from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Asparagus officinalis (vegetable asparagus), illustration

Asparagus officinalis (vegetable asparagus ), illustration

Class : Bedecktsamer (Magnoliopsida)
Order : Asparagales (Asparagales)
Family : Asparagaceae (Asparagaceae)
Subfamily : Asparagoideae
Genre : asparagus
Scientific name
Illustration of Asparagus racemosus with racemose inflorescences
Vegetable asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ), blossom
Vegetable asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ), fruit
Pointed-leaved asparagus ( Asparagus acutifolius )
Habit of Asparagus albus
Habit and leaves of the asparagus ( Asparagus asparagoides )
Habitus and leaves of Sprenger's asparagus ( Asparagus densiflorus )
Leaves and flowers of sickle thorn asparagus ( Asparagus falcatus )
Leaves and fruits of Asparagus fallax
Habit and leaves of fern asparagus ( Asparagus filicinus )
Habit and fruits of Asparagus gobicus at the natural habitat in Chandmani sum, Khovd aimag, in western Mongolia
Asparagus horridus , detail of a blooming sprout
Habit and leaves of Asparagus laricinus
Habit and leaves of Asparagus madagascariensis
Habit and leaves of Asparagus racemosus
Habit and leaves of Asparagus retrofractus
Habit, leaves and fruits of climbing asparagus ( Asparagus scandens )
Habitus and leaves of spring asparagus ( Asparagus setaceus )

Asparagus ( Asparagus ) is a genus of plants in the asparagus family (Asparagaceae). Asparagus is widespread in Eurasia and Africa. There are some species and cultivars that are used as ornamental plants . The economically most important species of this genus is the vegetable asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ).


Asparagus species grow as perennial herbaceous plants or subshrubs . They usually form short rhizomes as persistence organs. The upright or often climbing stems are branched; In the axils of the stems and branches, leaf-like, green shoot axes, so-called phyllocladia, are formed. These are rarely single, but mostly in clusters and are flat and triangular to almost round. The leaves, which are pressed against the stalk, are not green, mostly relatively small, scale-shaped and fleshy to membranous; their base is transformed into hard thorns.

The flowers are seldom individually, usually in groups of several in the leaf axils or sometimes in racemose or gold-like inflorescences . An articulated flower stalk stands over each membranous wrapper . The relatively small, threefold flowers are mostly hermaphroditic, rarely unisexual. If the flowers are unisexual, then the species are dioecious separately sexed ( diocesan ). The six identical, bell-shaped to almost spherical bracts are free or sometimes fused at their base. There are two circles with three stamens each. The stamens are usually more or less long fused with the bloom cladding sheets. Three carpels are fused together to form an upper, three- chamber ovary. Each ovary chamber contains some ovules . The spherical berries contain some or often only one seed. The berries of some species are poisonous.

Commercial asparagus contains 93 to 94 percent water, 1.95 percent nitrogen substances, 0.14 percent fat, 0.37 percent sugar and 2.03 percent other digestible carbohydrates.


The genus Asparagus has a wide distribution area in Eurasia and Africa . Asparagus plants thrive in temperate to tropical areas. The center of biodiversity is on the southern tip of Africa in the flora of the Capensis . There are around 31 species in China, 15 of which are found only there, around 15 species are found in Europe.


Several species are classified as invasive neophytes in Australia . Also known are: Asparagus aethiopicus , Asparagus africanus , Asparagus asparagoides , Asparagus declinatus , Asparagus plumosus , Asparagus scandens .

Diseases and pests

Numerous diseases and pests are known that can occur in asparagus plants.

A special group are known as the asparagus beetles ( Crioceris ). It comprises nine species , seven of which can be found in Europe. The pests that are significant from this group are shown in the list above.


The genus Asparagus belongs to the subfamily Asparagoideae within the family Asparagaceae .

The genus Asparagus was established by Carl von Linné in Species Plantarum in 1753 . The vegetable asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis ) was introduced in 1978 as a lectotype by Marais & Coode in Liliacees, in Fl. Mascareignes , 183, p. 8. Synonyms for Asparagus L. are: Asparagopsis (Kunth) Kunth , Elachanthera F. Muell. Whether the species of the genera Myrsiphyllum Willd. and Protasparagus Oberm. are incorporated into the genus Asparagus is discussed, this also leads to the large fluctuation in the number of species in the literature.

