|Juan de Grijalva is the first European to set foot on Aztec territory.||
Adam Ries writes the textbook
calculation on the lines .
Thomas Cajetan conducts
a "fatherly interrogation" with Martin Luther in Augsburg .
|1518 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||966/967 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||12th house - Matlactli omome Calli (until the end of January / beginning of February: 11th Feuerstein - Matlactli ozce Tecpatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2061/62 (southern Buddhism); 2060/61 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||880/881 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3851/52 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||923/924 (turn of the year 12/13 January)|
|Jewish calendar||5278/79 (September 5-6)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1828/29 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1829/30 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1574/75 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
Spain / Casa de Contratación
Sebastiano Caboto is appointed by King Carlos I as the successor to Juan Díaz de Solís , who died on February 2, as piloto mayor of the Spanish Casa de Contratación . As such, he has the task of teaching navigation methods and the production of corresponding instruments, training navigators and correcting and improving the available map material. He is also the king's geographic advisor on overseas navigation.
The Portuguese Fernão de Magalhães and Rui Faleiro sign a treaty with King Charles I of Spain in Valladolid on March 22 , in which Charles gives the two five ships with which they should find the Spice Islands. They are accorded a fifth of the riches that the journey brings. They and their heirs are to rule as governors in all newly discovered countries. In no case should the two be active in the Portuguese part of the world , which implicitly excludes a circumnavigation of the world. In addition, the king assures that no one else will be able to make this journey within ten years. The financing is provided by the Spanish crown and the shipowner Cristobal de Haro, with the banking house of the Augsburg-based Fugger participating to a lesser extent . However , the start of the journey, originally planned for August 25, has been delayed. When Magellan arrives in Seville in May, he finds the managers of the Casa de Contratación , who have been entrusted with equipping the Armada, not very willing to cooperate. They ask for more precise instructions, but because of a plague epidemic at the royal court , these have been a long time coming. It was not until late summer that five merchant ships anchored in Cadiz were confiscated for compensation. A protest against the expropriation filed on September 23 was unsuccessful. Over the winter, the ships Trinidad , San Antonio , Concepción , Santa Maria de la Victoria and Santiago , all ocean-going, three-masted Naos , will be overhauled.
Spanish expeditions in the "New World"
The Spanish adventurer Juan de Grijalva left Cuba for the Yucatán on May 1st with four ships and 300 men . On behalf of his uncle, the Spanish governor of Cuba , Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar , he was to explore unknown regions in the New World . At the end of May he reached the island of Cozumel off the Yucatán and called it Isla de Santa Cruz . Grijalva's expedition enters mainland Central America on June 8th at the site of today's Tabasco . Gifts are exchanged during a peaceful encounter with the Maya prince Tabscoob there. On their onward journey, the Spaniards discover the mouth of a river they call the Río Grijalva .
On June 17 Juan de Grijalva is at San Juan de Ulua was the first European to set foot on Aztec territory, where it meets the people of the Totonac . This marked the beginning of the Spanish conquest of Mexico . The local governor Moctezumas contacts the Spaniards. Grijalva sends his subordinate Pedro de Alvarado back to Cuba with the valuables he has acquired. On the way home, he discovers the town of Atlizintla , which he names after himself.
At the beginning of October Grijalva returned from his expedition to Cuba. On the way home, he comes across an island where he finds clear traces of human sacrifice. He then names the island Isla de Sacrificios . When Governor Diego Velázquez de Cuéllar learns of the country's gold wealth in the west, he decides to equip another expedition, which he entrusts his secretary Hernán Cortés to organize and carry out .
Holy Roman Empire
- April 24th : In a gift letter, Emperor Maximilian I gave the Carinthian estates, at their request, the city of Klagenfurt, which burned down in 1514, including the castle and citizens, while at the same time all civil privileges were abolished. The new owners commission the builder Domenico dell'Allio to build a city fortification due to the approaching Turkish wars .
- June to October: The Reichstag in Augsburg deals with the succession to the throne of Emperor Maximilian I, who is believed to have suffered from colon cancer, in the Holy Roman Empire . He would like to arrange the succession in the interests of his grandson Karl I of Spain , but this is refused at the Reichstag. Crusade plans by Pope Leo X and the emperor against the Ottoman Empire also fail. The imperial estates justify their rejection with the gravamina of the German nation . Ludwig V. of the Palatinate succeeds in removing remaining under his father Philip in Landshut War of Succession imposed outlawry against the Palatinate enforce.
- Under Count Edzard I , the East Frisian Land Law was drafted for the county of Ostfriesland , which, although only available in manuscripts for a long time, will be formally valid state law for the next 300 years.
