian Ascalon . After Pausanias, the cult of Urania was first settled in Paphos , Cyprus . The epithet for Attica , Corinth (as Πειθώ Οὐρανία Peithṓ Uranía ) and the Chersonese Pantikapaion ( Οὐρανία Ἀπατούρη Βοσπόρου μέδουσα Uranousía Apatoúrē Bospórou médousía Apatoúrē Bospórou ) is evidenced by cult epic reading . In Athens there was a temple of Aphrodite Urania "in the gardens" ( wohlν κήποις ), which were probably located on Ilisos , who was referred to there on a herm-like idol as the "oldest of the Moiren". There was also an important statue of the goddess by the hand of Alkamenes at the same place . Pausanias reports of an annual festival custom in which virgin priestesses, the so-called arrephors , were sent from the temple of Athene Polias with unknown cargo to the sanctuary of Aphrodite "in the gardens". a. reached through an underground corridor to receive covert counter mail there; Following this festive ritual, the arrephoria, the priestesses were dismissed from the temple service. A second Athenian temple of Urania was found near the Kerameikos and the Stoa Basileios with a statue of Phidias . In Piraeus there was a temple of Aphrodite Syría Uranía ( Συρία Οὐρανία "the heavenly one from Syria ").
The nickname of the Pándemos ( Πάνδημος “those with every people”, from ὁ δῆμος ho dêmos “people, community”) was linked to the political organization of various communities (cf. Demos ). Aphrodite acted as the deity of "civil unity and harmony". The Attic pandemic was also called epitragía ( ἐπιτραγία “the one on the go”), allegedly because the sacrificial goat turned into a goat when Theseus left for Crete. Goat sacrifices were characteristic of Aphrodite nationwide. In addition, Aphrodite presumably served as the goddess of the Polis in the Epirotian Kassope and in the Thessalian Metropolis . Occasionally the two epic readings also appeared side by side. The Boeotian Thebes boasted three archaic wooden pictures of Aphrodite Urania, Pandemos and Apostrophía ( Ἀποστροφία "Abwenderin"), which were donated by Harmonia and created from the bow figures of the ships of the Kadmos .
Aphrodite as sea goddess, Argynnis
Various epithets that referred to the sphere of the sea and shipping were also significant: Pelagía ( Πελαγία , cf. St. Pelagia ), Pontía ( Ποντία ), Thalassía ( Θαλασσία "those from the sea"), Eúploia ( Εὔπλοια "the good." Seafaring gives ", so in Knidos ) or Limenía ( Λιμενία " the safe haven ") was called Aphrodite as a foam-born and helper of seafarers. One of the most remarkable temples of Aphrodite Pontia and Limenia is that of Hermione in the Argolida , where an impressive marble statue was found. Last but not least, Thalassa ("the sea") was the 'mother' of the goddess of love according to one of the birth reports; she herself was often venerated with Poseidon , especially in the Argolis and Arcadia , in Corinth , Orchomenus and Patrai .
As Argynnís ( Ἀργυννίς , also Argounis , Ἀργουνίς ) Aphrodite was worshiped in Boeotia . Here Agamemnon is said to have seen the young Argynnos swimming in Kephisos and fell in love with him, so that he forgot the Greeks gathered in Elis. He dedicated a shrine to Aphrodite, the Argynnion, to the drowned Argynnos. Friedrich Max Müller and most recently Michael Janda linked the epithet with an epithet of the Vedic Uṣas ( árjunī- “brightly shiny ”) and saw in it a confirmation of the relationship between the two goddesses.
Aphrodite as a wedding party
Aphrodite was worshiped in Hermione as Nymphía ( ίυμφία "the bride"). Here virgins sacrificed before marriage, as did widows who wanted to remarry. The cult of Aphrodite Hera in Sparta appears similar , in whose wooden image mothers sacrificed when their daughters married.
