|Vasco Núñez de Balboa reaches the Pacific .||Christian II becomes king of Denmark and Norway .|
|Battle of Novara , the Confederates defeat a French force under Louis de La Trémoille .|
|1513 in other calendars|
|Armenian calendar||961/962 (turn of the year July)|
|Aztec calendar||7. Feuerstein - Chicome Tecpatl (until the end of January / beginning of February: 6th pipes - Chicuace Acatl )|
|Buddhist calendar||2056/57 (southern Buddhism); 2055/56 (alternative calculation according to Buddhas Parinirvana )|
|Chinese calendar||70th (71st) cycle|
|Chula Sakarat (Siam, Myanmar) / Dai calendar (Vietnam)||875/876 (turn of the year April)|
|Dangun era (Korea)||3846/47 (October 2/3)|
|Islamic calendar||918/919 (turn of the year March 8/9)|
|Jewish calendar||5273/74 (August 31 /
|Seleucid era||Babylon: 1823/24 (turn of the year April)
Syria: 1824/25 (turn of the year October)
|Vikram Sambat (Nepalese Calendar)||1569/70 (turn of the year April)|
Pope Julius II dies in 1513 , what inspires the humanist Erasmus von Rotterdam to write the satire Julius in front of the closed door of heaven . His successor chooses conclave Giovanni de 'Medici, the name of Leo X takes.
The war of the Holy League against France has now reached almost all of Europe. Although the Republic of Venice changes sides, France is increasingly on the defensive, especially against the Swiss travelers, and has to give up the Duchy of Milan , among other things . Even Henry VIII. Of England attacks in favor Emperor Maximilian I into the war. This in turn moves King James IV of Scotland to revive the Auld Alliance with France and invade England. In the Battle of Flodden Field, however, the Scots suffer a crushing defeat and James IV is killed. His successor on the throne will be his 17-month-old son Jacob V.
On the other side of the world, the Conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa is the first European to see the Pacific Ocean from the American continent after a loss-making expedition through the Isthmus of Panama , and the gold-obsessed Spaniards hear for the first time about the legendary Inca Empire in the south.
Politics and world events
- March 23 : Due to territorial disputes with Emperor Maximilian I and the papal threat to revive the League of Cambrai , the Republic of Venice under Doge Leonardo Loredan changes sides in the war for Milan , leaves the Holy League and allies with the from the League fought France under King Louis XII.
- May 25th : Antoniotto Adorno drives out with the help of Louis XII. the Doge Giano di Campofregoso from Genoa and is appointed governor of Genoa by the French king .
- June 6th : In the Battle of Novara , the Confederates defeat a French force under the general Louis de La Trémoille . The Duke Maximilian Sforza , who fled from Milan, can return, the French lose the Duchy of Milan and all other possessions in Italy.
- June 20th : After the defeat of the French, the Adorno family is driven out of Genoa again with the help of the Neapolitan viceroy Ramón Folch de Cardona . Giano's relative Ottaviano di Campofregoso becomes the new doge .
- July 4th : After the rumor surfaced that Lucerne councilors were recruiting mercenaries for the French side, an uprising broke out in which the city was besieged for three days. Since the urban front gardens were devastated, it was given the name onion war . The unrest flickered sporadically until 1515.
- June 26th to July 28th : At a parish fair in Köniz , the rumor spreads that several Bernese councilors are receiving pensions from France. Around 300 armed men then marched into Bern and invaded the city. The Köniz uprising , which also extends to other surrounding communities, finally ends with the Könizbrief , which grants the landscape the right to participate in future alliances with foreign powers by means of an official survey. In addition, the rural communities' letters of freedom are renewed, and the rebels receive impunity.
- August 16 : Emperor Maximilian I and King Henry VIII of England defeat a French force under the command of Louis I, Duke of Longueville, with their troops in the Battle of Guinegate .
- September 8th to 13th : The Dijon procession of the Confederates ends with the capitulation of the city of Dijon .
- October 7th : At the Battle of La Motta , the Venetians are defeated by Spanish troops under the command of Ramón de Cardonas . The Spanish fight on the side of the Holy League .