Other events in Europe
- April 18 : King Sigismund I of Poland , Grand Duke of Lithuania from the House of the Jagiellonians , marries the Italian Princess Bona Sforza for the second time , who is subsequently crowned Queen of Poland.
- May 13th : Lorenzo di Piero de 'Medici , lord of Florence and Duke of Urbino , marries Countess Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergne in Amboise , thus sealing an alliance between Pope Leo X and France. On September 7 the two meet in Florence one.
- July 27th : King Christian II of Denmark and Norway tries to extend the area of influence of the Kalmar Union back to Sweden , but is defeated again by a Swedish army under Imperial Governor Sten Sture the Younger in the battle of Brännkyrka . After the battle, a six-member Swedish delegation, including Gustav Wasa , is sent to Christian to negotiate, but Christian takes them hostage and sails with them to Denmark. They are being held captive at Kalø Castle .
- October 8 : France's King Francis I signs the founding charter for the naval port called Franciscopolis , built at the suggestion of Grand Admiral Guillaume Gouffier de Bonnivet , from which the port city of Le Havre on the Atlantic will emerge.
- October: France , England , the Holy Roman Empire , the Papal States , Spain , the Duke of Burgundy and the Netherlands include the Treaty of London , that of Thomas Wolsey , papal legate and Lord Chancellor has been of England, worked. They not only commit themselves to peace among one another, but also assure each other of mutual support in the event of war.
After the death of his brother Arudsch before Tlemcen in the fight against the Spaniards, Khair ad-Din becomes Barbarossa Bey of Algiers . In the same year, the corsair placed the emerging barbarian state under the sovereignty of the Ottoman Empire .
- Lopo Soares de Albergaria has a fort built on the coast of Ceylon . This is the beginning of the Portuguese colonial history on the island.
- Lopo Soares de Albergaria is replaced as Governor General of Portuguese India and replaced by Diogo Lopes de Sequeira . Back in Portugal, he was initially brought to court on suspicion of corruption at the instigation of the Crown, but later acquitted on all counts.
Other events in Asia
- After the death of the founder of the empire, Qasym Khan , the Kazak khanate falls into three sub-rulers, the Small Horde , the Middle Horde and the Great Horde .
science and technology
- The German arithmetic master Adam Ries wrote the work, intended for children, Invoice auff der Linihen , the first of several arithmetic books in German . As a result, it not only reaches a wider readership than previous works in Latin, but also contributes to the standardization of German.
Teaching and Research
- August 28th : The humanist Philipp Melanchthon , appointed to a Greek professorship, gives his inaugural address at the University of Wittenberg .
- September: The Collegium Trilingue in Leuven is inaugurated.
- Titian completes the oil painting of the Assumption, begun in 1516 . It will be installed on May 19th in the church of Santa Maria Gloriosa dei Frari in Venice .
- Sodoma paints four frescoes from the story of Mary in the Oratory of San Bernardino of Siena .
- probably January / February: Niccolò Machiavelli writes the comedy Mandragola , which is considered one of the most important comedies of the Renaissance . The work is likely to have its premiere in Florence in September on the return of Lorenzo de 'Medici and his wife Madeleine de la Tour d'Auvergnes , who had previously married in France.
- The Editio princeps appears in Venice , the first printed edition of the seven surviving tragedies of Aeschylus .
- February 3 : Pope Leo X turns with a brief to the Proto Master and Prior General of the Augustinian hermits to "act on those priests of his order so that he announce any new teachings to the people." While the Saxon Augustinian Hermits in March Almost entirely behind Luther, the Saxon Dominicans accused him of heresy in Rome in the same month. The Pope then instructs the court theologian Silvester Mazzolini to provide an expert opinion on Luther's theses.
- April 26th : During the Heidelberg Disputation , a theological debate at the University of Heidelberg , Martin Luther explains his Theologia crucis . Luther does not agree with the professors of the theological faculty who participated in the disputation , but he wins many followers among the students and masters the artist faculty . Later reformers such as Martin Bucer , Erhard Schnepf , Franciscus Irenicus , Martin Frecht and Johannes Brenz are among the audience.
- In July the Roman Curia opened a case against Luther, the result of which was served on him as a citatio on August 7th . He is supposed to be in Rome within 60 days to justify himself against the charge of heresy . His sovereign Frederick the Wise obtained Luther's interrogation at the curia at the Reichstag in Augsburg .
- August 23rd : Luther's notorious, that is, overt heresy is established in a papal brief, and the gathering of evidence is thus largely over.
- October 7th : Martin Luther arrives in Augsburg to answer questions from the papal envoy Thomas Cajetan .
- October 12th : The three-day interrogation of Martin Luther by Cardinal Thomas Cajetan, the papal envoy, begins after the Diet of Augsburg . Referring to the gospel, Luther refuses to revoke his 95 theses and fled the city overnight with the help of friends on October 20, facing imminent arrest . Luther reached Wittenberg via Nuremberg on October 31 .