The bellicose Aphrodite
The epithet Areía ( Ἀρεία ), under which Aphrodite was venerated in Sparta with one of the oldest Greek wooden pictures, is probably to be understood as "belonging to Ares"; the Byzantine scholiast Tzetzes connected the name with Harmonia rather than with Aphrodite's husband Ares . In Delphi , Aphrodite was worshiped under the surname árma ( ἄρμα ), which is a paraphrase for the love aspect of the goddess. On the other hand, epics such as those of the enóplios ( ἐνόπλιος "the armored one"), also documented in Sparta, clearly indicate an armed love goddess . Pausanias tells of a sanctuary in Acrocorinth , where she was worshiped in arms together with Helios and the arched Eros . In Sparta, however , the enóplios was venerated together with the Moiren and Artemis . According to Stephanie L. Budin, most of the cults of a weapon-bearing Aphrodite (with the exception of the Spartan) are first documented from the Hellenistic (as in southern Italy) or Roman times (Corinth); The influence of the Roman Venus Victrix is therefore also conceivable . Gabriella Pironti has referred to the many points of contact that the myth (birth from a bloody act, marriage to the god of war Ares) and the cult of Aphrodite offer for the development of a warlike aspect: Aphrodite Pandemos as a Polis goddess would naturally have an influence on victory and Defeat their demo.
Aphrodite the Dark, Aphroditus, Hermaphroditos
Melainís or Mélaina ( Μελαινίς, Μέλαιν α "the black one") was called Aphrodite in Corinth, in Thespiai and Mantinea , where the goddess was worshiped together with Dionysus . Pausanias refers the name to the blackness of the night, since with humans copulation does not take place during the day, as with animals, but at night. Lately the epiclesis has been interpreted as an expression of a chthonic aspect of the goddess of love who rules over the "black earth". The epithet Skotía ( Σκοτία "the dark one"), taken from Phaistos , is perhaps to be compared . An Aphrodite epitymbidía ( ἐπιτυμβιδία "that of the graves") was worshiped in Delphi with libations and should help to psychomancy . Epikreading such as androphónos ( Rνδροφikνος “the murderer of men”) and anosía ( ἀνοσία “the unholy”) refer to an even darker aspect - the goddess who takes revenge .
Akraía ( Ἀκραία "those of the peaks"; cf. Aphrodite Akraia ) is, as with other gods, also in Aphrodite's case connected with mountain sanctuaries, which are occupied in Knidos , Troizen , Cyprus and Argos . Maybe these mountain sanctuaries were related to the Uranic aspect of the deity.
Akidalía ( Ἀκιδαλία , Acidalia mater) as the byname of Aphrodite is associated with the Boeotian Akidalia spring, where she was venerated as the wife of Dionysus and mother of the Charites (bathing in the spring) . In Dodona especially Zeus and his first wife Dione - after Homer the mother of Aphrodite - were venerated. The Virgil commentator Maurus Servius Honoratus speaks of a temple consecrated to Zeus and Aphrodite ("ubi Iovi et Veneri templum a veteribus fuerat consecratum"). Herodotus reports that the oracle was founded by a dove released in Thebes in Egypt, which the historian himself deciphered as a priestess sent from there.
Erykíne ( Ἐρυκίνη , Latin Erycina) was the name of the goddess after a sanctuary on Mount Eryx in Sicily, whose name is in turn traced back to that of a son of Aphrodite Eryx . Idalia was an epithet that was rarely used by the Romans after the city of Idalion in Cyprus, where there were Temenos and the temple of Aphrodite.
Kýpris, Kypría, Kyprogenḗs or Kyprogéneia ( Κύπρις, Κυπρία, Κυπρογενής, Κυπρογένεια "Kyprosborn"; lat. Cypria) is derived from the island of Kypros , off whose coast she was born according to one of her birth myths. According to Pindar, Aphrodite is the master of Cyprus. Strabo brings two quotations from Alkman and Aeschylus (or Archilochus?), Which respectively explain Cypros and Paphos (as totum and pars ) to the realm of Aphrodite. In Palaia Paphos (Old Paphos) on the outskirts of today's Kouklia on Cyprus was one of the most important centers of worship of Aphrodite, from which the nickname Paphía ( Παφία "the Paphische") came. This connection of the Aphrodite cult with Paphos receives tourist value today when the Pétra tou Romioú ( Πέτρα του Ρωμιού "Roman rock, Greek rock "), south of Kouklia, is given as the birthplace of Aphrodite. Next to it was one erected on the ruins of an older basilica medieval church in New Paphos , today after Agía Kyriakí Chrysopolitissa ( Αγία Κυριακή Χρυσοπολίτισσα is named), until the beginning of the 20th century Panagia Afrodítissa ( Παναγία Αφροδίτισσα , mutatis mutandis "Most Holy Mother of God the Aphrodite ”) consecrated; here Paul is said to have proclaimed the Gospel together with St. Barnabas ( Acts 13 : 6-12).