Including the genera Myrsiphyllum Willd. and Protasparagus Oberm. the genus Asparagus L. includes about 220 species:

Usage and properties

The freshly sprouting stems of the vegetable asparagus ( Asparagus officinalis L. ) are valued vegetables . Some species and cultivars are used as ornamental plants in gardens, on balconies and in rooms .

supporting documents


  • Walter Erhardt , Erich Götz, Nils Bödeker, Siegmund Seybold: The great pikeperch. Encyclopedia of Plant Names. Volume 2. Types and varieties. Eugen Ulmer, Stuttgart 2008, ISBN 978-3-8001-5406-7 .
  • AC Fellingham, NL Meyer: New combinations and a complete list of Asparagus species in southern Africa (Asparagaceae). In: Bothalia. Volume 25, 1995, pp. 205-209. ( PDF )
  • Gerald B. Straley, Frederick H. Utech: Asparagus. In: Flora of North America Editorial Committee (Ed.): Flora of North America North of Mexico . Volume 26: Magnoliophyta: Liliidae: Liliales and Orchidales . Oxford University Press, New York / Oxford a. a. 2002, ISBN 0-19-515208-5 , pp. 213 (English). , online (section description and distribution).
  • Benito Valdés : Asparagus L. In: TG Tutin, VH Heywood, NA Burges, DM Moore, DH Valentine, SM Walters, DA Webb (eds.): Flora Europaea . Volume 5: Alismataceae to Orchidaceae (Monocotyledones) . Cambridge University Press, Cambridge 1980, ISBN 0-521-20108-X , pp. 71–73 (English, limited preview in Google Book Search).
  • Chen Xinqi (陈心启), Kamilla G. Tamanian: Asparagus . In: Wu Zheng-yi, Peter H. Raven (Ed.): Flora of China . Volume 24: Flagellariaceae through Marantaceae . Science Press / Missouri Botanical Garden Press, Beijing / St. Louis 2000, ISBN 0-915279-83-5 , pp. 208 (English). , online (section description and distribution).

Individual evidence

  1. Gordon Cheers (Ed.): Botanica. The ABC of plants. 10,000 species in text and images . Könemann, Cologne 2003, ISBN 3-8331-1600-5 , p.  118 .
  2. Australia , Department of the Environment and Energy: Weeds of National Significance ( Memento of July 25, 2019 in the Internet Archive )
  3. a b Limgroup: Diseases and pests in asparagus cultivation ( Memento from July 26, 2019 in the Internet Archive )
  4. Crioceris at BioLib
  5. Crioceris at Fauna Europaea. Retrieved November 26, 2013
  6. Crioceris at ( accessed on July 26, 2019)
  7. ^ Asparagus in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), USDA , ARS , National Genetic Resources Program. National Germplasm Resources Laboratory, Beltsville, Maryland.
  8. Carl von Linné: Species Plantarum. Volume 1, Impensis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiae 1753, p. 313 digitizedhttp: //vorlage_digitalisat.test/ IA% 3D ~ MDZ% 3D% 0A ~ SZ% 3D ~ double-sided% 3D ~ LT% 3D ~ PUR% 3D
  9. ^ Asparagus at Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis
  10. Species list at Kew Checklists (last accessed on September 14, 2016)

Further literature

  • Tatsuya Fukuda, Hiroki Ashizawa, Ryoko Suzuki, Toshinori Ochiai, Toru Nakamura, Akira Kanno, Toshiaki Kameya, Jun Yokoyama: Molecular phylogeny of the genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) inferred from plastid petB intron and petD – rpoA intergenic sequences . In: Plant Species Biology . Volume 20, Number 2, 2005, pp. 121-132 ( doi: 10.1111 / j.1442-1984.2005.00131.x ).
  • Tatsuya Fukuda, In-ja Song, Takuro Ito, Hiroshi Hayakawa, Yukio Minamiya, Ryo Arakawa, Akira Ryo, Jun Yokoyama: Comparing with Phylogenetic Trees Inferred from cpDNA, ITS Sequences and RAPD Analysis in the Genus Asparagus (Asparagaceae) . In: Environment Control in Biology , Volume 50, Number 1, 2012, pp. 13-18 ( doi: 10.2525 / ecb.50.13 ).

Web links

Commons : Asparagus ( Asparagus )  - Collection of images, videos, and audio files
Wiktionary: Asparagus  - explanations of meanings, word origins, synonyms, translations