- November 9th : In the decretal Cum postquam co-formulated by Cajetan , Pope Leo X. states that “the Pope can, by virtue of his power of keys, lessen the punishment of sin by distributing the treasure of the merits of Christ and the saints. Let the indulgences for the dead work intercessionally. ” A justification through quotations from the Bible or Church Fathers is not given. This subsequent specification of the bull Unigenitus Dei filius from 1343 allows Luther's position to be marked as heretical.
- Elector Friedrich the Wise replied to the order to extradite Luther to Rome, evasively saying that the theses had not yet been sufficiently discussed by scholars, which is why Luther was not considered a heretic in Saxony.
- To strengthen Poland in the fight against the Turks, Pope Leo X proclaimed 1518 an extraordinary holy year .
- May 13th : The newly built pilgrimage church of San Gaudenzio above the village of Casaccia in the Bergell Pass valley is consecrated.
- July 30th : Girolamo Ghinucci becomes papal nuncio in England.
- Thomas Wolsey , at that time already Archbishop of York and Lord Chancellor of England, becomes administrator of the Diocese of Bath and Wells .
- A new wave of plagues began in Europe, some of which lasted until 1525 .
- 1518/ 1519 : The entrained by the Spaniards to America smallpox solve devastating epidemics among the indigenous people.
Date of birth saved
- January 20 : Christoph Fischer , German Lutheran theologian († 1598 )
- February 2 : Johannes Hommel , German Protestant theologian, mathematician and astronomer († 1562 )
- February 7th : Johann Funck , German Protestant theologian († 1566 )
- February 13 : Anton Brus von Müglitz , Bishop of Vienna and Archbishop of Prague († 1580 )
- March 8 : Sidonie von Sachsen , Duchess of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and Princess of Calenberg-Göttingen († 1575 )
- April 21 : Johannes Kentmann , German physician and natural scientist († 1574 )
- April 22 : Antoine de Bourbon , Duke of Vendôme, titular king of Navarre († 1562 )
- August 8 : Conrad Lycosthenes , German humanist and encyclopaedist († 1561 )
- August 19 : Kaspar Brusch , German humanist, Catholic theologian, historian and poet († 1559 )
- November 1 : Francisco de Enzinas , Spanish humanist and Protestant († 1552 )
- November 26 : Guido Ascanio Sforza di Santa Fiora , Cardinal of the Catholic Church, Camerlengo († 1564 )
- December 13th : Klara von Sachsen-Lauenburg , Duchess of Braunschweig-Gifhorn († 1576 )
- December 17th : Ernst III. , Duke of Braunschweig-Grubenhagen († 1567 )
- December 31 : Hieronymus Gerhard , Württemberg statesman († 1574 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Marcantonio Barbaro , Venetian nobleman and diplomat († 1595 )
- Dietrich von Bettendorf , Prince-Bishop of Worms († 1580 )
- Ñuflo de Chávez , Spanish conquistador and city founder († 1568 )
- Johann Esich , Mayor of Bremen († 1578 )
- Leonardo Fioravanti , Italian doctor († 1588 )
- Friedrich IV von Wied , Archbishop of Cologne († 1568 )
- Georg , Duke of Simmern († 1569 )
- Katharina von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel , Margravine of Brandenburg-Küstrin († 1574 )
- Joachim Klinkow , Mayor of Stralsund († 1601 )
- Hubert Languet , French diplomat, lawyer and Reformed theologian († 1581 )
- Ninian Winzet , confessor of Maria Stuart († 1592 )
Date of death secured
- January: Johannes Adler , professor and two-time rector of the University of Tübingen (* around 1474 )
- February 2 : Christoph Beyer , German chronicler (* 1458 )
- March 31 : Heinrich Bebel , German humanist (* 1472 )
- May 31 : Elisabeth of Brandenburg-Ansbach-Kulmbach , Margravine of Baden (* 1494 )
- July 10 : Sibylle von Baden , titular margravine of Baden and countess of Hanau-Lichtenberg (* 1485 )
- August 16 : LOYSET COMPÈRE , Flemish composer, singer and clerics (* around 1440 / 1445 )
- September 20 : Vinzenz von Efferen , Lord of Stolberg Castle / Rhld.
- November 26th : Vanozza de 'Cattanei , mistress of Cardinal Rodrigo Borgia, later Pope Alexander VI. (* 1442 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Arudsch , Ottoman corsair and ruler of Algiers (* 1473 )
- Diogo de Azambuja , Portuguese navigator and explorer (* 1432 )
- Kabir , Indian mystic (* 1440 )
- Bartholomäus Zeitblom , German late Gothic painter (* around 1455 )