For the time being, the interpretation of the extremely popular nickname Kythéreia ( Κυθέρεια ), which was often derived from the name of the island Kythera , which, according to Hesiod, is also the birthplace of the goddess, remains open . According to Herodotus, the cult in Kythera was introduced there by the Phoenicians . Martin Litchfield West has suggested a connection with the Ugaritic blacksmith god Kothar , which also goes together with the Aphrodite husband Hephaestus. On the other hand, according to others, the phonetic finding, which enables a derivation from the Indo-European root of the Greek πόθος ( póthos “desire”), so that the meaning “those concerned with the desire” would result.
The pre-Socratic philosopher Empedocles initially named his principle of φιλότης ( philótēs "friendship, love"; besides also γηθοσύνη , στοργή , ἁρμονία ) as Ἀφροδίτη or Κύπρις ; the goddess of love would have ruled before the rule of πῦρ ( pyr "fire") in ὄμβρος ( ómbros "water, (divine) rain").
In Plato's symposium , the dualism of Aphrodite Urania and Pandemos is linked with the two birth myths according to Hesiod (the heavenly, foam-born Aphrodite) and Homer (the daughter of Zeus and Dione as the earthly Aphrodite). In the 19th century, Karl Heinrich Ulrichs was to take up this distinction in his neologism “Uranism” for same-sex love .
Aphrodite and the war in modern art
Numerous painters have been inspired to work by the contradicting relationship between love and war that unites the couple Aphrodite and Ares.
- Sandro Botticelli : Venus and Mars (1483) and the The Birth of Venus (1485)
- Piero di Cosimo : Venus, Mars and Cupid (around 1500). Mars itself appears to be outwardly similar to Venus, while its weapons become toys in the hands of the satyr children.
- Rubens : The Horrors of War (1637/8), was created under the impression of the Thirty Years' War .
- Peter Cornelius : Aphrodite protects Paris against Menelaus (1825/26)
Aphrodite covers Paris against Menelaus, Roman sarcophagus, second century BC BC (Archaeological Museum, Antalya )
Sandro Botticelli: Venus and Mars , around 1483 ( National Gallery , London)
- Aphrodisiac (love substance)
- Aphrodite Kallipygos
- Aphrodite of Knidos
- Cytheres quadrille
- Venus de Milo
- Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher a. a .: Aphrodite . In: Wilhelm Heinrich Roscher (Hrsg.): Detailed lexicon of Greek and Roman mythology . Volume 1.1, Leipzig 1886, Col. 390-419 ( version ).
- Karl Tümpel , Georg Ferdinand Dümmler : Aphrodite . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 2, Stuttgart 1894, Col. 2729-2787.
- Angelos Delivorrias: Aphrodite . In: Lexicon Iconographicum Mythologiae Classicae (LIMC). Volume II, Zurich / Munich 1984, pp. 2–151.
- H. Alan Shapiro: Art and Cult under the Tyrants in Athens. Von Zabern, Mainz 1989, ISBN 3-8053-1038-2 , pp. 118-124.
- Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge, Anne Ley: Aphrodite. In: The New Pauly (DNP). Volume 1, Metzler, Stuttgart 1996, ISBN 3-476-01471-1 , Sp. 838-844.
- Mario Leis (Ed.): Myth Aphrodite. Texts from Hesiod to Ernst Jandl . Anthology. Reclam, Leipzig 2000, ISBN 3-379-01693-4 ( table of contents ).
- Bettina Full: Aphrodite. In: Maria Moog-Grünewald (Ed.): Mythenrezeption. The ancient mythology in literature, music and art from the beginnings to the present (= Der Neue Pauly . Supplements. Volume 5). Metzler, Stuttgart / Weimar 2008, ISBN 978-3-476-02032-1 , pp. 97-114.
- Martina Seifert (Ed.): Aphrodite. Mistress of war. Goddess of love. von Zabern, Mainz 2009, ISBN 978-3-8053-3942-1 .