Scotland / England
- After the Battle of Guinegate, which was disastrous for France, the Scottish King James IV rushes to the aid of his ally in accordance with the agreements of the Auld Alliance and invades northern England.
- 9 September : At the Battle of Flodden Field , the Scottish invading army led by James IV meets an English army led by Thomas Howard . The battle ends with a crushing defeat for the Scots and the death of their king. The victorious English general then received back his ducal dignity, which had been lost in the Wars of the Roses , and King Henry VIII even added an improved coat of arms .
- September 21 : 17-month-old James V is crowned King of Scotland as his father's successor at Stirling Castle . His mother Margaret Tudor is appointed regent by her husband as long as she remains unmarried.
Holy Roman Empire
- February 15 : In the second Aachen gaff letter , the first gaff letter from 1450 is renewed and the position of the guilds in the government of the Free Imperial City of Aachen and the Aachen Empire is strengthened.
- May: Shortly after Georg Tannstetter's rectorate, violent student riots break out in Vienna . The Latin War will last until next year.
- October 6 : The Bundschuh movement in Lehen is put down, the leaders, including Kilian Mayer , executed after a brief trial. Joß Fritz and Stoffel from Freiburg managed to escape.
- December 17th : Origin and growth of the Old Confederation : Appenzell becomes the 13th place in the Confederation .
- The place Ohl is first mentioned in a document.
After the death of John I on February 20, his son Christian II is elected king in Denmark and Norway . Sweden , where Sten Sture the Younger rules as imperial administrator, questions the Kalmar Union , as it did with Johann I.
Grand Duke Vasily III. On June 14, he goes with his brothers to Borovsk , which has been designated as the rallying point of the Muscovite troops for the second campaign against Smolensk . On September 11th he joined the troop deployment in front of this important fortress in the Lithuanian- Russian border area, but returned to Moscow on November 21st after four weeks of unsuccessful siege .
- Sultan Selim I has his brother Korkud , who helped him to power, but whom he, like his other brothers and nephews, sees as a threat to his throne, arrested after he tried to escape. As the last brother of the Sultan, Korkud was executed on March 13th . Then Selim has a three-day state mourning ordered.
- Vir and Zavelim are the last places in Herzegovina to fall into Ottoman hands.
- Skanderbeg Crnojević , the last descendant of the Crnojević dynasty , is used as the Ottoman Sanjak - Bey of Montenegro .
Portugal and its colonies
- To ensure the safety of Portuguese ships against attacks by Turks and Arabs, Afonso de Albuquerque , Governor of Portuguese India , is the first European to undertake a violent reconnaissance mission through the Gate of Tears into the Red Sea . He wages a successful privateer war against Arab and Turkish ships, but fails in March at the siege of Aden .
- August 28th / 29th : Portugal conquers the Moroccan city of Azemmour from the Wattasids and extends the Algarve beyond the sea further south. Fernão de Magalhães also took part in the campaign of conquest .
- Through the mediation of Francisco Serrão , the Portuguese are allowed to set up a trading post in the Sultanate of Ternate .
- King Manuel I carried out an administrative reform in Portugal , in the course of which numerous city rights were granted new or for the first time.
Spain: voyages of discovery and colonialism
- March 27 : The Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León sees Florida for the first time and thinks it is just another island. He lands on the supposed island during Easter ( pascoa florida ) on April 2nd and takes possession of it for Spain .
- April 22nd : On the expedition of the Spanish conquistador Juan Ponce de León in the waters around Florida, his navigator Antón de Alaminos noticed a strong ocean current that decades later was named the Gulf Stream .
- September 1st : The Spanish conquistador Vasco Núñez de Balboa sets out in search of gold and the legendary “South Sea” with 190 men, including Francisco Pizarro , on his way through the Isthmus of Panama . Balboa also flees from the Spanish courts, which want to try him for mutiny.
