Calendar overview 1559
Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis ends the
Spanish-French war for supremacy in Europe.
becomes Pope Pius IV.
|Francis II becomes King of France .|
|1559 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||1007/08 (turn of the year July)|
|Buddhist calendar||2102/03 (southern Buddhism); 2101/02 (alternative calculation according to Buddha's Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||921/922 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3892/93 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||966/967 (turn of the year 2/3 October)|
|Jewish calendar||5319/5320 (September 1st / 2nd)|
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1869/70 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1870/71 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1615/16 (turn of the year April)|
Politics and world events
- January 15 : Elizabeth I is crowned Queen of England and Ireland in Westminster Abbey . Under her reign, England became a world power .
France / Spain
- March 12th / April 2nd / 3rd : The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis ends the war between England , Spain and France for supremacy in Europe.
- May 21 : The first car dairy there takes place in Valladolid with 200,000 spectators, including the regent Joan of Spain and Infante Don Carlos . 14 Protestant Christians, including Antonio Herrezuelo , are burned, and 16 others, including Leonor de Cisnere , are fined.
- July 10th : The French King Henry II dies after a tournament accident on the occasion of the peace treaty. His 15-year-old son Franz II becomes his successor.
- July 21 : The 42-year-old Philip II of Spain marries the 14-year-old French Princess Elisabeth of Valois by procurationem .
Other events in Europe
- January 1st : After the death of Christian III. his son Friedrich II becomes King of Denmark and Norway .
- May / June: Last feud : an army of Danes and north German nobles under Johann Rantzau subdues the Free Peasant Republic of Dithmarschen .
- October 3 : With the death of Ercole II. D'Este , his son Alfonso II becomes Duke of Ferrara , Modena and Reggio .
- In Württemberg is in the great church order a compulsory education set, which, however, applies only to the male part of the population.
- The Franconian Reichskreis receives the supervision of coins .
- August 15 : With Pensacola in Florida , the first European settlement is founded in what is now the USA, but it is destroyed by a storm on September 19 . Most of the survivors then head inland for several months.
- August 19 : The Reichstag in Augsburg makes a new attempt at the Reich coinage system . The ducat is declared an imperial coin, the nominal parity of gold and silver coins abolished. Despite the general recognition of the harmfulness of the existing coinage and the general call for a uniform design of coinage, not all imperial princes subscribe to this imperial coinage system.
- The French writer Pierre Boaistuau publishes his Histoires tragiques , translations and adaptations of short stories by the Italian poet Matteo Bandello . It contains, among other things, the story Rhomeo et Julietta .
- The Zurich canon Johann Jakob Wick begins the collection of the so-called Wickiana , in which he collects current events chronologically in single-sheet prints . In images and text, the prints report, among other things, natural events - comets, earthquakes or floods -, freak births, crimes, historical events and much more.
- Claude Gruget is the first to publish the collection of short stories written by Queen Margaret of Navarre in its original form and gives it the name Heptaméron .
Roman Catholic Church
- February 15 : Pope Paul IV writes the papal bull Cum ex apostolatus officio , in which he postulates that only Catholics are authorized to elect the Pope .
- As one of his last acts, Paul IV implemented book censorship by prohibiting unpopular writings in the Index Librorum Prohibitorum .
- August 18th : After the death of Pope Paul IV, joyous festivals are celebrated in Rome, prisoners of the Inquisition are freed and the palace of the Inquisition is set on fire.
- September 5 : The conclave of 1559 meets.
- December 25th : Giovanni Angelo Medici is elected Pope and takes the name of Pius IV .
- The Klosterstiftskirche Berchtesgaden becomes the prince provost charged. Wolfgang II. Griesstätter zu Haslach becomes the first prince provost .
- The last edition of the Institutio Christianae Religionis - expanded to 80 chapters - appears, the main theological work of Johannes Calvin . The first edition, completed in 1535 , had six chapters.
- The Presbyterian John Knox returns to Scotland to the Church of Scotland to reform.
- The French Huguenots formulate the Confessio Gallicana .