- Amy C. Smith , Sadie Pickup (Ed.): Brill's companion to Aphrodite. Brill, Leiden and Boston 2010, ISBN 978-90-04-18003-1 .
- Martin Eckert: Aphrodite the seafarers and their sanctuaries on the Mediterranean. Archaeological studies on intercultural contact zones on the Mediterranean in the late Bronze Age and early Iron Age. Lit Verlag, Berlin 2016, ISBN 978-3-643-13510-0 .
- Information about Aphrodite in the catalog of the German National Library
- Information about Aphrodite in the German Digital Library
- Information about Aphrodite in the SPK digital portal of the Prussian Cultural Heritage Foundation
- Aphrodite in the Theoi Project (English)
- HD Jünger: Aphrodites Childs , interment.de
- Gallery of ancient Aphrodite-Venus representations and gallery of modern Aphrodite-Venus representations , mlahanas.de
- approx. 2500 photos of representations of Aphrodite, in the Warburg Institute Iconographic Database
- Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge: Article Aphrodite . In: The New Pauly. Encyclopedia of Antiquity , ed. by Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Volume 1. Metzler, Stuttgart and Weimar 1996, Sp. 838-844.
- Hesiod , Theogony 196.
- Hjalmar Frisk : Greek etymological dictionary. Volume 1. Carl Winter Universitätsverlag, Heidelberg 1960, p. 196 f. ( Digitized version), considered the origin of Semitic Aštoret (a form that West will completely reject) or Astarte through “folk etymological alignment” as “possible”, but without giving an exact derivation; Robert SP Beekes: Etymological Dictionary of Greek. Volume 1. Brill, Leiden and Boston 2010, p. 179.
- Walter Burkert : Greek Religion . Translation by John Raffan. Harvard University Press, Cambridge (Mass) 1985, p. 152 ff. (German: Greek religion of the archaic and classical epoch , Stuttgart 1977); ders .: The Greeks and the Orient. From Homer to the magicians. CH Beck, Munich 2003, pp. 38, 47 ff.
- Martin Litchfield West : The Name of Aphrodite. In: Glotta. Greek and Latin Language Magazine. Volume 76, Issue 1-2, 2000, pp. 134-138.
- Fritz Hommel: Aphrodite - Astarte . In: New year books for philology and pedagogy. Volume 125, 1882, p. 176.
- Ernst Maaß: Aphrodite and St. Pelagia. In: New year books for classical antiquity, history and German literature. Volume 27, 1911, pp. 457-468; Vittore Pisani: Akmon e Dieus. In: Archivio glottologico italiano. Volume 24, 1930, pp. 65-73.
- Michael Janda : Eleusis. The Indo-European Heritage of the Mysteries. Institute for Linguistics of the University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck 2000, p. 154 ff .; ders .: Elysion. Origin and development of the Greek religion. Institute for Languages and Literatures of the University of Innsbruck, Innsbruck 2005, pp. 349–360.
- Deborah Boedeker: Aphrodite's Entry into Greek Epic. Leiden and Ann Arbor (UMI) 1974, p. 15 f.
- George E. Dunkel: Father Heaven's wife. In: The language. Journal of Linguistics. Volume 34, 1, 1988-90, pp. 1-26.
- Homer , Iliad 3, 374; 5, 131.
- Homer, Iliad 14, 211.
- Cf. Homer, Odyssey 12, 1-4.
- Friedrich Max Müller: Lectures on the Science of Language, delivered at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in February, March, April & May, 1863. Second series. Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, London 1864, p. 373.
- Daniel Kölligan: Aphrodite of the dawn: Indo-European heritage in Greek divine epithets and theonyms . In: Letras clássicas , No. 11, 2007, pp. 105-134 ( digitized version ).
- Cf. the considerations on Aphrodite as "at the same time [...] Greek and foreigner" in Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge: Article Aphrodite . In: The New Pauly. Encyclopedia of Antiquity , ed. by Hubert Cancik and Helmuth Schneider. Volume 1. Metzler, Stuttgart and Weimar 1996, Sp. 838-844.
- Hesiod, Theogony 176-200.
- Homeric Hymns 6: 5-13.
- Pausanias 2: 1, 7-8.