- September 25 : Vasco Núñez de Balboa is the first European with his expedition to see the Pacific Ocean from the American continent after a month-long march . Four days later he stands on the bank of the river and takes what he calls the South Seas ( mar del sur ) for the Spanish crown. At this point the expedition only had 69 men. On the way back, they heard from a local about the Inca Empire in the south for the first time .
- The Requerimiento is written, a call for the indigenous people of America to surrender unconditionally and at the same time submit to the Spanish crown , written on behalf of Ferdinand II by Palacios Rubios .
- between 1513 and 1515 : The Spanish conquerors kidnap the last Indians of the Arawak tribe from the islas inútiles ( useless islands ) as slaves to Hispaniola , whereupon the two islands of Bonaire and Curaçao remain depopulated.
- The heavily indebted Duke Ulrich von Württemberg , under the influence of honesty , converts a planned wealth tax into a consumption tax, which primarily affects the poor population. In particular, the reduction of the weights required for trade arouses general outrage, as it means that fewer goods can be obtained on the market for the same price. In the following year this leads to the uprising of the poor Konrad .
science and technology
- March / April: In the Islamic month of Muharram , the so-called map of Piri Reis is created , a nautical map of the Central Atlantic , which is attributed to the Ottoman admiral Piri Reis . In addition to regions of Western Europe , the Mediterranean and North Africa that have been known for a long time , it also shows the coastlines of West Africa as well as North and South America .
- Niccolò Machiavelli writes his most famous book, Il Principe ( The Prince ), a treatise on the art of governance. In the same year he began working on the work Discorsi sopra la prima deca di Tito Livio .
- The monk Kilian Leib begins daily records of his weather observations in Rebdorf , which are an important source for meteorology to this day . He enters his observations in ephemeris , in which he also records the economic effects of the weather phenomena. He kept this weather diary until 1531 .
- April 4th : The Arnoldihaus in Warburg is completed. The half-timbered house is now part of the city's cultural heritage .
- 20 years after the death of the emperor, the tomb of Emperor Frederick III, which was commissioned by the sculptor Niclas Gerhaert van Leyden in 1467 . Completed in St. Stephen's Cathedral in Vienna . It is not only one of the most important sculptural works of art of the late Middle Ages, but also unique in its monumentality in a church from this time. On November 12th, Friedrich's body was ceremoniously transferred from the duke's crypt to the high grave completed by Michael Tichter .
- Albrecht Dürer creates the first of his three masterpieces, Ritter, Tod und Teufel . Like other engravings by the artist, this picture is characterized by a multitude of symbols from iconography . The knight stands for the vita activa , an active, combative life, which also runs the risk of dying soon in combat. So it could be a memento mori , which the skull tries to symbolically express next to the initial tablet of AD with the year.
- Raphael completed in about a year's work by Pope Julius II. On the occasion of the victory over the French and the incorporation of the city of Piacenza in the Papal States in order given Sistine Madonna , famous for the Cherub at the bottom ( Angels of the Sistine Chapel ).
- January 15 : Diebold Schilling hands over the Lucerne Chronicle to the City Council of Lucerne . The work, which was created over several years, is one of the richly designed Swiss illustrated chronicles .
- After the death of Pope Julius II. On February 21 written Erasmus of Rotterdam , the satire Julius Excluded from Heaven .
- The prayer book Hortulus Animae polonice will be printed for the first time on March 13th . The book, translated by Biernat von Lublin and printed by Florian Ungler in Krakow , which first appeared in Latin in 1498 , is considered to be the first work printed in Polish.
- June 8th : Martin Luther has the Wolfenbüttel Psalter printed for his psalm lecture .
- February 19 : With the In Altissimo constitution , Pope Julius II formally establishes the Cappella Giulia choir in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome. Since he dies two days later, it will take until 1534 for the constitution to actually be implemented.
- After March 11th : Heinrich Isaak , favorite of the Medici in Florence, congratulates the new Pope Leo X on his election with the motet Optime divino date munere pastor .
- January 16 : Raymund Fugger from the Lily married Katherina Thurzo in Cracow . Here, his uncle Jakob Fugger gave him the task of overseeing the joint Fugger - Thurzo company on site.