Historical maps and views
First half of the year
- February 7 : Catherine de Bourbon , French noblewoman, Duchess of Lorraine and Bar, regent of Navarre († 1604 )
- February 18 : Isaac Casaubon , Protestant scholar, humanist († 1614 )
- February 19 : Philip II , regent of Baden-Baden († 1588 )
- March 20 : Johann Friedrich Schröter , German medic († 1625 )
- March 26 : Wolf Dietrich von Raitenau , Prince Archbishop of Salzburg († 1617 )
- April 10 : Melchior Jöstel , German mathematician and physician († 1611 )
- April 25 : Sebastian Abesser , electoral and princely Saxon chief game and hunter master († 1616 )
Second half of the year
- July 22nd : Laurentius von Brindisi , Italian theologian († 1619 )
- July 27 : Barbara von Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Neuburg , Countess of Oettingen-Oettingen († 1618 )
- August 18 : Friedrich IV. Von dem Bergh , officer in the general state and Spanish service during the Eighty Years War († 1618 )
- August 24 : Sophie Brahe , Danish astronomer, sister and colleague of Tycho Brahe († 1643 )
- August 31 : Oddur Einarsson , Icelandic Protestant bishop († 1630 )
- September 21 : Ludovico Cigoli , Italian poet, painter, sculptor and architect († 1613 )
- September 29 : Balthasar von Ahlefeldt , royal councilor and magistrate of Flensburg and Rendsburg, master of Kollmar, Drage and Heiligenstedten († 1626 )
- November 13 : Albrecht VII of Habsburg , Archduke of Austria and later regent of the Spanish Netherlands († 1621 )
- December 13 : Maximilien de Bethune , Duke of Sully, French statesman and Marshal of France († 1641 )
- December: Robert Rich, 1st Earl of Warwick , English nobleman († 1618 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Jacques d'Amboise , French surgeon († 1606 )
- James Hamilton, 1st Viscount Claneboye , Scottish nobleman († 1644 )
- Justinus von Nassau , Dutch admiral († 1631 )
- Nurhaci , Chinese emperor, founder of the Qing dynasty († 1626 )
- Ōtani Yoshitsugu , Japanese samurai († 1600 )
- Johannes Piderit , German Protestant theologian and historiographer († after 1639)
- Friedrich Thön , Austrian sculptor († after 1610)
Born around 1559
Date of death secured
- January 1st : Christian III. , King of Denmark and Norway (* 1503 )
- January 4th : Matthäus Ratzenberger , German doctor and reformer (* 1501 )
- January 25 : Christian II , King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden (* 1481 )
- February 9 : Melchior Trost , German stonemason, bridge owner and builder (* around 1500 )
- February 12 : Ottheinrich , Count Palatinate of Palatinate-Neuburg and Elector of the Palatinate (* 1502 )
- February 14th : Thomas Gyrfalk , Swiss reformer (* unknown)
- March 13 : Georg von Ghese , Italian merchant and evangelical martyr
- March 13 : Johannes Gropper , Catholic theologian, lawyer and church politician (* 1503 )
- March 23 : Claudius , Emperor of Ethiopia (* 1521 / 22 )
- March 30th : Adam Ries , German mathematician (* 1492 )
- May 21 : Antonio Herrezuelo , Spanish evangelical martyr (* around 1513 )
- July 10 : Henry II , King of France (* 1519 )
- August 3 : Andreas von Barby , Danish politician and Bishop of Lübeck (* 1508 )
- August 18 : Gian Pietro Carafa, under the name of Paul IV Pope (* 1476 )
- September 6 : Benvenuto Tisi Garofalo , Italian painter (* 1481 )
- September 24th : Maria de Bohorques , Spanish evangelical martyr (* around 1539 )
- September 25th : Mircea Ciobanul , Voivode of Wallachia
- October 3 : Ercole II. D'Este , Duke of Ferrara, Modena and Reggio, son of Lucrezia Borgia (* 1508 )
- October 6th : Wilhelm , Count of Nassau-Dillenburg (* 1487 )
- November 5 : Kanō Motonobu , Japanese painter (* 1476 )
- November 8 : Christoffer Huitfeldt , Danish Imperial Councilor (* early 16th century)
- November 10 : Jakob Milich , German mathematician and physician (* 1501 )
- November 20 : Frances Brandon , English noblewoman (* 1517 )
- November 20 : Kaspar Brusch , German humanist, Catholic theologian, historian and poet (* 1518 )
- December 1 : Hermann Falke , Mayor of Lübeck (* 1513 / 14 )
- December 12th : Andreas Aurifaber , German doctor (* 1514 )
- December 13 : Michael Caelius , German Lutheran theologian and reformer (* 1492 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Alessandro Pasqualini , Italian fortress builder (* 1493 )
- Balthasar kauffelin , Württemberg theologian and reformer (* around 1490 )
- Realdo Colombo , Italian anatomist, discoverer of the pulmonary circulation (* around 1516 )