- Homer: Iliad 5,312.
- Homer: Iliad 5,370.
- Homeric Hymns 5:81.
- Johannes Tzetzes , ad Lycophronem 406.
- Hyginus Mythographus , Fabulae 197.
- Homer, Iliad 3, 396 f .; 9, 389.
- Homer, Odyssey 20, 73 f.
- Homer: Iliad 3 : 413-415.
- Homer: Iliad 3:64; 9, 389.
- Homer: Iliad 14 : 214-220.
- Translation: Homeric Hymns. Edited in Greek and German by Anton Weiher ( Tusculum Collection ). Sixth edition. Artemis, Munich and Zurich 1989, p. 93.
- Homeric Hymns 5:73.
- Sappho, fragment 57 a.
- Homer, Iliad 5:338.
- Homer, Odyssey 18, 194.
- See Virgil , Aeneis 1, 720; Gustav Hirschfeld : Akidalia . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 1, Stuttgart 1893, Col. 1167.
- Homer, Odyssey 8, 318.
- Homer, Odyssey 8, 266-366. This, too, was possibly a marriage, only according to a different tradition: cf. Georg Ferdinand Dümmler : Aphrodite . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 2, Stuttgart 1894, Col. 2729-2787.
- Homeric Hymns 5: 53-291.
- Scholien zu Apollonios von Rhodes , Argonautika 1, 932 f.
- Ovid , Metamorphoses 4, 288-388.
- Ovid, Metamorphosen 10, 519-739.
- Ovid, Heroides 16: 53-88; Lukian , Gods Conversations 20; Hyginus, Fabulae 92.
- Herodotus, Historien 1, 105, 2 f.
- Pausanias 1, 14, 7 : πρώτοις δὲ ἀνθρώπων Ἀσσυρίοις κατέστη σέβεσθαι τὴν Οὐρανίαν, μετὰ δὲ Ἀσσυρίους Κυπρίων Παφίοις καὶ Φοινίκων τοῖς Ἀσκάλωνα ἔχουσιν ἐν τῇ Παλαιστίνῃ , παρὰ δὲ Φοινίκων Κυθήριοι μαθόντες σέβουσιν.
- Georg Ferdinand Dümmler : Aphrodite . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 2, Stuttgart 1894, Col. 2729-2787.
- See Gabriella Pironti: Entre ciel et guerre. Figures d'Aphrodite en Grèce ancienne (= Kernos . Supplementary volume 18). Liege 2007; Stephanie L. Budin: "Aphrodite enoplion ". In: Smith and Pickup (eds.): Brill's Companion to Aphrodite , pp. 79-112.
- Herodotus, Historien 1, 199.
- Strabon, Geographika 6, 272; 8, 378.
- Martin Litchfield West: The east face of Helicon. West Asian elements in Greek poetry and myth. Clarendon Press, Oxford 1997, p. 56 f.
- See the relevant articles on the English and French Wikipedia.
- Hesiod, Theogony 194.
- Pausanias 1, 14, 7. Already in the Odyssey and the Homeric Hymns (4, 58) Paphos is mentioned as Aphrodite's home district.
- Pindar, frg. 122 Bgk.
- Pausanias 1, 19, 2 : δὲ ἐπίγραμμα σημαίνει τὴν Οὐρανίαν Ἀφροδίτην τῶν καλουμένων Μοιρῶν εἶναι πρεσβυτάτην. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἀφροδίτης τῆς ἐν τοῖς Κήποις ἔργον ἐστὶν Ἀλκαμένους καὶ τῶν Ἀλθήνῃσιν ἐν ὀοίγις ἄξναν ὀοίγιννν ὀοίγις ἄξναναν.
- Pausanias 1, 27, 3.
- Pausanias , 7.
So from Athens: Pausanias 1, 22, 1 ff.
For Kos cf. Vinciane Pirenne-Delforge: Flourishing Aphrodite: An Overview. In: Smith and Pickup (eds.): Brill's Companion to Aphrodite , pp. 3–16, here p. 14 f.
- Pausanias , 3.