Pope election and council
Pope Julius II dies on February 21 . Already on 9 / 11 March is the convened on March 4 conclave of thirty-seven Giovanni de 'Medici to Pope elected and takes the name Leo X. at. For even though Cardinal , no clergyman , he is after his election on March 15 for priests and on March 17 the bishop consecrated. Only then can the coronation follow on March 19th . During his pontificate , Rome becomes a center for art and culture.
The fifth Lateran Council , convened by Julius II in the previous year, declared in its eighth session on December 19 the dogma that man possesses an individual and immortal soul , which is the prerequisite for personal immortality.
On May 9th, the new Pope Leo X of the Medici family declares his cousin Giulio de 'Medici, who was probably born out of wedlock, to be the son of a secret marriage to Giuliano di Piero de' Medici and appoints him Archbishop of Florence . On September 23rd he was promoted to cardinal , on September 29th to cardinal deacon of the titular diaconia S. Maria in Domnica .
After the death of Ernst II. Of Saxony on August 3 is Albrecht of Brandenburg at the age of 23 years as Albrecht IV. To the archbishop of Magdeburg and as Albert V for administrator of the Halberstadt diocese collected.
Hartmann II. Von Kirchberg is raised as the successor of Johann II. Von Henneberg-Schleusingen , who died on May 20, as prince abbot of the Fulda monastery . At the same time he was also elected abbot of the Imperial Abbey of Hersfeld . Since his attention is more focused on the events in the empire, he neglects the monasteries entrusted to him.
Historical maps and views
Date of birth saved
- February 8 : Daniele Barbaro , Venetian scientist and politician († 1570 )
- February 14 : Domenico Ferrabosco , Italian singer, bandmaster and composer († 1574 )
- March 15 : Hedwig Jagiellonica , Polish princess and Electress of Brandenburg († 1573 )
- May 13 : Wolfgang Meurer , Saxon educator, meteorologist and doctor († 1585 )
- June 4 : Niels Hemmingsen , Danish Protestant theologian, philologist and school reformer († 1600 )
- June 10 : Louis III. de Bourbon , Duke of Montpensier, French military leader († 1582 )
- August 3 : Johann , Margrave of Brandenburg-Küstrin († 1571 )
- August 15 : Georg Cassander , German theologian and humanist († 1566 )
- September 24th : Katharina von Sachsen-Lauenburg-Ratzeburg , Queen of Sweden and wife of Gustav I. Wasa († 1535 )
- October 9 : Detmar Kenckel , Mayor of Bremen († 1584 )
- October 21 : Adrian Albinus , German legal scholar († 1590 )
- October 29 : Jacques Amyot , French writer and theologian († 1593 )
- November 11 : Stanisław Orzechowski , Polish theologian († 1566 )
- December 23 : Thomas Smith , English diplomat († 1577 )
Exact date of birth unknown
- Johann Argentier , Italian medic († 1572 )
- Michael Bajus , Belgian theologian († 1589 )
- Johann Brokes , Admiral and Mayor of Lübeck († 1585 )
- Giacomo Antonio Cortusi , Italian botanist († 1603 )
- Antonio Doni , Italian writer, editor and musician of Mannerism († 1574 )
- Thomas FitzGerald, 10th Earl of Kildare , Irish nobleman and rebel leader († 1537 )
- Eitel Dietrich von Gemmingen , German nobleman, landlord in Steinegg († 1568 )
- Melchior Manlich , Augsburg merchant († 1576 )
- Johannes von Schröter , German physician and first rector of the University of Jena († 1593 )
- Christoph von der Schulenburg , last Catholic bishop of Ratzeburg († 1580 )
- Pedro de Villagra y Martínez , Spanish conquistador and governor († 1577 )
- Heinrich Vogtherr the Younger , German painter, draftsman, wood cutter and etcher († 1568 )
- George Wishart , Scottish religious reformer and Protestant martyr († 1546 )
Born around 1513
- Nicolao Dorati , Italian trombonist, conductor and composer († 1593 )
- Robert Granjon , French type cutter and publisher († 1589 )
- Antonio Herrezuelo , Spanish Protestant martyr († 1559 )
- Georg Melhorn , German educator and Protestant theologian († 1563 )
- Richard Morison , English humanist and diplomat († 1556 )
- Elisabeth Plainacher , only victim of the witch hunt in Vienna († 1583 )
First half of the year
- January 20 : Helena of Moscow , Grand Duchess of Lithuania and titular queen of Poland (* 1476 )
- January 31 : Pedro de Ayala , Spanish ambassador to England (* 1475 )
- February 4 : Philipp von Rosenberg , Prince-Bishop of Speyer (* 1460 )
- February 20 : John I , King of Denmark, Sweden and Norway (* 1455 )
- March 6 : Angelus Rumpler , German abbot and historian (* 1460 / 1462 )
- March 10th : John de Vere, 13th Earl of Oxford , English nobleman and hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain of England (* 1442 )
- March 13 : Korkud , Ottoman prince, governor and regent, victims of institutionalized fratricide in the Ottoman Empire (* 1467 / 1469 )
- April 8 : Anna von Nassau-Dillenburg , Duchess and Regent of Braunschweig-Lüneburg and last Countess von Katzenelnbogen (* around 1441 )
- April 22nd : Pierre I. de Rohan , French nobleman, diplomat and Marshal of France (* 1451 )
- April 30th : Edmund de la Pole, 3rd Duke of Suffolk , English nobleman and aspirant to the throne of the House of York (* 1472 )
- May 20th : Johann II. Von Henneberg-Schleusingen , prince abbot of the Fulda monastery (* 1439 )
- May 28 : Heinrich VIII. , Count of Waldeck (* 1465 )
- June 6th : Remigius Mans , German Landsknecht
- June 24th : Edmund Carew , English nobleman and military man (* around 1464)
Second half of the year
- July 24th : Johannes Reborch , German clergyman, prior of the Augustinian canons in Bordesholm (* 1433 )
- September 3 : Gerald FitzGerald, 8th Earl of Kildare , Irish nobleman (* 1456 )
- September 9 : James IV , King of Scotland (* 1473 )
- September 9 : Matthew Stewart, 2nd Earl of Lennox , Scottish nobleman (* around 1470 )
- September 9 : Alexander Stewart , Scottish humanist, Archbishop Select of St Andrews and Lord Chancellor of Scotland (* around 1493 )
- September 17th : Johann V , Duke of Zator (* around 1455 )
- September 20 : Wolfgang Tenk , German builder of the Gothic style
- October 3 : Anton Koberger , German printer, publisher and bookseller of the incunable period (* around 1440 )
- October 27 : George Manners, 11th Baron de Ros , English nobleman (* around 1470 )
- November 3 : Augustin Olomoucký , Bohemian humanist, writer and art collector (* 1467 )
- November 23 : Nicolaus Matz , German theologian, rector of the University of Freiburg and canon in Speyer (* around 1443 )
- December 11 : Pinturicchio , actually Bernardino di Betto di Biagio , Italian painter of the early Renaissance (* 1454 )
- December 25 : Johann Amerbach , German printer and publisher of the early printing period (* around 1440 )
- December 27 : Martin Pollich , German philosopher, physician and theologian, founding rector of the University of Wittenberg (* around 1455 )
Exact date of death unknown
- Guy de Blanchefort , French nobleman and Grand Master of the Order of St. John (* around 1446 )
- Bartolomeo della Fonte , Italian humanist, poet and translator (* 1446 )
- Khedrub Norsang Gyatsho , Tibetan scholar and Buddhist clergyman (* 1423 )
- Kaspar Effinger , Swiss aristocrat (* 1442 )
- Juan de Esquivel , Spanish conquistador and governor of Jamaica (* 1480 )
- Heinrich Hochreutiner , Swiss businessman and mayor
Died around 1513
- Andrés Bernáldez , Spanish clergyman and historian (* around 1450 )
- Piero Pacini , Italian printer (* around 1440 )