- Pausanias 1, 1, 3 : Κνίδιοι γὰρ τιμῶσιν Ἀφροδίτην μάλιστα, καί σφισιν ἔστιν ἱερὰ τῆς θεοῦ: τὸ μὲν γὰρ ἀρχαιότατον Δωρίτιδος, μετὰ δὲ τὸ Ἀκραίας, νεώτατον δὲ ἣν Κνιδίαν οἱ πολλοί, Κνίδιοι δὲ αὐτοὶ καλοῦσιν Εὔπλοιαν.
- Pausanias 2, 34, 11 : Ἀφροδίτης ναός ἐστιν ἐπίκλησιν Ποντίας καὶ Λιμενίας.
- See Horace, Carmina 1,3,1.
- Chryssanthi Papadopoulou: Aphrodite and the fleet in classical Athens . In: Smith and Pickup (eds.): Brill's Companion to Aphrodite , p. 217 ff.
- Otto Jessen : Argynnis . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume II, 1, Stuttgart 1895, Col. 799.
- Janda: Elysion , p. 333 f.
- Pausanias 2, 32, 7; 2, 34, 12.
- Pausanias , 9.
- Pausanias , 5.
- Tzetzes, ad Lycophronem 832.
- Pausanias 2: 5, 1; 3, 5, 10.
- Stephanie L. Budin: Aphrodite enoplion. In: Amy C. Smith and Sadie Pickup (Eds.): Brill's Companion to Aphrodite , pp. 79-112.
- Gabriella Pironti: Rethinking Aphrodite as a Goddess at Work. In: Amy C. Smith and Sadie Pickup (Eds.): Brill's Companion to Aphrodite , pp. 113-130.
- Pausanias 2, 2, 4.
- Pausanias , 5.
- Pausanias 8: 6, 5.
- Plutarch , Quaestiones Romanae 23; ders., Moralia 269b.
- Otto Jessen : Androphonos . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 2, Stuttgart 1894, Col. 2169.
- Georg Wentzel : Anosia . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 2, Stuttgart 1894, Col. 2335.
- Aristophanes, frg. 702; see. Karl Tümpel : Aphroditus . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 2, Stuttgart 1894, Col. 2794 f.
- Pausanias 2, 32, 6.
- Strabon , Geographika 14, 682.
- Hesychios of Alexandria .
Maurus Servius Honoratus, In Vergilii carmina comentarii 3,466 .
Cf. Karl Kerényi: The Mythology of the Greeks. Volume 1: The stories of gods and mankind. dtv, Munich 2007, p. 57.
- Herodotus, Historien 2, 54–57.
- Homeric Hymns 10: 1; Alkman, frg. 21 Bgk.
- Pindar, frg. 122, 14.
- Strabon, Geographika 8, 341.
- See Sappho, frg. 133 Bgk. - Pausanias (1, 14, 7) reports on the primacy of the Paphians in taking over the Phoenician Urania cult.
- Martina Seifert: Aphrodite - a goddess of love on a long journey . In: Dies .: Aphrodite. Mistress of war, goddess of love. Philipp von Zabern Verlag, Mainz 2009, pp. 14–26. See the article on the English Wikipedia on Petra tou Romiou .
- Θανάσης Φωτιάδης (Thanásis Photiádis): Γυναικοκρατία (μητριαρχία). Ελληνική συμβολή στην εθνολογία ( Eng . "Women's rule [matriarchy]. Greek contribution to ethnology"). Εκδόσεις Χατζηνικολή (Ekdóseis Chatzinikolí), Athens 1980, p. 94 (Greek). See also the website of the Anglican Church of Paphos.
- West: The east face of Helicon , p. 56 f.
- Gareth Morgan: Aphrodite Cytherea . In: Transactions of the American Philological Association , Volume 108 (1978), pp. 115-120.
- Empedocles 66ff .; 85; 368 (stone). Cf. Simplikios, De caelo 507e, ed. Brandis, quoted from Georg Ferdinand Dümmler : Aphrodite . In: Paulys Realencyclopadie der classischen Antiquity Science (RE). Volume I, 2, Stuttgart 1894, Sp. 2729-2787 ..
- Plato, Symposium 180 D.
- See Andrea Schütze: Review. ( Page no longer available , search in web archives ) Info: The link was automatically marked as defective. Please check the link according to the instructions and then remove this notice. In: H / Soz / Kult. March 15, 2010.